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Province or Colony, and disposable by Parliament), and shall engage to make provision also for the support of the Civil Government, and the Administration of Justice, in such Province or Colony, it will be proper, if such Proposal shall be approved by his Majesty, and the two Houses of Parliament, and for so long as such Provision shall be made accordingly, to forbear, in respect of such Province or Colony, to levy any Duty, Tax, or Assessment, or to impose any further Duty, Tax, or Assessment, except such duties as it may be expedient to continue to levy or impose, for the Regulation of Commerce; the Nett Produce of the Duties last men ned to be carried to the account of such Province or Colony respectively._Resolution moved by Lord North in the Committee; and agreed to by the House, Feb. 27, 1775. (Original ed.) See post, p. 224 sq.

1. 28. Blue Ribband. Lord North was conspicuous among the members of the Lower House by this badge of a Knight of the Garter. The only other commoner who had then obtained the Garter was Sir R. Walpole. Castlereagh and Palmerston are the only other instances of this distinction being offered to and accepted by commoners.

P 168, 1. 7. that time and those chances,, &c. An allusion to the wellknown passage of Shakspeare:

• There is a tide in the affairs of men

Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune.' So Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel :

• Heaven has to all allotted, soon or late,

Some lucky revolution of their fate,' &c. 1. 26. arrant trifling=mere, downright.

1. 32. The number of people in the Colonies. The computation of Mr. Bancroft (vol. iv. p. 128), which fully justifies Burke's remarks, is as follows:

Whites. Blacks. Total. 1750 1,040,000 220,000 1,260,000. 1/54

1,165,000 260,000 1,425,000. 1760 1,385,000 310,000 1,695,000. 1770

1,850,000 462,000 2,312,000. 1780 2,383,000 562,000 2,945,000.

1790 3,177,257 752,069 3,929,326. Cp. Johnson's savage comment on this and other arguments ; “We are told that the continent of North America contains three millions, not of men, merely, but of Whigs; of Whigs fierce for liberty, and disdainful of dominion (alluding to Chatham's Speech of January 20, 1775); that they multiply with the fecundity of their own rattlesnakes, so that every quarter of a century doubles their numbers. ... When it is urged that they will shoot up like the hydra, he (the English politician) naturally considers how the hydra was destroyed.' Taxation no Tyranny, Works, X. 96, 97.

P. 169, 1. 10. whilst the dispute continues, the exaggeration ends. Cp. note, p. 265, ante, on Burke's repetition of his proposition, now put in a few words at once terse in expression, but weighty with antithesis, and now


expanded in its fullest details. It is impossible to surpass the felicity of this antithesis.

1. 21. Occasional-used in malam partem. Cp. ante p. 95, 'occasional arguments.' Dr. Johnson speaks of Browne's Hydriotaphia as 'a treatise occasionally written.' So the Occasional Writer, a paper to which Bolingo broke contributed.

1. 23. Minima which are out of the eye of the law. For the explanation and illustration of the maxim. De minimis non curat lex,' see Broom's Legal Maxims, 2nd ed. p. 105.

P. 170, 1. 5. trod some days ago. .by a distinguished person. Mr. Glover, who appeared at the bar (March 16), to support the petition of the West Indian Planters respecting the Non-Importation Agreement, praying that peace might be concluded with the Colonies, presented February 2. His Speech, Parl. Hist. xviii. 461-478, is well worthy of study, as an illustration of Burke's relation to contemporary oratory. His Leonidas still survives; but few readers will be disposed to encounter his Athenaid, an epic in thirty books.

1. 7. after Thirty-five years. Probably therefore, on the occasion of the transactions which occasioned the war with Spain in 1739.

1. 31. Davenant — Inspector-General's office, i. e. of Customs. Author of the Discourses on Revenue and Trade, &c.

P. 171, 1. 2. The African, terminating almost wholly in the Colonies. Because little more than a trade in slaves, who were paid for with English wares. See Burke's remarks on the African trade in his Account of America, vol. i. It was owing to the judgment with which the Portuguese carried on the trade in slaves that Brazil, in Burke's time, was looked on as the richest and most promising of the American Colonies.

1. 4. the West Indian. More important than the legitimate trade was that carried on, against the Act of Navigation, between the Spanish Colonies and the English West Indies. See Lord Stanhope's History, vol. ii.

1. 10. the trade to the Colonies, &c. Burke had employed the statistics of 1704 in his pamphlet of 1769 on the State of the Nation, to demonstrate the increase of the Colony trade. He there compares the total exports to the Colonies in 1704 (£483,265) with those to Jamaica in 1767 (£467,681).

P. 172, 1. 13. is not this American trade an unnatural protuberance. • The people of the United States still constitute our largest and most valuable commercial connection. The business we carry on with them is nearly twice as extensive as that with any other people, and our transactions are almost wholly conducted on ready money terms.' Cobden's Political Writings, vol. i. p. 58. The American official returns for the year ending June 30, 1873, shows that in that year more than one-third of the whole imports into the United States came from England, and that more than one-half of their whole exports, consisting chiefly of cotton, provisions, breadstuffs, and petrolerm, were sent to England.

do 29. Mr. Speaker, &c. The transition, bold as it is, is happily managed.

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It is difficult to pass from arithmetical to thetorical figures, but Burke seems to fuse the two elements into one by the mere force of his reasoning.

1. 30. It is good for us to be here. St. Mark ix. 5 sq. The quotation is introduced with striking effect. 1. 37. Clouds, indeed, and darkness rest upon the future.

• The wide, th' unbounded Prospect lies before me,
And Shadows, Clouds, and Darkness, rest upon it.'

Addison, Cato, Act v. Sc. I. clouds, indeed. “Indeed' is emphatic, not used conjunctively. P. 173, 1. 3. my Lord Bathurst. The connexion of Lord Bathurst with English literature extends from Pope and Swift to Sterne (vide Sterne, Letters, p. 192). In 1704 he was more than 'of an age at least to be made to comprehend,' &c., having been born in 1684: he took his seat in Parliament in 1705.

1. 6. acta parentum jam legere. The tense in the quotation is adapted to this use of it. Virg. Ecl. iv. 26.

1. 11. in the fourth generation, i. e. of the House of Brunswick. 1. 14. was to be made Great Britain,-in 1707.

1. 15. his son. The eldest, Henry, Lord Chancellor, created Baron Apsley 1771. 1. 27. stories of savage men, &c. See Part II of Burke's Account of America.

29. before you taste of death. St. Matt. xvi. 28, St. John viii. 52, Heb. ii. 9. Shakspeare, Julius Cæsar, Act ii. Sc. 2:

• The valiant never taste of death but once.' P. 174, 1. 6. cloud the setting of his day, i. e. sunset. Borrowed from Johnson, Vanity of Human Wishes :

• But few there are whom hours like these await,

Who set unclouded in the gulphs of fate.' With this graceful figure Burke concludes one of the best-known of his passages, in a higher strain of rhetoric than is now permissible in Parliamentary speaking. This eloquent effort of imagination would have been better in place in the Address of Daniel Webster on the Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers. Dr. Johnson's extemporaneous travesty of it, which illustrates the general temper of the country, shall be given in the words of Mrs. Piozzi.

• It was in the year 1775 that Mr. Edmund Burke made the famous speech in Parliament, that struck even foes with admiration, and friends with delight. Aniong the nameless thousands who are contented to echo those praises they have not skill to invent, I ventured, before Dr. Johnson himself, to app!aud with rapture the beautiful passage in it concerning Lord Bathurst and the Angel; which, said our Doctor, had I been in the House, I would have answered thus;

Suppose, Mr. Speaker, that to Wharton, or to Marlborough, or to any of the eminent Whigs of the last age, the devil had, not with any great impropriety, consented to appear; he would perhaps in somewhat like these words have commenced the conversation ;

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““ You seem, my Lord, to be concerned at the jndicious apprehension, that while you are sapping the foundations of royalty at home, and propagating here the dangerous doctrine of resistance, the distance of America may secure its inhabitants from your arts, though active; but I will unfold to you the gay prospects of futurity. This people, now so innocent and harmless, shall draw the sword against their mother country, and bathe its point in the blood of their benefactors; this people, now contented with a little, shall then refuse to spare what they themselves confess they could not miss ; and these men, now so honest and so grateful, shall, in return for peace and protection, see their vile agents in the house of Parliament, there to sow the seeds of sedition, and propagate confusion, perplexity, and pain. Be not dispirited, then, at the contemplation of their present happy state; I promise you that anarchy, poverty, and death shall, by my care, be carried even across the spacious Atlantic, and settle in America itself, the sure consequences of our beloved Whiggism."' Anecdotes of Dr. Johnson, p. 42.

1. 18. I choose, Sir, to enter, &c. "I think I know America,' wrote Burke to the Sheriffs of Bristol, in 1777. •If I do not, my ignorance is incurable, because I have spared no pains to understand it. . . . Everything that has been done there has arisen from a total misconception of the object.'

1. 19. generalities, which in all other cases, &c. The thought is as original as the expression is striking.

1. 27. deceive the burthen of life. To match this elegant Latinism we may quote the final lines of Bowles's Inscription at Knoyle :

• Laetare, et verno jamjam sub lumine, carpe,

Dum licet, ipse rosas, et fallas tristia vitae.'
•So “gather its brief rosebuds,” and deceive

The cares and crosses of humanity.'
P. 175, 1. 3. comprehending rice=including. Cp. Fr. y compris.

1. 10. with a Roman charity. The story of Xanthippe and Cimon, as told by Hyginus, was universally known by the nanie of the Roman Charity. It afforded an effective subject to several artists. Some authors (Plin. Nat. Hist. vii. 36, Valerius Maximus v. 47) represent a mother instead of a father as the object. Valerius Maximus in another version, and Festus and Solinus, agree with Hyginus.

1. 16. they seemed even to excite your envy. George Grenville had by his budget of 1764. practically resigned the whale fishery to America. •This,' says Mr. Bancroft, “is the most liberal act of Grenville's administration, of which the merit is not diminished by the fact that American whale fishery was superseding the English under every discouragement.' England and Holland had formerly contested the whaling trade. The position of America was of course such that when the American fishery was freed from its burdens it overwhelmed both.

1. 19. what in the world is equal to it. At this time Massachusetts alone employed 183 vessels, carrying 13,820 tons, in the North, and 120 vessels, carrying 14,026 tons, in the South Atlantic fishery. The fishery was at first


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carried on from the shores, and then, as whales became scarce, they were pursued to their haunts. Hence the advantage of the Americans. See an interesting article in the Quarterly Review, vol. Ixiii. p. 318.

1. 24. Hudson's Bay— Henry Hudson, 1607; but discovered by Seb, Cabot, 1517. Davis's StreightsJohn Davis, 1585.

1. 25. we hear that they have pierced into the opposite region of polar cold. It is interesting to be able to trace to the eloquent appeal of Burke some of the most important events in Colonial history. In 1775 ships were apparently for the first time fitted out by English owners for the purpose of following the track of the Americans in the South Seas. The bounties abolished by Grenville were revived in 1776 to favour this new branch of adventure; but it was not until 1785 that our navigators discovered the haunts of the sperm whale, and attained a success equalling that of the Americans. The enterprise of Mr. Enderby in 1788 extended the fisheries to the Pacific, and in 1820 to Japan. The consequences were a constant intercourse with the Spanish Colonies, which had no small share in leading them to their independence—the introduction of civilization into Polynesia, and the foundation of the Australian and Tasmanian Colonies. The whalers preceded the missionaries.

l. 27. frozen Serpent of the south. The Hydrus, or Water-serpent, a small constellation far to the south, within the Antarctic Circle.

1. 28. Falkland Island. A letter from Port Egmont, dated 1770, in the Grenville Papers, vol. iv. p. 505, gives a dismal account of the Falkland Islands. 'Barren of everything except sea-lions and seals. There is not an inch of Braddock Down that is not better than the very best of any of these islands; there is not a stick so big as the pen I am writing with on any of them. The soil is turf chiefly, and in short is one wild heath wherever you turn your eye.

We have been ordered off the island by the Spaniards, the French having given up their pretensions to their settlements. This will explain the humour of an allusion in the first scene of Foote's comedy of the Cozeners,' where Mrs. Fleece'em promises an applicant for a place the surveyorship of the woods in Falkland's Island, with the loppings and toppings for perquisites.

too remote and romantic an object for the grasp of national ambition. The Falkland Islands are about 200 in number, of which East and West Falkland were the chief. Discovered at the end of the sixteenth century, they were not considered worth occupation. In 1763 the French built Port Louis on East Falkland; England soon after built Port Egmont on West Falkland, but abandoned it in 1773. Through the whale-fishery they afterwards attained an unexpected importance. See Lord Stanhope's History, vol. v.

P. 176, 1. 1. run the longitude; i.e. sail south to the South American coast. 1. 3. vexed by their fisheries. Cp. Par. Lost, i. 305:

• When with fierce winds Orion arm'd
Hath vex'd the Red-Sea coast,'

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