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towns, and was the undisputed mistress of the Baltic and German

Ocean. In the sixteenth century its power began to decline. 158. Walsingham (1536-1590).-One of the ablest and most distin

guished of the statesmen who served Elizabeth. 160. Camden (1551-1623). -A distinguished antiquary and historian.

Britannia, his most famous work, giving an account of the
British Isles from the earliest times, was written in Latin and

published in 1586. 166. The spoils of Trafalgar.-In the evening after the battle of

Trafalgar a violent storm sprang up, and many of the ships

which the English had captured went down. 169. In this unhappy battle.-Falkland was slain at the first battle

of Newbury, 1643. 171. (1) In the last short Parliament.–Falkland sat in the Short

Parliament (which met on the 13th April 1640 and was dissolved on the 5th of the following month) as member for Newport in the Isle of Wight.

(2) Mr. Hampden. -John Hampden, the famous patriot. 174. (1) Edgehill.–At Edgehill, in the south of Warwickshire, the

first battle of the war-an indecisive action-was fought on the 23rd of October 1642.

(2) After the king's return from Brentford.—The king made a dash on London in November 1642, but his advance was checked at Brentford. In the beginning of 1643, negotiations were carried on between the king and the Parliament, but they

came to nothing. 175. At the leaguer before Gloucester.-Gloucester was besieged by

the Royalists in August 1643; but Essex at the head of the Trainbands of London marched to its relief and compelled the king to raise the siege in the following month. As Essex fell back upon London, he was compelled to fight the battle of New.

bury, in which Falkland fell. 177. Gama. —Vasco de Gama, the famous Portuguese navigator, who

discovered the maritime route to India (1497). He planted

several Portuguese settlements on the coasts of Africa and India. 178. (1) Mr. Hallam.-Henry Hallam (1777-1859), the celebrated

historian and critic. A View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages (1818), The Constitutional History of England from the Accession of Henry VII, to the Death of George II., and an Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth centuries (1837–39), are his most important works.

(2) Charles the Twelfth of Sweden.-Charles XII., king of Sweden from 1697 to 1718, won many victories over the Danes,

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Poles, and Russians, but was defeated by Peter the Great at Pultowa (1709), and lost a considerable part of his dominions. He fell at the siege of a small Norwegian fortress, leaving his country exhausted and impoverished by his passion for military adventure.

(3) Inigo Jones.-A celebrated architect (1572-1653). The Banqueting House at Whitehall is generally considered his masterpiece. Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) built St. Paul's Cathedral, the Royal Exchange, the Custom House, the Monument and Temple Bar (all in London), Chelsea Hospital, Greenwich Hospital, Hampton Court, the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, and many other famous

buildings. 180. Voltaire (1694–1778). -One of the most famous of French writers.

Wrote poems, histories, novels, letters, essays, scientific treatises, etc. His influence in his own generation was unbounded, and he is certainly the greatest of the band of writers whose crusade against established opinions prepared the way for the French Revolution. Voltaire was an assumed name, his real name

being Arouet. 181. Hale and Blake.—Sir Matthew Hale (1609–1676) was a famous

lawyer. He was raised to the bench under Cromwell (1653), and was esteemed the best judge of his age. Admiral Blake (1598-1659) won a series of brilliant naval victories over the Royalists (1651), the Dutch (1652-53), the piratical Turks of Tunis (1654), and the

Spaniards (1657). 182. (1) The Stadthouse. -Stadthouse (or Stadhuis) is a Dutch

word meaning a town hall (literally state-house). The rulers or chief magistrates of Holland were called Stadtholders down to the beginning of this century.

(2) The Louvre. -A famous palace of the French kings. The greater part of it is now used as a museum of art. Both architecturally and on account of the treasures which it contains, it

is the most important building in Paris. 183. (1) The conquests which had been won by the armies of

Cromwell. - Dunkirk, which had been ceded to Cromwell in 1658, was sold by Charles II. to the French king in 1662.

(2) The salaried Viceroy of France. Charles II. was for some years in the pay of Louis XIV. A secret treaty existed between the two monarchs, by which Charles undertook to assist Louis, or least to abstain from thwarting him in his design against the Low Countries, while Louis undertook to aid Charles, if necessary, against his own subjects.

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(3) The young pride of Louis.-Louis XIV., the greatest of the French kings, ascended the French throne in 1643, at the age of five.

(4) Mazarin.-Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661), a wily Italian, was the chief minister of France during the minority of Louis XIV.

(5) Who had humbled Spain on the land. -At the battle of the Dunes, near Dunkirk (1658), where a body of English troops materially contributed to the victory won by the French over the Spaniards.

(6) And Holland on the sea.-In 1652-53 (see note to p. 181).

(7) Had arrested the sails of the Libyan pirates.— Blake's victory at Tunis is here referred to. Libya was the name given by ancient geographers to Africa in general, and in particular to Northern Africa, from Egypt to Mount Atlas.

(8) And the persecuting fires of Rome.-Cromwell's successful intercession with the Duke of Savoy on behalf of the persecuted

Protestants of Piedmont is here referred to. 184. (1) The Morning Star.—How art thou fallen from heaven, O

Lucifer, son of the morning '(Isa. xiv. 12). In this verse the splendour and fall of the Babylonian Empire are referred to. From St. Jerome downwards, the name Lucifer has been applied to Satan in connection with his supposed fall from heaven.

(2) With fronts of brass and feet of clay.-This line alludes to the image which Nebuchadnezzar saw in his dream, whose 'head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, his legs of iron, his feet part iron and part clay.' The image, according to Daniel's interpretation, was symbolical of his own kingdom and of those tha

should come after him. 186. (1) A suppliant for his own.- After the battle of Waterloo

Napoleon attempted to escape to America ; but finding escape impossible, surrendered to the warship Bellerophon, and threw himself on the mercy of England.

(2) He who of old would rend the oak. -Milo of Crotona, a celebrated athlete, is said to have attempted in his old age to tear up a tree by the roots. The tree when half cleft reunited, and closing upon his hand kept him a prisoner until he was devoured by the wild beasts of the forest.

(3) The Roman.-Sulla, dictator or sole ruler of Rome in the early part of the first century B.C., when at the height of his irre. sponsible power, suddenly threw up the dictatorship and retired

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unmolested into private life. He had freely shed the 'blood of Rome,' both in battle and in his infamous proscriptions of suspected citizens.

(4) The Spaniard. -Charles V., king of Spain and emperor of Germany, the most powerful monarch of his time, finding his health beginning to fail, resigned the government of his dominions to his son Philip, and retired to monas in Estremadura,

where he passed the remainder of his life (1556–1558). 188. (1) Proud Austria's mournful flower.–After Napoleon had con

quered Austria in the campaign which ended at Wagram (1809), he divorced his childless wife Josephine, and married Maria Louisa, archduchess of Austria.

(2) Thy sullen isle.-St. Helena, a rocky island in the middle of the Atlantic, the scene of Napoleon's exile and death.

(3) Corinth's Pedagogue.- Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, who, after having been expelled by his subjects on account of his cruelty, retired to Corinth, and there supported himself by keeping a school.

(4) Timour.-Emperor of Turkestan, and one of the greatest of Asiatic conquerors (1336-1405). His armies were successful in Central Asia, Persia, Muscovy, India, Syria, and Asia Minor. One of his last exploits was the defeat and capture of the Turkish Sultan Bajazet, at Angora (1402). The story of his having carried Bajazet about with him in an iron cage is without foundation.

(5) He of Babylon.—Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, who was punished for his overweening pride by being (temporarily) deprived of his senses, and degraded to the level of the beasts of the field (see Dan. iv. 28-37).

(6) The thief of fire from heaven.-Prometheus, who stole fire from heaven and gave it to mortals. For this off

he was bound, by command of Zeus, to a rock in the Caucasus, and a vulture (or eagle) was sent to feed upon his liver, which was

eternally devoured and eternally renewed. 189. (1) Marengo. -- A village in the north of Italy, the scene of a

celebrated battle in which the French under Napoleon completely defeated the Austrians (1800).

(2) Cincinnatus.- One of the herdes of the legendary period of Roman history. Having filled the highest offices of state, he retired into private life, but was summoned on an occasion of great public peril (the Roman forces being in imminent danger of destruction) to assume the post of Dictator. The story goes that the messengers who were sent to him found him following the plough. Having held the Dictatorship for sixteen days, and

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delivered his country from its enemies, he again retired to his farm.

(3) Washington. - George Washington (1732-1799) was the chief leader of the Americans in their struggle for independence (1775-1783). After the conclusion of the war, he framed the present Federal Constitution of the United States, and was elected President, which office he held from 1789 to 1796, when

he retired into private life. 190. (1) The Mogul monarchy.—The Mongols or Monguls (called

Moguls by the Persians), led by Baber, a descendant of Timour, founded in the sixteenth century a great empire in India, which was called the Mogul Empire, the emperor, whose seat of government was at Delhi, being popularly known as the Great Mogul.

(2) Dupleix. --Governor of Pondicherry, on the Coromandel (or eastern) coast, the chief of the French settlements in India.

(3) Saxe. --Marshal Saxe, a famous French general, victor of Fontenoy (1745), Raucoux (1746), and Laffeldt (1747), and conqueror of Flanders.

(4) Frederic.- Frederic the Great of Prussia. 191. The court of Delhi. — Delhi was the capital of the Mogul

Empire. After the death of Aurungzebe (1707) the empire fell into decay. The Great Moguls became mere puppets, and their viceroys formed their provinces into independent states. All the places mentioned in those chapters will be found on any

ordinary map of India. 194. Fort St. George. — The fortress which dominates Madras. It

had been captured by the French in 1748, and its merchants and

clerks (of whom Clive was one) carried prisoners to Pondicherry. 196. Mahrattas. A warlike people of Hindu race, inhabiting

Central India, south of the Ganges. During the decay of the Mogul Empire, they acquired a great deal of power and influence, being the hired mercenaries of the emperor, who was often a mere tool in their hands.

Later on they came into collision with the British, and were gradually conquered. 197. Hosein, the son of Ali.—Ali, the nephew of Mohammed, had

married his cousin Fatima, the best beloved of Mohammed's daughters. He became Caliph in 655, Abubeker (632), Omar (634), and Othman (645) having intervened between him and Mohammed. After a short reign, the chief events in which were civil wars, he was assassinated (660). Twenty years later his son Hosein made a rash attempt to recover his father's throne. After having traversed the desert of Arabia, his small band of followers, consisting of 32 horse and 40 foot, was surrounded by

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