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(2) Loose the forfeiture. - To loose means to 'remit, let go, and so forgive. The forfeiture means the thing that was to be forfeited, namely, the pound of Antonio's flesh.

(3) Upon your charter. -A charter is an instrument in writing from some sovereign power, conferring rights and privileges. Shylock speaks as if the freedom of the city would be forfeited

if strict justice were not awarded. 269. (1) A gaping pig.-A pig's head prepared for the table, with a

lemon between its open jaws.

(2) A losing suit. -A suit in which I have nothing to gain. The word suit is here used in its legal sense of an action brought by one party against another.

(3) Think you question, etc.—Reflect that you are arguing, etc.

(4) Main flood. The ocean. The open sea is still spoken of as "The Main.'

(5) Let me have judgment. — Let sentence be pronounced against me. Judgment is here used in the sense of adverse

judgment. 270. (1) In slavish parts. –In menial offices and occupations.

(2) Padua. -A town in Northern Italy, about twenty miles from Venice. Its famous University used to be attended by

students from all parts of Europe. 271. (1) Within his danger.—Within his power. This use of the word

was common in Shakespeare's time, and it still remains in the proverb, 'Out of debt, out of danger.'

(2) Shows. -Represents; is the symbol of. 272. (1) To render the deeds of mercy. – The word render here

means to pay, to give what one is in duty bound to give. It sometimes means to requite, to repay, and sometimes merely to give, as in Antonio's speech at the close of this scene.

(2) Which, if thou follow.-If thou pursue, follow up thy suit.

(3) Discharge the money.-Pay the money due, i.e. the debt. Discharge the debt is the more usual expression.

(4) Wrest once the law to your authority.-For once make your authority superior to the law. To wrest means to twist or turn aside with violence, and so to pervert or turn aside from right and truth.

E.g. Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor.' 273. (1) Hath full relation. -Is entirely applicable. The law fully

sanctions the penalty laid down in the agreement.


(2) Are there balance.- Are there scales. Two scales go to a balance, so that the use of the plural verb is not wholly indefensible.

(3) On your charge. -At your expense. 275. (1) Speak me fair in death. ---Speak well of me after my death.

To speak fair generally means to speak kindly to a person, not of him.

(2) A love. —Lover is used by old writers to signify a bosom friend. Love is here used in the same sense.

(3) If she were by.-Bassanio little guessed that the speaker was his own wife. (See introduction to Scene.)

(4) Behind her back.-Gratiano, too, was ignorant of the presence of Nerissa (his wife), disguised as she was in the dress of a

lawyer's clerk. 277. (1) In the substance.-In the bulk, in the gross weight.

(2) I have thee on the hip.-I have thee at a disadvantage. The expression, which occurs two or three times in Shakespeare,

is probably a wrestler's phrase. 278. (1) Which humbleness may drive into a fine. - Humility or

submission on your part may induce the state to let you off with a simple fine.

(2) To quit the fine.--To absolve the Jew from the fine which was to take the place of the threatened confiscation of half his goods to the state (not to Antonio : see Duke's speech). The half that was to be forfeited to himself, Antonio proposes to

keep for the benefit of Jessica the Jew's daughter. 279. Nicholas Machiavel. -See note to p. 143. 282. (1) Mercia. — The middle of England, stretching from the borders

of Wales, on the west, to the North Sea and western borders of East Anglia (Norfolk and Suffolk), on the east, and from the river Thames, on the south, to the rivers Ribble, Don, and Humber, on the north.

(2) Northumbria. — The north · eastern part of England, stretching from the Humber to the Firth of Forth. By the middle of the seventh century the seven smaller states (the Saxon Heptarchy) had been reduced to three-Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex; and of these three, Northumbria, under Ecgfr th (670-685), was the most powerful.

(3) Ecgfrith's successors. - Ealdfrith the Learned and Ceolwulf.

(4) Jarrow.-A town on the south bank of the river Tyne, about three miles from its mouth.

(5) The Synod of Whitby. – A great council was held at Whitby in 664, to decide whether Northumbria was to be in


communion with the Roman Church or with the Irish. The decision was in favour of Rome.

(6) Benedict Biscop.-One of the supporters of the claims of

Rome. He built a church and monastery at Wearmouth. 283. (1) Wilfrith (of York). Another supporter of the claims of

Rome. Both he and Benedict Biscop made many journeys to and from Rome.

(2) The Greek Archbishop Theodore. --Theodore of Tarsus, a Greek monk, was sent from Rome four years after the Synod of Whitby to secure England to the Romish sway, as Archbishop of Canterbury.

(3) Plato (429-347 B.C.). — One of the greatest of the Greek philosophers.

(4) Aristotle (384-322 B.c.). -- Another Greek philosopher. In some respects he was even greater than his master, Plato.

(5) Seneca.-A famous Latin moralist. Born a few years B.C Died 65 A.D.

(6) Cicero (106-43 B.c.). -An active politician, an able administrator, an eloquent moralist, and one of the greatest orators that the world has ever known,

(7) Lucretius (about 100-50 B.C.). – A famous Latin poet. Author of the De Rerum Natura ('On the Nature of Things '), a philosophical poem in six books.

(8) Ovid (43 B.C.-18 A.D.). - One of the chief poets of the Augustan era.

(9) Virgil (70-19 B.C.).—The greatest of the Roman poets. His Eneid, or story of the adventures of Æneas—the legendary ancestor of the Roman people—is one of the greatest epics that have ever been produced.

(10) Dante (1265–1321).-A native of Florence. The greatest of the Italian poets. Author of the Divina Commedia, in which

he narrates his visits to Purgatory, Hell, and Heaven. 295. The Smith in the novel. - Henry the Smith in Sir Walter Scott's

novel The Fair Maid of Perth. 296, (1) 'Lips of fuller sound.' – This is a free translation of os

magna sonaturum : (literally, a mouth which is ready to utteror sound forth-great things).

(2) 'The noble mind in the noble body.'-The Latin is, Mens magna in corporo magno' (literally, a great mind in a great

body). 297. (1) Michael Angelo (Buonarotti) (1474-1563). —A famous Italian

painter, sculptor, and architect.

(2) Raffaelle (or Raphael) (1483-1520). A great Italian


painter. His countrymen called him the 'Divine,' and many connoisseurs regard him as the greatest of painters.

(3) The Apollo Belvedere. -A celebrated statue, the work of some ancient sculptor, which is generally regarded as embodying the highest ideal of manly beauty. It was discovered in

1503. 298. (1) Demosthenes (385-322 B. C.).—A famous Athenian statesman

and patriot, and the greatest orator of antiquity.

(2) Thucydides. -See Biographical Notes, p. 384.
(3) Herodotus. -See Explanatory Note (1) to p. 66.

(4) Addison, Joseph (1672–1719). An illustrious poet and essayist. His poems have long since lost the popularity which

they once enjoyed, but his prose will never cease to charm. 299. Gibbon.—See Biographical Notes, p. 379. 302. Pope, Alexander (1688–1744). The greatest poet of his age.

Author of the Essay on Criticism, the Rape of the Lock, the
Dunciad (a satire), and many other poems, and translator of the
Iliad and Odyssey. As a literary artist, Pope has never been

surpassed. 305. Dryden, John 1631-1700). —Next to Milton, the greatest poet of

the seventeenth century. Author of Absalom and Achitophel (perhaps the greatest satire in our language), The Hind and the Panther, the magnificent Ode on Alexander's Feast, a volume of Fables, many minor poems, and a large number of comparatively

worthless plays, and translator of Virgil. 306. Dodsley, Robert (1703-1764). — Author and publisher. His Select

Collection of Old Plays (12 vols.) is the work by which he is best

known to fame. 311. M. Taine (born 1828). —A French critic and historian. One of

the ablest and most brilliant of contemporary authors. 312. (1) Greene, Robert. -An English poet and dramatist who lived in

the latter part of the sixteenth century.

(2) Nash, Thomas (1564–1600).--A satirist and dramatist.

(3) Marlowe, Christopher (1563-1593). The greatest of Shakespeare's precursors. Author of Tamburlaine the Great, The Life and Death of Dr. Faustus, The Jew of Malta, Edward II., and other dramas. Greene, Nash, and Marlowe all led wild and reckless lives, and the last-named met with a miserable death,

being stabbed in a brawl in a tavern at Deptford. 315. Victor Hugo (born 1802). — The greatest of French contemporary




- To

upon land.

ABROGATE (Latin abrogare, to re

Alabaster.-A mineral which is carved peal, abolish; from ab, from, and into vases and other ornaments. It rogare, to ask, to propose).

is usually white and slightly transannul or abolish by an authoritative parent. act; to repeal ; to cancel.

Alchemist. One

who practises Abstemious (Latin, from abs, from, alchemy (an ancient science or mock

and temetum, strong wine).-Sparing science, which preceded and prein diet; abstinent.

pared the way for modern chemistry). Abstemiousness. The quality of Alluvial.- Pertaining to or composed being abstemious.

of alluvium. Abstraction (from Latin abs, from, Alluvium (from Latin alluere, to wash

and trahere, to draw):-(1) The act against). -Deposits of earth, sand, or process of withdrawing one's etc., made by rivers, floods, etc., attention from certain properties or aspects of things, in order to con- Amalgamation (from amalgam, a comcentrate it on others.

pound of mercury or quicksilver (2) A particular property or aspect with another metal, and so a mixof a thing which is separated from ture or compound of different things). the rest (in thought), and treated as --The mixing together of different if it had a separate and independent things. existence.

Amber. A substance found in lumps, Acanthus.---A genus of plant found chiefly on the shores of the Baltic.

chiefly in hot countries. The best It is usually of a pale yellow colour, known species are twining plants and is sometimes transparent. with beautiful dark shining leaves Amelioration (from Latin melior, and large white flowers.

better).— The act of making better, Accessories (from Latin accedere, or state of becoming better; im.

accessum, to go near to, be added provement. to).-Accompaniments.

Amenity (from Latin amoenus, pleaAdmonition (from Latin admonere, to sant). Pleasantness, whether of

call to mind, warn). -Advice; warn- disposition, manner, climate, or ing; friendly reproof.

appearance. Affluence (Latin ad, to, and fluere, to analogous (from, a Greek word mean.

flow; literally, a flowing to).-An ing proportionate).-Having a certain abundant supply of anything, espe- resemblance to or bearing a certain

cially of worldly goods; wealth. proportion to; similar; proportion. Aggrandize (through French, from ate. Latin ad, to, and grandis, great).- Anathema.--A Greek word meaning (1) To enlarge

anything dedicated devoted, (2) To make great in power, or especially to evil; hence — (1) A honour; to exalt.

votive offering hung up in a temple. Aggrandizement. - The act of ag- (2) A solemn curse pronounced by

grandizing, or the state of being some church or other ecclesiastical aggrandized.

authority. Aisle (Latin ala, a wing).—The wing (3) Any person or thing anathe.

of a church, generally separated matized or solemnly cursed. from the central part of the nave Antidote (from a Greek word meaning (or body of the chureh) by a row of pillars.

given against). - Anything given to

counteract the effects of poison, or 360


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