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To form into a steep slope; to cut; word, is in common use in our lanaway so as to present a nearly guage in the sense of on the spur of the precipitous face.

moment, without preparation, offEscarpment. -A precipitous hill-side, hand). - Proceeding

from the impulse or wall of rock.

of the monient; performed or uttered Ethereal (the word ether, besides on the spur of the moment; com

having two distinct scientific mean- posed without previous study; un. ings, is applied loosely to the upper premeditated. and lighter air).-(1) Pertaining to Extemporize (from Latin ex, and the upper air-to the regions beyond tempris).-To do on the spur of the the atmosphere; celestial; heavenly. moment; to do in an off-hand and

(2) Consisting of, or resembling unpremeditated manner. ether; hence, very light or airy. Exterminate (Latin exterminare, from Eulogy (Greek word, from two words ex and terminus, a boundary).- To

meaning well and speaking). -A drive beyond the boundaries. speaking well of a person ; praise Exuberance (Latin exuberare, from ex bestowed upon a person in a more or and uber, fruitful). — Superfluous less formal manner, as in a speech or abundance; luxuriance; overgrowth.

despatch. Excommunication. The act of expel. FACTOR.-One who transacts busi. ling or cutting off from the communion ness for another; an agent. In of a church, and depriving of all Scotland the word is generally spiritual rights, privileges, etc. applied to the steward or bailiff of Executive. - That part of a govern- an estate.

ment which executes or carries into Fanatical (Latin fanaticus, divinely effect the laws of the country, inspired, from fanum, a temple). decrees of the legislature, etc.

Holding opinions, especially about Exhalation (from Latin ex, out of, religious matters, with an excess of

and halare, to breathe).-(1) The act fervour. or process of exhaling or sending Fanaticism. - Excessive enthusiasm, forth steam or vapour.

especially about religious matters. (2) That which is exhaled; steam; Fantastic.-(1) Existing only in fancy; vapour; effluvium.

not real. Exorbitant (from ex, out of, and orbita, (2) Indulging one's fancy; fanciful;

track, orbit).-A going out of the whimsical. usual orbit or course of things, or (3) Of so strange a nature and arbeyond the usual limit; deviation pearance that it might be supposed from rule or custom ; extravagance. to exist only in fancy; irregular; Thus we speak of exorbitance of wild ; capricious. charges or demands, exorbitant Fantastically.-In a fantastic manappetites, passions, taxes, etc.

ner (see Fantastic (3)); irregularly; Expatiate (from Latin ex, out of, and whimsically; capriciously.

spatiari, to walk about).- To move Fascine (Mil.) (from Latin fascis, a at large, especially in writing or con- bundle).- A bundle of rods bound at versation; to enlarge (on a given sub- both ends and at intermediate points, ject); to talk or write at great length. used for various military purposes, Expiatory (from Latin ex, out of, from, such as filling ditches, making

and piare, to purify with sacred rites). parapets, etc. ----Able to make expiation, i.e. atoné- Fatalism. — The doctrine that all ment or satisfaction for sin.

things happen by irresistible and Exposition (from Latin ex, and ponere, inevitable necessity ; belief in the to place, set).—The act of setting omnipotence of Fate, i.e.

of a forth or explaining the meaning of supreme controlling power which an author, law, etc ; explanation; may or may not be the expression interpretation.

of God's will, but which in either case Extant (from Latin ex, and stare, to is supposed to direct the actions

stand). -Standing forth; continuing and order the lives of men, using to

exist; still in being; not their powers and energies as the destroyed.

instruments of its will. Extemporaneous (from Latin ex, and Fell.-Fierce; savage; cruel; malig.

tempus, temporis, time; the phrase nant. ex tempore, ordinarily spelt as one Fetichism (from a Portuguese word

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meaning magic).--A degraded form the upper projected mouldings are of religion prevalent in Western known as the cornice. Between Africa. Its system seems to be as these cornices is the frieze, which is follows. Evil spirits are believed sometimes enriched with sculpture. in and worshipped to the extent of Fulminate (from Latin fulmen, being feared. The fetich — some thunderbolt). -- (1) To thunder; material thing to which a magical explode with a loud report. power happens to be ascribed-is (2) To issue or proclaim (decrees, supposed to counteract their bane- censures, etc.) in an authoritative ful influence. Thus in the first and violent manner; to thunder instance it is a charm rather than an forth (threats, sentences, etc). idol; and if it does not answer the expectations of its votary, it is liable GABION (Mil.). -A hollow cylinder of to be beaten,or thrown away, or even wicker work, resembling à bottomdestroyed. Practically, however, it less basket, which is filled with

to be worshipped itself. earth, and serves to shelter men Something akin to Fetichism is to be from an enemy's fire. met with in many Christian coun. Galleon.-A large ship with three or tries. Evil influences are believed four decks, built up at stem and in, and are supposed to be counter- stern like a castle; formerly used acted by charms, and these are by the Spaniards for purposes of sometimes treated with a degree of war and also of commerce. superstitious reverence which is not Galliard. - The name of a lively dance.

far removed from actual idolatry. Genii (plural of Genie or Jinnie, an Feud (or Fee).-A right to lands, etc., Arabic word). -- The Genii of the

held on the terms of performing cer- East were imaginary beings suptain conditions, such as rendering posed to have been created of fire, military service to the nominal pro- and to be capable of assuming any prietor.

form or of becoming invisible at Feudal.-Pertaining to feuds or fees ; pleasure.

pertaining to military tenure. Genius. An imaginary being supFey.-Fated ; doomed ; doomed to die. posed by the ancients to preside

The word is used in this sense by over a man's destiny in life; a Burns, Scott, and other Scotch tutelary or guardian deity; a superwriters. It is sometimes used, as natural being; a spirit. on p. 254, in the sense of possessed, Gentian. --A tribe of flowering plants, demented.

many of which are essentially mounFlaccid (from Latin flaccus, flabby).-- tain flowers, some being even found

Yielding to pressure ; soft and weak; on the verge of eternal snow. One lax; flabby.

or two of the Alpine gentians bear Foible (from old French foible, feeble, flowers of a most brilliant and beau.

weak).- A slight fault or weakness; tiful blue. weak point; failing ; frailty. Germinate (Latin germinare, from Forestall. — (1) To beforehand ; germen, bud, germ).—To sprout; to. anticipate.

bud ; to shoot. (2) To take possession beforehand; Glacier (French).- Glaciers are broad preoccupy (especially to the detri

rivers of ice, occupying the upper ment of some other person or thing); portions of deep valleys, in the to exclude or prevent by occupying heart of high mountains (such as beforehand, or by taking measures those of Switzerland). In Arctic in advance.

regions the glaciers come down to Forfeiture.-See explanatory note (2) the level of the sea. to p. 268.

Glacis (Mil.).-A mass of earth having Fret (from an old Saxon word signi- a gentle slope to the exterior ground,

fying ornament).- To decorate with which serves as a parapet or ram.

raised work (as in 'fretted vault'). part to the covered way (a road of Frieze (Architecture).

- The middle communication all round a fort, part of the entablature (a superstruc- outside the ditch). ture which lies horizontally upon Gneiss. -- A kind of rock which re. the columns in classic architecture). sembles granite, the difference being The part immediately above the that the materials (which are the column is called the architrave, and same in both stones) are arranged in

gneiss in layers, and in granite in an breaker of images; an enemy of apparently confused mass.

idolatry. Grenade (Mil.).-A hollow ball of iron Idiom (from a Greek word meaning

filled with powder, which is fired by one's own, and so private, personal, means of a fuse. It is thrown among peculiar). -A phrase or mode of exenemies when fired, and bursts into pression peculiar to a particular many fragments.

person or people.

Immaculate (Latin in, not, and HAVIOUR.- Behaviour (obsolete). macula, spot, stain). -Without spot Henchman (from haunchman, literally or stain; absolutely pure and unex

one who goes behind another).-An ceptionable. attendant or follower.

Immemorial. - Beyond the reach of Hierarchical. Pertaining to hier. memory; going back to times of archy; priestly.

which there is neither record nor Hierarchy (from two Greek words tradition.

meaning sacred and rule). — (1) Impassive.-Insensible to pain; not Authority in sacred things.

susceptible of emotion. (2) The body of persons to whom Impatiency. Same as impatience is committed authority in sacred (obsolete). things.

Implacable (from Latin in, not, and (3) A form of government in which placare, to quiet, pacify). — Not to the power belongs either wholly or be appeased; constant in enmity ; in large part to the priesthood. unrelenting. Hieroglyphic (adj.). Emblematic; Improvisation (from Latin in, not, and

expressing a meaning by pictures, provisus, foreseen, provided).—(1) The figures, or other symbols.

art of improvising, or making poetry, Hieroglyphics (Greek, literally sacred etc., on the spur of the moment.

engraving). - A species of writing (2) The thing improvised ; unfirst practised by the ancient premeditated effusions. Egyptian priests, in which represen. Impugn (from Latin in, against, and tations of visible objects took the pugnare, to fight).-To resist, oppose, place of words.

attack. Homicide (froin Latin homo, man, and Incontinent.-Not continent; not able

cædere, to kill).- A manslayer, one to restrain one's passions ; indulging who kills another or others.

one's desires without restraint. Homily (from a Greek word meaning Incontinently.-Unrestrainedly.

communion, intercourse, converse). — Incorporeal (Latin, from in, not, and Serious discourse; sermon.

corporealis, bodily, from corpus, a Homogeneous (from two Greek words body).-Not corporeal; not having

meaning same and kind). Of the a material body.
same kind or nature. A homo. Incumbrance (Legal). —

-A charge upon geneous body is one which is of the a property. same kind or nature throughout, so Incurious (from Latin in, not, and that any one part serves as a sample cura, care).—Wanting in curiosity; of the whole.

without care for or interest in; Houri (Arabic). — The houris of careless.

Mohammedanism are beautiful Indisposition. — (1) A slight disorder women or nymphs who are supposed or ailment. to inhabit Paradise, and whose (2) Disinclination ; unwillingness: charms are the reward of the faith- Inebriation (from Latin ebrius, intoxiful after death.

cated). Drunkenness; intoxica. Housing. - A saddle-cloth; horse- tion; the state of having one's head cloth.

turnedby violent excitement, whether Howitzer (Mil.).- A short light cannon caused by drink or (as on p. 180) by

which throws large projectiles with sudden prosperity. a comparatively small charge of Ingeminate (Latin ingeminare, from powder.

geminus, double).

- To

double; Hückster.—To retail small articles; repeat (obsolete). make petty bargains.

Ingenuity.-Used by old writers (as

by Clarendon on p. 173) for ingenu. ICONOCLAST (from Greek icon, an ousness, frankness, openness of

image, and clastes, a breaker). - A heart.

Insubordinated. Not subordinated building or a garden) so full of wind. (see Subordinate).

ing paths that it is almost impossible Interdicted (from Latin inter, between, to find one's way out of it without a

and dicere, to say).- Forbidden; and guide. The word is used metaphori.

so (as on p. 56) stopped, cut short. cally on p. 145. Interlocution (from Latin inter, Lacquey (or Lackey) (verb).--To at

between, and loqui, locutus, to tend as a lackey or footman; to wait speak). Dialogue ; conference ;

upon, interchange of speech.

Leaguer.-(1) The camp of a beleaguerInterspace.-An intervening space; a ing besieging army. space between other things.

(2) A beleaguering or siege (as on Intuitive.-Perceived immediately, at

p. 175). a glance. Having the power of see- Legend.-(1) Something to be read ; ing things at a glance, e.g. of dis- especially cerning truth without the aid of any (2) A chronicle of the lives of the reasoning process. To see or know saints, read in religious houses. intuitively means to see or know at (3) Any story, telling of wonderful a glance, i.e. without the aid of or improbable events, handed down practice, or instruction, or reflec- from an early date. tion.

Legion.-A division of the ancient Invective (from Latin invehere, to Roman army, consisting of about carry against, and SO

attack,

5000 men. inveigh). — The utterances or writings Lenity (from Latin lenis, soft, mild).-of one who inveighs against another; Mildness of temper; gentleness ; severe censure; violent abuse.

tenderness. Invoice. -A detailed statement in Lens.-A piece of glass or other trans

writing of goods shipped or other- parent substance, so shaped as to wise sent to a tradesman, factor, or change the direction of rays of light, other customer, with the prices and and thus magnify objects or othercharges annexed.

wise modify vision. Iridescent (from Latin iris, rainbow).- Lethargy (from a Greek word meaning Coloured like the rainbow.

forgetfulness). Unnatural drowsiIrradiate (from Latin in, into, and ness or stupor, either of mind or

radiare, to shine, radiate, from body. radius, a ray of light). --- To cast a Lichens.-An order of plants which bright light upon; enlighten; illumi- have neither stem nor leaves. They nate.

are found in all parts of the earth, Itinerary (from Latin iter, itineris, a in the coldest regions as well as in

journey).- A register of places and the hottest, and grow on earth, on distances intended to serve as a stones, rocks, and the bark of trees. guide to travellers.

The grey, brown, and yellow stains

which are so common on old walls JUBILATION (from Latin jubilare, to are produced by minute lichens.

shout).—Joying exultation; triumph- Litigious (Latin litigare, from lis, litis, ant joy.

a dispute, lawsuit). -Fond of litigaJudiciary. That branch of govern- tion, i.e. of bringing cases into the ment in which judicial power is law courts ; ready to go to law on vested.

the slightest provocation. Jurisprudence (from Latin jus, juris, Logic.-The science which determines

right, law, and prudentia, prudence, and systematizes the laws hy which wisdom, knowledge).-The science reasoning processes ought as far as of law; organized knowledge of the possible to be conducted. laws, legalized customs, etc., of a Logical.-(1) Pertaining to logic. country

(2) Complying with the rules of Juxtaposition (from Latin juxta, near, logic.

and ponere, positum, to place).—The Logos. A Greek word meaning act of placing different things side by (1) Word ; (2) Thought. side for purposes of comparison, etc.; Longitudinal (Latin longitudo, length, the state of being placed by the side from longus, long). -Extending of other things.

length; running lengthwise.

Loose. -See explanatory note (2) to LABYRINTH. A place (either a

VII.

p. 268.

2 A

Lucent (from Latin lucere, to shine).- Mica.- A mineral, generally more or Bright; shining.

less transparent, which is capable of Lucidity (Latin, lucidus, bright, shin- being divided into elastic plates of

ing, from lux, lucis, light).-Bright- extreme thinness. ness; clearness. On p. 216 (lucidity Micaceous.—Pertaining to or containof the pleader') the word means ing mica; splitting into thin plates clearness in expressing oneself, like mica. arranging one's arguments, etc. Mineralogist.–One who studies the

properties of minerals. MAGNIFICO (Italian).-A grandee or Miniature (noun).—(1) A painting in nobleman.

colours (from Latin miniare, from Maraud (from French maraud, a minium, vermilion); especially

rogue, vagabond). To wander or (2) A painting or other representa make excursions in quest of plunder. tion on a reduced scale; hence Maudlin (contracted form of the word Miniature (adj.).—On a small scale;

Magdalen; the Magdalen is always much reduced from reality. represented by painters with eyes Miserere.-Second person singular swollen and wet with weeping). - imperative of the Latin verb misereri, (1) Having one's face swollen and

to pity. eyes watery with sottishness; foolish Mitigate (from Latin mitis, mild).-with drink; fuddled.

To make mild; to soften; to dimi. (2) Weak and silly (as if half nish the severity of; to moderate. drunk); feebly or sickly sentimental. Mitre. – An ornament worn on the Mausoleum (from Mausolus, king of head by bishops and archbishops.

Caria, to whom his wife erected a Modicum (Latin, from modicus, mode. magnificent monument). - A mag- rate).-A small quantity. nificent tomb, or sepulchral monu- Moiety (from French moitié, half). — ment.

Half; by Shakespeare it is someMeander (Greek name of river in Asia times used, as with us, simply to

Minor, noted for its windings).- denote a portion.
To wind about.

Monotheism (from Greek monos, alone, Mediæval (from Lat. medium, middle, only, and theos, God). The doctrine

and evum, age).—Belonging to the that there is but one God; the worMiddle Ages.

ship of one God. Memorandum (Latin, from memorare, Morion.-A kind of open helmet with

to bring to remembrance). - The out a visor. record of something to be remembered Mortgage (Legal). – To convey pro(literal meaning of word); a note to perty to another as security for a debt, help the memory. A memorandum on the understanding that the credibook is a book in which memoranda tor shall not enter into possession of are entered.

it if the debt is duly discharged. Mercenary (from Latin merces, wages). Mortification (from Latin mors, death,

-One who works for pay; a hireling, and facere, to make; as a medical especially a soldier hired into foreign term, mortification means the death service.

of some part of the body while the Mercurial (Latin, mercurialis). -Hav- rest continues to live). — The act of

ing the qualities which were sup- mortifying, i.e. of bringing under the posed to belong to Mercury, the mes- passions and appetites by penances, senger of the gods; active; sprightly; fastings, scourgings, and other full of fire and energy.

severities inflicted on the body. Meteor (from a Greek word meaning Mosaic.—Pertaining to the Muses, or

high in air).-(1) Any phenomenon goddesses of the fine arts, and so in the atmosphere.

graceful, elegant. Mosaic - work is (2) In particular, any transient composed of little pieces of marble, fiery body, such as a fire-balloon or glass, etc., of various colours, shooting star. (The general sense of arrayed in ornamental patterns, and the word is preserved in the word fixed together by a ground of meteorology.). On p. 12 the word is cement. used as an adjective, and means fiery. Mosque. A Mohammedan place of Meteorology. The science which worship.

treats of the atmosphere and its Multifarious (Latin, from multus, phenomena.

many).-Manifold and various.

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