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3 Not given to wine, no 3 Μη σαρoινoν, μη πληκstriker, nor greedy of
την, μη αισχροκερδη, αλλ' filthy lucre; but patient,
επιεικη, αμαχον, αφιλαργυnot a brawler, not covetous;
Του ιδιου οικου καλως 4 One that ruleth well his own house, having his apoisauevov.
τεκνα έχοντα children in subjection with εν υποταγη μετα σασης σεμall gravity ;
νοτητος. . 5 (For if a man know
5 (Ει δε τις του ιδιου οιnot how to rule his own
κου προςηναι ουκ οιδε, σως house, how shall he take care of the church of
εκκλησιας Θεου επιμελησεGod;)
ται;) 6 Not a novice, lest be
6 Mn VEODUTOV• iva un ing lifted up with pride, he
receiving such into his house, he would have an opportunity of recommend. ing the Christian religion to them by his conversation and example. From this account, it is evident, that the hospitality anciently required in a bishop, was not what is now meant by that word ; namely, the keeping a good table and an open house for one's friends, and others, who are able to make him a return in kind; but it consisted in entertaining strangers of the character just now described : the poor also, and the persecuted for the sake of religion.—That the bishop might be able to exercise this general hospitality which the manners of the times (See 1 Cor. ix. 5. note 1.) made necessary, their churches supplied them with a liberal maintenance. But now that the ancient customs are changed, and inns are every where open, in which travellers, for their money, can be as well accommodated as in private houses, there is little occasion for what the apostle calls hospitality. The benevolent disposition of a bishop, in the present state of things, will be more properly exercised in relieving the poor, who are much more numerous now among Christians, than in the first ages. For then, the profession of the gospel exposing men to persecution, few embraced our religion, who had not some degree of probity. The brethren therefore in those days, being generally men of principle, would not, without cause, be burdensome to the community to which they belonged. . But at present, in the countries where Christianity is professed, and where the church comprehends many, who, though they call themselves Christians, have no principle of religion at all, the number of the poor who must be relieved, is exceedingly great.
Ver. 3.-1. Not given to wine. The apostle condemns in a bishop frequent and much drinking, although it should not be carried the length of intoxication; because by much drinking, much time is wasted, the faculties of the mind are cnervated, and a sensual disposition is cherished.
3 Not given to wine, 3 He must not be addicted to wine, no striker, not
nor of such a hasty temper as to be carns money by base me- a striker of those who provoke him, thods, but equitable, (see nor one who gains money by sinful, or Philip. iv. 5. note 1.) not even by dishonourable occupations ; a brawler, nor covetous. but equitable in judging of the offen
ces which any of his flock may commit; not a noisy abusive quarrelsome
talker, nor covetous in his dealings. 4 One who ruleth well 4 He must be one who possesseth his own house,? having such wisdom and firmness, as to his children in subjection govern properly his own family. In To him wi!h all gravity. particular, he must have his children (See Tit. i. 6. notes.) in subjection to him ; as becometh the
gravity of his character, and his re
putation for prudence, 5 For if one know not 5 For if one be not capable of governhow to rule his own house, ing so small a society as his own how shall he take care of family, but suffers his children to be the church of God? disobedient and vicious, How shall
he govern in a proper manner that greater and more important society,
the church of God? '6 Not a netu convert, 6 A bishop must be not one nervly lest being puffed up with converted, lest being puffed up with
2. Who earns money by base metbods. So the word est Xgoxogons, (Sordidum quæstum faciens, Scapula,) properly signifies.-As many of the brethren in the first age maintained themselves by their own labour, it might happen that the occupations which they followed in their heathen state, and which they continued to follow, after they became Christians, were not very repu. table. Wherefore, to discourage trades of that sort, and especially to prevent the ministers of religion from gaining money by sinful and even by low methods, the apostle ordered that no one should be elected a bishop, who was engaged in such occupations.
Ver. 4.-1. One who ruleth well his own house. bishop must not only rule his own family, but he must rule it well; rule it so as to promote religion and virtue in all its members ; rule it calmly, but firmly, never using harshness where gentleness and love will produce the desired effect; also he must afford to his family, according to his circumstances, what is necessary to their comfortable subsistence.
Ver. 6.-1. Not a new convert. Necoutov, literally, one newly ingrafted; namely, into the body of Christ by baptism; one newly converted. Such
fall into the condemnation τυφωθεις, εις κριμα εμπεση of the devil. .
του διαβολου. 7 Moreover, he must 7 Δει δε αυτον και μαρhave a good report of them τυριαν καλην εχειν απο των which are without ; lest εξώθεν ένα μη εις ονειδισμον he fall into reproach, and
εμπεση και σαγιδα του διαthe snare of the devil.
βολου 8 Likewise must the 8 Διακονους ώσαύτως σεμdeacons be grave, νους, μη διλoγους, μη οινω double-tongued, not given σολλω
προσέχοντας, μη to much wine, nor greedy
αισχροκερδεις» of filthy lucre;
9 Holding the mystery 9 Εχοντας το μυςηριον of the faith in a pure con
της σις εως εν καθαρα συνειscience. .
were not to be made bishops, because being imperfectly instructed in the Christian doctrine, they were not fit to teach it to others. — Besides, as their constancy and other virtues had not been sufficiently tried, they could have had little authority, especially with the brethren of longer standing and greater experience.
2. Lest τυφωθεις, being puffed up. Bengelius says τυφω, is of the same signification with xelw, that TuoG is a smoky heat voit of flame, and that they are said tuu87 Jan, whom wine, or pride, or an high opinion of their own knowledge, intoxicates and makes giddy. See 2 Cor. x. 5. note 1.
3. Fall into the condemnation of the devil. According to Erasmus, this clause should be translated, Fall into the condemnation of the accuser ; a sense which the word διαβολO, hath ver. 11. For he supposes that by the accuser is meant, the unbelieving Jews and Gentiles, who were ready to condemn the Christians for every misdemeanor. But others understand the apostle as speaking of that evil spirit, who in scripture is called the Devil; and who was cast out of heaven for his sin, 2 Pet. ii. 4. Jude, ver. 6. which in this passage is insinuated 10 have been pride; but in what instince, or, how shewed, is no where told. There are who think he refused some mi. nistration appointed linn by God. Others that he would not acknowledge the Son of God as his superior.
Ver. 7.-1. May not fall into reproach, and the snare of the devil. Here it is intimated, that the sins wliich one hath formerly committed, when cast in his teeth, after he becomes a minister, may be the means of tempting him to repeat these sins, by the devil's suggesting to him, that he has little reputation to lose. Nor is this the only evil. The people knowing lis former miscarriages, will be the less affected with what he says to them.-All whe are candidates for the ministry ouglt to consider these things seriously.
pride, he fall into the pride on account of his promotion, condemnation of the de- he fall into the punishment inflicted vil. ?
on the devil. 7 (As, 104.) Moreover 7 Moreover, before his converhe must even have a good sion, he must have behaved in such a testimony from those with manner, as even to have a good tesout, that he may not fall timony from the heathens ; that he into reproach,' and the may not be liable to reproach, for the snare of the devil.
sins he committed before his conversion, and fall into the snare of the
devil, who by these reproaches may 8 The deacons in like tempt him to renounce the gospel. manner must be grave,' 8 The deacons, in like manner, not double-tongued, not must be of a grave character, not giving
to double-tongued, speaking one thing much wine, not persons to this person, and another to that, who earn money by base on the same subject : Not giving methods.
themselves to much wine ; not per. sons who earn money by base methods.
See ver. 3. note 2. 9 Holding fast the 9 He must hold fast the doctrines mystery of the faith with of the gospel with a pure conscience. a pure conscience. (Chap. He must not from fear or self-inte
rest either conceal, or disguise these doctrines.
Ver. 8.-1. The deacons (See Rom. xvi. 1. note 3.) in like manner must be grave. The word osperous, translated grave, includes also the ideas of dignity and stayedness. These qualities were required in deacons, because they seem to have been employed in teaching. See ver. 9. nofe.
Ver. 9.–1. Holding fast the mystery of the faith. In the opinion of many, this is the doctrine of the salvation of the Gentiles by faith, without the works of the law of Moses, called the mystery of God's will, Ephes. i. 9. And the mystery evhich hath heen hid from ages and generations, Col. i. 26. But I rather think it denotes the doctrine of the gospel in general, called i Cor. ii. 7. A mystery; and ver. 16 of this chapter, the mystery of godliness. The apostle's direction implies, that a deacon should be both sound in the faith, and conscientious in maintaining it. And although the apostle hath not mentioned it, Timothy, from this direction concerning deacons, must have been sensible that it was equally necessary in bishops, as in deacons, to hold the mystery of the faith with a pure conscience. Soundness in the faith being required in deacons, it is a presumption that they were some. times employeci in teaching ; but whether by preaching, or by catechising, is bard to say. Thoy likewise performed the office of readers in the church. See Beza here.
10 And let these also 10 Και δτοι δε δοκιμαfirst be proved; then let ζεσθωσαν πρωτον, ειτα διαthem use the office of χονειτωσαν, ανεγκλητοι οντες. a deacon, being found blameless.
11 Even so must their 11 Γυναικας ωσαύτως σεμwives be grave, not slan
νας, μη διαβολους, νηφαλιους, derers; sober, faithful in
σιςας εν σασι.
. all things.
Ver. 10.–1. But let these also be proved first. The word also, implies, that the rule for trying the character of the deacons, was to be observed with relation to bishops. The rule was this : They published in their assemblies for worship, the names of the persons designed for ecclesiastical functions, that if any one had aught to accuse them of, they might shew it. So we are told by Lampridius, in his life of Alexander Severus, tom. ii. c. 46. quoted at large, Truth of the Gospel Hist. p. 331. who, it seems, wished to have the same method followed in appointing the governors of provinces; and alleged the example of the Jews and Christians, who published the names of their ministers, before they established them in their offices. Now although Lampridius speaks of a rule observed by the Christians in the time of Alexander Severus, previous to their admitting persons to be bishops and deacons, it was a rule so natural and reasonable, that we may suppose it was prescribed by the apostles and that it is referred to in this passage, where he ordered persons to be proved before they exercised the deacon's office. But Estius thinks the apostle, in this direction, required that no one should be made either a bishop or a deacon, till he had given proof both of his steadfastness in the faith, and of his other virtues, during a reasonable space of time after his conversion. The other interpretation, however, agrees better with the subsequent clause, being arezannt', unaccused,
Ver. 11.-1. The women, in like manner, must be grave. In translating Tupaixes, by the word women, I have followed the Vulgate, which bath here, Mulieres similiter puicas, the women in like manner must be modest ; bc. cause I see no reason for its being made a qualification of deacons to have wives vigilant and faithful in all things; especially as it is not made a quali. fication of bishops to have wives of that character. Besides, Chrysostom and the Greek commentators with the most ancient Latin fathers were of opinion, that the apostle, in this passage, is speaking both of those women who in the first age were employed in ministring to the athicted, and of those who were appointed to teach the young of their own sex the principles of religion. As the manners of the Greeks did not permit men to have much intercourse with women of character, unless they were their relations, and as the Asiatics were under still greater restraints, (See Rom. xvi. 1. note 3.) it was proper that an order of female teachers should be instituted in the "church, for instructing the young of their own sex. Of these I think the apostle writes in his epistie to Titus, chap. ii. 3, 4. where he gives an account of their office, and calls them, Il percutidas, Female elders, because of their