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4 That they may teach

4 Iνα σωφρονιζωσι τας the young women to be νεας, φιλανδρους ειναι, φιλοsober, to love their hus

τεκνους, bands, to love their children;

5 To be discreet, chaste, 5 σωφρονας, αγνας, οικουkeepers at home, good, ρους, αγαθας, υποτασσομενας obedient to their own hus.

τους ιδιους ανδρασιν, ίνα μη bands, that the word of

ο λογος του Θεου βλασφηGod be not blasphemed.

μηται. 6 Young men likewise 6 Τους νεωτερους ώσαύτως exhort to be sober-minded. σαρακαλει σωφρονείν.

7 In all things shewing 7 Περι παντα σεαυτον tliyself a pattern of good παρεχομενος τυπον καλων works; in doctrine sheτυ- εργων, εν τη διδασκαλια αing uncorruptness, gravi- διαφθοριαν, σεμνότητα, αφty, sincerity,

θαρσιαν,

were to teach the young under their care, are mentioned ver. 4, 5. See 1 Tim. iii. 11. note 1.

2. In deportment. The word καταστηματι denotes, not only the dress, but the carriage of the body : So is fitly translated, deportment.

3. As becometh sacred persons. The aged women employed by the church to teach the young, are fitly called sacred persons, because the office they were employed to discharge, was a sacred office; as was shewed, 1 Tim. y. 16. note 1.

4. Not slanderers. This was required in the same order of female tea. chers, 1 Tim. ii. 11.

5. Not enslaved much wine. This is a qualification required in the deacons, 1 Tim. iii. 8:

Ver. 4.--1. That they may persuade. So owogovzwoi may be translated. See 2 Tim. i. 7. note 2.

Ver. 5.--1. Careful of their families. The word 01xxpxs, signifies, both those who keep at home, and those who take proper care of their families. In this latter sense I understood it here, with Elsner and the Vulgate.

2. That the word of God may not be evil spoken of. The exhortation to be good wives and mothers, which aged women were ordered, in this passage, to give to the young under their care, is not to be considered merely as a rule by which those are to govern themselves, who are intrusted with the oflice of teaching others; but young women are more especially to consider it as a rule for directing thcir own conduct ; that by their conjugal 4' That they may per- 4 That they may persuade the suade the young women young women under their care, to be to be lovers of their hus- lovers of their husbands, performing bands, lovers of their chil- the duties of marriage from affecdren.

tion, and lovers of their children by

bringing them up religiously. 5 To be calm, chaste, 5 To be of a calm disposition, careful of their families,' chaste, attentive to the affairs of good, subject to their own

their families, good to their domeshusbands, that the word tics, obedient to their own husbands, of God may not be evil that the gospel may not be evil spoken spoken of.

of, as encouraging wives to neglect their husbands and children, on pretence of their attending on the

offices of religion. 6 The young men, in 6 The young men in like manner like manner, exhort (owo- exhort to govern their passions, (ver. govery) to govern their pas- 12. note 3.) that they may behave sions.

soberly in the giddy season of youth. 7 (Reg.) In all things 7 To give weight to thy exhortamake thyself a pattern of tions, In all things make thyself a good works, (Didarrado, pattern of those good works which see 2 Tím. ii. 16.) in thou enjoinest to others. In teachteaching show incorrupt- ing shew incorruptness of doctrine, ness,' gravity, sincerity, gravity of speech, and sincerity

with respect to the motives by which thou art influenced.

affection, their care in educating their children, their chastity, their prudent @conomy, their sweetness of disposition, and subjection to their husbands, all founded on the principles of religion, they may do honour to the gospel, which they profess to believe and obey.

Ver. 7.-1. Shew, aduofoplav, incorruptness, gravity, aq Jagorcey, sincerity. Some ancient MSS. and versions want the word which I have translated sincerity. But it is found in the Alex. MS. in the Arabic version, and in some of the Greek commentators. Mill thinks it was first placed on the margin as an explication of adizo.Joplar, incorruptness, and afterwards was inserted in the text. But though both words come from the same original, being differently compounded they may be distinguished in the following manner. Incorruptness (adsq.fopocv) may signify that Titus's doctrine was to be free from all corrupt mixtures, taken whether from Judaism or from heathenism. Whereas ao Jagjinev, sincerity, may signify that his motives in teaching were to be incorrupt. He was not to teach from the love of money, or fame, or power. VOL. IV.

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8 Sound speech that 8 λογον υγιη ακαταγνωcannot be condemned;

50V,

ένα ο εξ εναντιας εντραthat he that is of the contrary part may be asha- πη, μηδεν εχων σερι εμων

λεγειν φαυλον. med, having no evil thing to say of you.

9 Exhort servants to be 9 Δουλους ιδιους δεσποταις obedient unto their own υποτασσεσθαι, εν σασιν ευmasters, and to please them

αρεςους είναι, μη αντιλεγονwell in all things ; not

τας" answering again; 10 Not purloining, but

10 Μη νοσφιζομενους, αλλα shewing all good fidelity;

ωιςιν σασαν ενδεικνυμενους that they may adorn the doctrine of God our S. αγαθην· ένα την διδασκαλιαν viour in all things.

του σωτηρος ημων Θεου κοσ

μωσιν εν πασιν.
1 For the grace of 11 Επεφανη γαρ

η

χαρις God that bringeth salva

του Θεου η σωτηριος πασιν tion hath appeared to all

ανθρωπους, men,

Ver. 8.–1. Wbolesome speech. igen. Speech strong but temperate, that is free from all bitterness. For, as the commentators observe, Titus who was a converted Gentile, having seen so much of the obstinate, uncharitable, bigotted spirit of the Judaizers, might have been in danger of using harsh language in reproving them, if he had not been thus cautioned by the apostle:

3. He τυho is on the opposite side. Εξ εναντιας, supply χαρας. He means infidels, whether Jews or Gentiles.

3. Having nothing bad to say concerning you. Περι υμων. Some MSS. and versions have here, wigo num concerning us. Either reading shews, as Benson observes, low anxious the apostle was, that the gospel might not be evil spoken of, on account of the misbehaviour either of its teachers, or of its professors, see ver. 10. and 1 Ρet. ii. 12.

Ver. 10.-1. Not secretly stealing. The word νοσφιζομενες signifies the stealing a part of a thing; the thief not daring to take the whole, for fear of being discovered. It is applied to the fraud of Ananias and Saphira, Acts v. 3. who abstracted a part of the price of their land.

Ver.j11.-1. For tbe grace of God. Here, and Gal. v. 4. the gospel is called tbe

grace of God, either because it is the greatest favour which God hath bestowed on men, or because it teaches the doctrine of God's great grace or favour to men.

2. Hath shone forth to all men. The word $7104144 properly signifies the shining of the sun, or of the stars, Acts xxvii. 20. The gospel like the sun hath shone forth to all men, and giveth light to all. Hence Christ, the au

2

8 wholesome speech. 1 8 In conversation, and in reproywhich cannot be condemn- ing offenders, use clear and strong ed ; That he who is on the but temperate speech, which cannot be opposite SIDE may be found fault with, even by the offenashamed, having nothing ders themselves; that he who is not a bad to say concerning you. Christian, may be ashamed of his op

position to thee and to the elders thy assistants, having nothing bad to

say concerning you as teachers. 9 Servants. EXHORT to 9 Slaves exhort to continue subject be subject to their own to their own masters, and in all things masters, and in all things lawful to be careful to please ; espeto be careful to please, not cially by performing their service answering again.

cheerfully ; not insolently answering again, even though they may be reproved unjustly, or with too much

severity. See 1 Pet. ii. 18. 10 Not secretly stealing 1 10 Not secretly stealing any part of but shewing all good fide- their master's goods, but shewing the lity; that they may adorn greatest fidelity and honesty in every the doctrine of God our thing committed to them; that by Saviour in all things. the whole of their behaviour in their

low station, they may render the doctrine of the gospel amiable, even in

the eyes of their heathen lords. Il For the

11 These things I command, BeGod, which bringeth sal- cause the gospel of God which bringeth, vation, (sparn) hath shone both the knowledge and the means forth? to all men,

of salvation, hath shone forth to all men, to Jews and Gentiles, rich and poor, masters and slaves, without distinction.

grace of

thor of the gospel, is called Luke i. 78. Aretoan e' ufos; The day-spring from on higb; and Malach. iv. 2. The sun of righteousness. Hence also Christ called himself, John viii. 12. The light of the world. The shining forth of the gospel to all men, is an high recommendation of it, and shews it to be entirely different from the heathen mysteries, which if they contained any thing valuable for reforming mankind, being confined to the initiated, the vulgar were left in ignorance, idolatry, and vice.-The gospel likewise differs from the law of Moses as taught of the Judaizers, who by inculcating the rites and ceremonies of that law as the whole of religion, encouraged

VUV

12 Teaching us that, 12 παιδευουσα ημας, ένα denying ungodliness and αρνησαμενοι την ασεβειαν και worldly lusts, we should

τας κοσμικας επιθυμιας, σωlive soberly, righteously,

φρονως και δικαιως και ευσεand godly in this present

βως ζησωμεν εν τω world;

αιώνι, , 13 Looking for that 13 προσδεχομενοι την μαblessed hope, and the glo

καριαν

ελπιδα, και επιφαrious appearing of the

νειαν της δοξης του μεγαλου great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;

Θεου και σωτηρος ημων Ιησου
Χριςου

their disciples to neglect the duties of piety and morality altogether. Where. as the gospel teaches us, That denying ungodliness, &c.

Ver. 12.-1. Ungodliness consists, not only in denying the existence of God, but in denying his perfections, his government of the world, and the retributions of a future state. Also, it consists in neglecting to worship God ; in worshipping him by images ; in blasphemy or speaking direspectfully of his providence ; in perjury ; in profaning the name of God by cursing and swearing; and in disregarding the manifestation which he hath made of his will in the gospel revelation.

2. Worldly lusts : Namely gluttony, drunkenness, lasciviousness, anger, malice, revenge, together with the immoderate love of riches, power, fame, and the rest. These lusts being productive of nothing but misery to those who indulge them, the gospel, God's gracious gift, was bestowed on men to rescue them from the dominion of worldly lusts, by teaching them to live soberly, &c.

3. Should live soberly. Iwaporeiv. Sobriety is a habit of self-government, whereby one is able to restrain his appetites, his passions, and his affections, as often as the gratification of his appetites, and the yielding to the impulses of his passions and affections, are in any respect sinful. See 2 Tim. i. 7; note 2.

4. Righteously. Righteousness consists in abstaining from injuring others in their person, reputation or fortune ; in discharging all the duties belonging to the relations in which one stands to those with whom he is connected, and to the station in which he is placed ; in carrying on one's trade and commerce fairly ; in performing covenants and promises faithfully ; and in short in rendering to every one his due.-The Hebrews held it to be a part of righteousness also, to do works of charity to the poor. Psal. crii. 9. He hath dispersed, he hath given to the poor, his righteousness endureth for ever.

5. And godly. Godliness being the opposite to ungodliness, described ver. 12. note 1. needs no explanation.

6. In this present world. Here the apostle insinuates, that the present world in which we live, is a state of probation for the future world: as is plain likewise from ver. 13.

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