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Avas the force of nature, even in those dreary ages of mankind, - wylich still lahoured under the just indignation of Heaven, so impiously provoked by the nefarious theft of Prometheus. But as yet Pandora's fatal box was not entirely emptied of its giftseis yet man's heart was made of flesh and it could feel for, and sympathize in the distresses of mankind-man still recognised with affection the heaven aspiring features of his brother; however changed the lineaments might be, by the heat of a torrid or the cold of a frigid zone-He still perceived that his mind alone, was a subject of that Heavenly spark, of that divine harmony, with which Jupiter had inspired him-still universal freedom and liberty ranged unbounded and unrestrained ; while no man, seeing that the all-bounteous Gods had provided him with so great a variety of animals of brute creation, for his use, for his luxury, and for his pleasure, dared lay his impious hand upon the liberty of his brother ; but as yet the Spaniards had not discovered the West Indies. As yet, the English and Dutch had not found out the Western coasts of Africa, where they afterwards plundered the innocent inhabitants, not only of their precious wealth, Put of their liberty likewise ; depriving them, at once of all their tender endearments of life, and of the blessing and protection of their country and domestick Gods, whom they innocently worshipped in their own rites. As yét, the hateful Furies had not so far prevailed over unhappy man, as to make him (O foulest and broadest blot of human nature !) chain his innocent and unoffending brother, task him, and exact his sweat with stripes, over which Mercy, with a bleeding heart, would weep, if she saw thein inflicted upon a brutish beast! Ah! then what is man? And what man seeing this and possessing human feelings, does not blush and hang his head, on thinking that he himselfis a man? Ah! unhappy-born West Indian planter, who though the decendant of the vilest of the human race, wouldst impiously persuade us, that your brother (at least) equally dear to Apollo, was destined to gratify all your capricious purposes. Ah! if Apollo so loved mankind without exception, as to come down from Heaven and live in disguise among them, and to teach them divine wisdom and to communicate to them his heavenly gifts and to bequeath to his divine prophet (Orpheus) his own divine spirit, commanding him to communicate if to his beloved

If he sharpened his revengeful arrows against the unhappy Cyclopes and destroyed that whole race, who could not be called even a secondary cause of a little uneasiness to his beloved man ?, Ah ! should he ever deign to visit the earth again ; what punishment may they not expect, who have wantonly vioJated his own emphatical law, which commands us under panj

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of his everlasting displeasure, not to do to others what we wouki not wish should be done to us, and even to rejoice in the good fortune of our brother? Oh, unfortunate planter! what a doleful fate awaits you ! when you will find your faith (if you have any) to be the most dreadful enemy drawn up in array against you?

O Glorious Liberty, the delightful object of my heart, whom I prize above all earthly price, yet I rather forego you, with all your bewitching charms, than to rob my brother of his equal right of you; and I much rather be myself the slave and wear the bonds, than fasten them on him.

O Dear sensibility, if you have any tears left to slied over the last disgrace of human nature prepare to shed them now, when you shall fiad, that abominations unheard of (untill these days) are now so common in those ill-fated islands, that a man dignised even with the magistracy, will not blush, while he orders the innocent and helpless victim, of hell-börn suspicion to be mangled with scourging

But I will now turn your sa:l eyes from that melancholy side of the picture, ind chcer them with the pleasing review of the part, where Virtue seems to have taken hev last stund, where Astræa has assuredly taken up her abode, where justice & equity walk hand in hand, where the citizens glory in that equal liberty of body and mind, which, they are willing to impart to all man-kind, where the friendless stranger even under the denomination of slavery, enjoys a certain freedom, where he receives the fut benefit of the laws, which are made in his favour, where the ,-. good and righteous people can with confidence say, we treat those who fall into our innocent hands, as we would wish to be treated ourselves : where they daily cry out, O Heaven born charity, pure source of all true religion, and without which, all must be false! grateful sacrifice of the human heart ! if thou be not that sacred badge, which will distinguish us from the Algerine and West Indian Planter, what will become of us !

CHAP. VIII.

THE AUTHOR'S ADDRESS. TO HIS PUPILS,

In order to render this book as valuable and cheap to the pubilic as possible, the author gives here, in addition to the New Proaiouncing Spelling Book and Concise Expositor, a second part, which comprises the principal rules and directions for reading and speaking, with some lessons in reading; in which he exemplifies the rules for the use of his young readers ; after addressing them - in the following manner ; : by way of commending their docility

and obedience, and of exciting them to continue their remaining studies with unabated application. Young Gentleme?

While I daily witnessed, with anxiety, the fruits less exertions of your ardent minds, and considered your young understandings unavailingly perplexed in the search of knowledge, through the medium of confusion and darkness, and saw you reglected and slighted by all, whose learning and abilities qualified them to assist and forward you, in your laudable pursuit, and to lay a foundation for your future progress in learning; while they were pursuing their favourite and more pleasing stra dies, and employing their superior abilities in the several and Jitrerent subjects of philosophy; and either unwilling to under take so perplexing and cheerless a work; which neither flattered their genius nor promised a recompense adequate to their labors, or looking upon you as insignificant and unworthy of their regard ; as if indeed, any subject could be more worthy to engage the attention and effection of the refined and polished mind, ihan youth and innocence, or that any thing could add rhore to the happiness and felicity of mankind, than tu instruct the rising generations. Dear Gentlemen,

Seeing you thus circumstanced, and impressed as I was, with the consideration of the weighty and important trust, which your parents and guardians, reposed in me, I thought ihat I shouid badly discharge my obligation to them, and should be ungenerous and wanting in that tender affection towards you, which your docility and partial regard to my precepts and injunctions always merited, should I not make use of every means in my power, to facilitate your

studies and promote your advancement in learning. These alone my beloved pupils, were the considcrations, which maduced me to write the first part of this book, and I am now influenced by the same motives, to fill my too scanty paper with instructions in elocution, both for you

and others who inay not have an opportunity of receiving precepts froln other teachers, who give rules for the art of speak iny and reading more at Irge. Dear Young Gentlemen, ,

I have often heard that virtuous ac. tiors schdora go unrewarded, even in this world, and I have now reason to believe it; for what more pleasing and glorious reward could I wish, than the conscious testimony of having laboured for the advantage and improvement of youth, not of the present only, but rising generations ? Whet compliment more soothing tu, my brzust, than the many and learned, approbations which

my exertions have already obtained and which suficiently assure ine, that I have succeeded in pointing out, a short and smooth path for youth, through the gloomy vales of the first elements of learning; through which every one must pass, to whatever height of knowledge he may aspire? I am even now anticipating the more than ample recompence of the labours of a'whole life, when I consider the benefits arising from my slender abilities. But whither am I carried with this pleasing and delightful reverie ! Let us then return to our purpose.

The art of reading and speaking, young gentlemen, is the next olject that presents itself to your consideration, a very inconsiderate knowledge of the former, will be sufficient to enable you to proceed to other studies, but I do not wish that you should by any means rest content with such a knowledge ; as the art of reading and speaking with grace and propriety, has been ever deemed the most pleasing and useful accomplishment of youth ; of which as I know you are sufficiently convinced, it would be to no purpose to say more here

upon the subject ; than that so desirable an accomplishment cannot be too much esteemed and studied by young gentlemen, especially in a free and popular government; where eloquence opens a way to the highest employments and dignities of the state. There is not one ainong you, I am convinced, who does not ardently wish to serve his country in some distinguished capacity or other. But will not the want of elos quence alone, frustrate all your other qualifications? For what is a senator in council, without eloquence? What is a preacher in the pulpit, without eloquence? What is a lawyer at the bar, without eloquence? And of all, what is an officer in the field, at the head of his men, without persuasive and animating eloquence? and upon which alone the safety and liberty of his count try may depend,

In the mean-time, you will commence your studies of history and geography, which may with propriety be called sister sciences; as they are so strictly united, that no great knowledge of the one, can be acquired without that of the other. Indeed, the knowledge of history and geography is so necessary and entertaining, that he who is not enamoured with it, must be void of sentiment in the extreme. History will introduce you to the. acquaintance of ali the great, wise and virtuous from the beginning of time to the present day'; it will point out to you all those eme iently great personages,who flourished in every age of the world, and make them pass, as it were, in review before you,

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appearing in their real and genuine characters ; many of whom during titeir life-time deceived their cotemporaries by being represenfed under salse colors, by their sycophants and poets. It will

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make you acquainted with the rise, declention and fall of all those powerful and popular governments, which have been so conspicuous in the world, and which were reared and supported by learning and military virtue, and brought to slavery and ruin by ignorance, and base voluptuousness.

The history of Greece and Rome, with which that of Carthage is interwoven, will afford you ample matter of surprise and admiration ; when you will behold these renowned states rising from poor and inconsiderate beginnings, subduing and bringing under their dominion, all the known nations of the earth, by their valour and military bravery. When you will see Codrus and Decius devoting themselves as willing victims for the safety of their people. When you will behold the almost unequalled Hannibal, after overrunning all Spain, crossing the Pyrenian mountains into Gaul, through which more than dreadful country, he passed in a few days, in spite of all the combined opposition from nature and from the terrific forces and arms of the fierce inhabitants of the country, and exploring a pass over the frightful Alps, and marching down into the plains of Italy, with his reipaining force, and

threatening destruction even to the mistress of the world ; when you will see this hero immortalizing the banks of Trebia, Thrasmene and Aufidus, by his victorious battles. When you will see the renowned Cipios gaining immortality, one for the overthrowing and reduction of the mighty Carthage ; the other not more for his victories, than for his humanity and moderation. When you will behold Mikiades in the plains of Marathon, with his little army of Athenian patriots opposing and putting to rout, a hundred and twenty thousand men, which composed the great army of Cyrus, and which advanced like a mighty torrent to lay waste the lands. When you will see Leonidas and his three hundred Spartans, for two days, not only disputing the pass of Thermopylæ with Xerxes, but even repulsing his hosts consisting of millions. When you will behold Themistocles at the straits of Salamis, with an inconsiderate force destroying the whole Persian fleet. With what delight will you survey the fields of Platea rendered glorious by the entire overthrow of three hundred thousand fighting men, the remains of that army which Xerxes brought into Greece, of which scarcely one was left to return with the news, But these heroes were freemen and warriors, and taught from their child-hood to abhor slavery as a monster more frightful than death, and to worship liberty as the greatest of Goddesses, and being animated and inflamed with the love of glory by the eloquence of their generals, and by the songs of their poets, were determined not to survive the liberty of their country.

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