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90. Moiety. Strictly a half (as in A.W. iii. 2. 69, Hen. V. v. 2. 229, etc.), but often used by S. for any portion (Schmidt). Cf. M. of V. iv. 1. 26, i llen. IV. iii. 1. 96, etc.

91. Had return'd. Would have returned. Gr. 361.

93. Covenant. The folio has “ cou’nant,” the quartos “comart." D. and Wr. think that S. may have coined the latter word (=joint bargain), and afterwards changed it to covenant.

94. Carriage, etc. “By the tenor of the article as drawn up” (M.).

96. Unimproved. “Not regulated or guided by knowledge or experience” (Johnson); “untutored” (Wr.); "undisciplined” (M.); “not yet turned to account, unemployed” (Schmidt). Nares and D., on the other hand, explain it as = "unreproved, unimpeached,” and St. as="ungovernable.” The ist quarto has “inapproved.” On mettle, see Macb. p. 181 or Rich. II. p. 157.

97. Skirts. Cf. A. Y. L. iii. 2. 354 : “here in the skirts of the forest, like fringe upon a petticoat.”

98. Shark'd up. * Picked up without distinction (Steevens) or illegally (Schmidt). List=muster-roll, as in i. 2. 32 below. On resolutes, see

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99. For food and diet. “For no pay but their keep. Being landless they have nothing to lose, and the war would at the worst feed them” (M.'.

100. Stomach. Courage; with possibly a play on the other sense, as in T. G. of V. i. 2. 68 and Hen. V. iii. 7. 166. For some of the meanings of the word in S. see Temp. p. 115.

102. But. In the sense of except, where we should use than (Gr. 127). See also 108 below.

103. Com pulsative. The folio reading; the quartos have "compulsatory.” S. uses neither word elsewhere, but he has “compulsive" in iii. 4. 86 below and in Oth. iii. 3. 454.

107. Romage. “Bustle, turmoil” (Schmidt). S. uses the word only here. For its origin see Wb. Wedgwood gives a less probable derivation.

108. Lines 108–125 are omitted in the folio. K. suggests that S. prob. ably suppressed the passage after he had written 7. C.

Be. The word “expresses more doubt than is after a verb of thinking” (Gr. 299, where some striking examples are given).

109. Sort Suit, accord. Schmidt wavers between this sense and “fall out, have an issue” (as in Much Ado, v. 4. 7, M. N. D. ii. 2. 352, etc.).

112. Mote. In three of the quartos it is spelt “moth,” which probably had the same pronunciation. See A. Y. L. p. 179, note on Goats.

114. Mightiest. Used like the Latin superlative=very mighty (Gr. 8). On the passage, cf. 7. C. ii. 2. 18 fol.

117. As stars, etc. There is some corruption here, and perhaps a line has dropped out. The attempts to mend the passage have not been satisfactory. As M. suggests, “if a line is supposed to be omitted, it would be better to borrow from 7. C. ii. 2, and read

'[Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the clouds, 1

As stars with trains of fire and dews of blood;
Disaster hid the sun,' etc.,


rather than indulge the genius, as some editors have done, by coining a

Disaster (like influence, aspect, retrograde, etc.) was an astrological term. It is used as a verb in A. and C. ii. 7. 18.

118. The moist star. The moon. Cf. W.T.i. 2. I : “the watery star ;'' and M. N. D. ii. 1. 162: “the watery moon.” On the next line Wr. quotes W.T. i. 2. 427 :

“You may as well

Forbid the sea for to obey the moon;" and M. misquotes Coleridge, Anc. Mariner :

“Still as a slave before his lord,

The ocean hath no blast;
His great bright eye most silently

Up to the moon is cast,
If he may know which way to go,

For she guides him smooth or grim
See, brother, see, how graciously

She looketh down on him!” 120. Voss refers to Matt. xxiv. 29.

121. Precurse. Used by S. only here ; and precursor only in Temp. i. 2. 201. Wr. says that “precurser” occurs in Phænix and Turtle, 6, Lut the eds. generally have “precurrer.”

Fierce. Wild, terrible." It means “immoderate, excessive” (Schmidt) in T. of A. iv. 2. 30 and Hen. VIII, i. 1. 54; and Steevens would give it a similar sense (“conspicuous, glaring”) here.

122. Still. Constantly, always; as often. Gr. 69. On harbingers, see Macb. p. 168.

123. Omen. The event portended by the omen. S. uses the word nowhere else. Upton cites Virgil, Æn. I. 346, where ominibus, literally

=the omens of the marriage rite, is put for the rite itself; and Farmer quotes Heywood, Life of Merlin :

“Merlin, well vers’d in many a hidden spell,

His countries omen did long since foretell.' 124. Demonstrated. Accented on first syllable, as in Hen. V. iv. 2. 54 ; but on the second in T. of A. i. 1. 91, Oth. i. 1. 61, etc.

125. Climatures. Regions; used by S. only here. For climate in the same sense, see Rich. II. iv. I. 130 and 7. C. i. 3. 32.'

127. Cross it. According to Blakeway, whoever crossed the spot on which a spectre was seen became subject to its malignant influence. Among the reasons for supposing the young Earl of Derby (who died in 1594) to have been bewitched, Lodge states that a figure of a tall man appeared in his chamber “who twice crossed him swiftly,” and when the earl came to the place where he saw the apparition “he fell sick.”

129. For the short line here and below, see Gr. 512.

130, 131. Alluding, as Simrock suggests, to the idea that a ghost may often be “laid” when a living person does for him what he himself ought to have done when alive.

134. Happily. According to Nares and Schmidt=haply, as often ; but it may be=luckily, as some critics make it. H. points out that the structure of this solemn appeal is almost identical with that of a very different strain in A. Y. L. ii. 4. 33–42.

136. Or if thou hast, etc. Steevens quotes Dekker, Knight's Conjuring: If any of them had bound the spirit of gold by any charmes in caves, or in iron fetters under the ground, they should for their own soules quiet (which questionlesse else would whine up and down) if not for the good of their children, release it.”

138. They say. Clarke notes the propriety of these words in the mouth of Horatio, “the scholar and the unbeliever in ghosts.”

140. Partisan. A kind of halberd. Cf. R. and 7. i. 1. 80, 101, A. and C. ii. 7. 14, etc.

i43. Majestical. Used by S. oftener than majestic. Cf. Hen. V. iii. chor. 16, iv. I. 284, etc.

145. As the air, invulnerable. Malone compares Macb. v. 8. 9 and K. John, ii. 1. 252.

149. I have heard, etc. Cf. M. N. D. jjj. 2. 381 fol., and Milton, Hymn on Nativ, 229-234, etc. Farmer quotes Prudentius, Ad Gallicinium :

“Ferucit, vagantes daemonas,
Laetos tenebris noctium,
Gallo canente exterritos

Sparsim timere et cedere." 150. The trumpet, etc. For trumpet=trumpeter, cf. Hen. V. iv. 2. 61: I will the banner from a trumpet take,” etc. Malone quotes from England's Parnassus, 1600 : “And now the cocke, the morning's trumpeter.” Coleridge remarks that “how to elevate a thing almost mean by its familiarity, young poets may learn in this treatment of the cock

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153. Whether in sen, etc. “According to the pneumatology of that time, every element was inhabited by its peculiar order of spirits ” (Johnson). Cf. Milton, Il Pens. 93 :

6. And of those demons that are found

In fire, air, flood, or under ground,
Whose power hath a true consent

With planet or with element.” 154. Extravagant. In its etymological sense of wandering beyond its confine, or limit. Cf. L. L. L. iv. 2. 68: “a foolish extravagant spirit;" and Oth. I. 1. 137: “an extravagant and wheeling stranger.” S. uses the word only in these passages, and extravagancy (=vagrancy) only in T. N. ii. I. 12 So erring is used in its literal sense; as in A. Y. L. iii. 2. 138 and Oth. i. 3. 362. Cf. Gr. p. 13.

155. For the accent of confine, cf. Temp. iv. I. 121, Sonn. 84. 3, etc.; for the other one, see Rich. II. i. 3. 137, Rich. III. iv. 4. 3, etc.

156. Probation. Proof; as in Macb. iii. 1. 80, Cymb. v. 5. 362, etc. The word is here a quadrisyllable. Gr. 479.

158. 'Gainst. "Used metaphorically of time (Gr. 142), as in M. N. D. iji. 2. 99 : “against he do appear,” etc. Cf. ii. 4. 50 below.

161. Spirit. Monosyllabic (=sprite), as often. Gr. 463.

Can walk. The folio reading; the ist quarto has “dare walke,” the later quartos “dare sturre.”

162. Strike. Exert a malign influence. Cf. T. A. j. 4. 14: “If I do wake, some planet strike me down.” See also Cor. ij. 2, 117 and W. T. i. 2. 201. As Wr. remarks, we still have “moonstruck.”

163. Takes. Bewitches, blasts. F. quotes Florio: Assiderare : to blast or strike with a planet, to be taken.” Cf. M. W. iv. 4. 32: “blasts the tree and takes the cattle ;” Lear, ij. 4. 166: “taking airs ;” Id. jjj.4. 61: “Bless thee from whirlwinds, star-blasting, and taking ?" and A. and C. iv. 2. 37: “Now the witch take me, if I meant it thus !"

164. Gracious. Blessed, benign; “partaking of the nature of the epither with which it is associated ” (Caldecott).

165. And do in part believe it. “A happy expression of the half-sceptical, half-complying spirit of Shakespeare's time, when witchcraft was believed, antipodes doubted ” (M.).

166, 167. As Hunter suggests, Milton must have had this beautiful personification in mind when he wrote P. L. v. I :

"Now morn. her rosy steps in the eastern clime

Advancing, sow'd the earth with orient pearls." 173. Loves. For the plural, see Macb. p. 209 or Rich. II. p. 206 (note on Sights).

175. Conveniently. The folio reading; the quartos have “convenient” (Gr. 1).

SCENE II.-1. “In the King's speech, observe the set and pedantically antithetic form of the sentences when touching that which galled the heels of conscience,—the strain of undignified rhetoric,and yet in what follows concerning the public weal, a certain appropriate majesty. Indeed, was he not a royal brother?” (Coleridge).

2. That. See Gr. 284.

4. Brow of woe. “Mourning brow” (L.L.L. v. 2. 754). Wr. compares iv. 6. 19: “Thieves of mercy ;' M. of V. ii. 8. 42: “mind of love ;" Lear, i. 4. 306: “brow of youth,” etc.

6. With wisest sorrow. “With the due proportion of sorrow” (M.).

8. Sometime. The folio has “sometimes." S. uses both forms adjectively. Cf. Rich. II. i. 2. 54: “thy sometimes brother's wife ;' Id. v. 1. 37: “good sometime queen,” etc. See on i. 1. 49 above.

9. Of. The quartos have“ to.”

10. Defeated. Marred, disfigured. Cf. Oth. i. 3. 346 : “ defeat thy favour with an usurped beard.” So defeature=disfigurement in V. and A. 736, C. of E. ii. 1. 98 and v. 1. 299.

11. One So in the folio; the quartos have “an... a.” Steevens quotes W. T. v. 2. 80: “She had one eye declined for the loss of her husband, another elevated that the oracle was fulfilled.”

Malone explains dropping as “depressed or cast downwards,” and W. substitutes “ drooping."

14. To wife. Cf. Temp. ii. 1. 75: "Such a paragon to their queen,” etc. Gr. 189.

Barr'd. Excluded, acted without the concurrence of. Cf. Hen. V. i. 2. 12, 92, Lear, v. 3. 85, etc. 15. Wisdoms. See on loves, i. 1. 173 above.


17. That you know. What you already know. See Gr. 244. Theo. points it thus: “Now follows that you know, young Fortinbras,” etc. (so Walker, with colon instead of comma).

18. Supposal. Opinion; used by S. only here.

20. Disjoint. For the form cf. iii. 1. 155: “most deject.” See also iii. 4. 180, 205, and iv. 5. 2. Gr. 342.

21. Colleagued, etc. With no ally but this imaginary advantage. The quartos have “this dream.”

22. Pester. The word originally meant to crowd, as in Milton, Comus, 7: “Confind and pester’d in this pinfold here.” Cf. Cor. iv. 6.7: “Dissentious numbers pestering (that is, infesting) streets,” etc. See also Webster, Malcontent, v. 2 : “the hall will be so pestered anon.”

23. Importing. Abbott (Gr. p. 16) thinks this is used for “importuning;" but cf. T. of A. v. 2. II:

“With letters of entreaty, which imported

His fellowship i' the cause;" Oth. ii, 2. 3: “tidings now arrived, importing the mere perdition of the Turkish fleet,” etc. See also iv. 7. 80 and v. 2. 21 below.

24. Bonds. The folio reading; the quartos have “bands," which means the same.

27. Writ. For the past tense S. uses writ oftener than wrote ; for the participle he has usually writ or written, sometimes wrote. Gr. 343.

31. Gait. “Used metaphorically for proceeding in a business” (Nares). In that=inasmuch as. .

32. Proportions. Contingents, quotas; as in Hen. V. i. 2. 137, 304, etc. 33. Subject. See on i. 1. 72 above.

38. Dilated. “Detailed” (Schmidt). Cf. A. W. ii. 1. 59: “a more dilated farewell.” The ist quarto has “related," the later quartos “delated.” Greene has the word in the sense of delayed, in A Maiden's Dream : Nor might the pleas be over-long dilated.”

For the “confusion of construction ” in allow, see Gr. 412. On this point K. remarks: “We find in all the old dramatists many such lines as this in Marlowe : ‘The outside of her garments were of lawn.' And too many such lines have been corrected by the editors of Shakespeare who have thus obliterated the traces of our tongue's history. It is remarkable that the very commentators who were always ready to fix the charge of ignorance of the rudiments of grammar upon Shakespeare, have admitted the following passage in a note to 2 Hen. IV. by that elegant modern scholar, T. Warton : ‘Beaumont and Fletcher's play contains many satirical strokes against Heywood's comedy, the force of which are entirely lost to those who have not seen that comedy.'

39. Let your haste, etc. “ Let your haste show that you perform your duty well” (Wr.).

41. Nothing. Adverbially=not at all; as often in S. Cf. M. of V. i, 1. 165: “nothing undervalued to Cato's daughter,” etc. Gr. 55.

42. You. For the change to thou in 45 fol., see Gr. 235.

45. Lose your voice. Waste your words. Cf. 118 below : “lose her prayers.”

47. Native. Naturally related. Cf. A. W. i. 1. 238: “native things”

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