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as they shall judge necessary for their informaNo. I.

tion, relating to any of the offices or depart

ments hereinbefore mentioned ; and all bailiffs, CLAUSES OF MR. Pitt's BILL.

constables, sheriffs, and other his majesty's of

ficers, are hereby required to obey and execute Referred to from


such orders and precepts aforesaid, as shall be

sent to them or any of them by the said commisAppointing Commissioners to enquire into the fees, sioners, or any two of them, touching the premises.

gratuities, perquisites, emoluments, which are,
or have been lately, received in the several pub-
lick offices therein mentioned ; to examine into
any abuses which

exist in the same, &c.

No. II.

And be it further enacted, that it shall and may

Referred to from p. 320. be lawful to and for the said commissioners, or any two of them, and they are hereby impower

NABOB OP ARCOT'S DEBTS. ed, authorized, and required, to examine upon oath (which oath they, or any two of them, are Mr. George Smith being asked, Whether the hereby authorized to administer) the several per- debts of the nabob of Arcot have encreased since sons, of all descriptions, belonging to any of the he knew Madras ? he said, Yes, they have. He offices or departments before mentioned, and all distinguishes his debts into two sorts; those conother persons whom the said commissioners, or tracted before the year 1766, and those contracted any two of them, shall think fit to examine, from that year to the year in which he left touching the business of each office or department, Madras.-Being asked, What he thinks is the oriand the fees, gratuities, perquisites, and emolu-ginal amount of the old debts ? he said, Between ments taken therein, and touching all other mat-twenty-three and twenty-four lacks of pagodas, as ters and things necessary for the execution of the well as he can recollect.-Being asked, What was powers vested in the said commissioners by this the amount of that debt when he left Madras ? he act; all which persons are hereby required and said, Between four and five lacks of pagodas, as directed punctually to attend the said commission- he understood. Being asked, What was the ers, at such time and place as they, or any two amount of the new debt when he left Madras ? of them, shall appoint, and also to observe and he said, In November, 1777, that debt amounted, execute such orders and directions as the said according to the nabob's own account, and pubcommissioners, or any two of them, shall make or lished at Chipauk, his place of residence, to sixty give for the purposes before mentioned.

lacks of pagodas, independent of the old debt, And be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, on which debt of sixty lacks of pagodas, the nathat the said commissioners, or any two of them, bob did agree to pay an interest of 12 per cent. shall be, and are, hereby impowered to examine per annum.-Being asked, Whether this debt was into any corrupt and fraudulent practices, or other approved of by the court of directors ? he said, misconduct, committed by any person or persons He does not know it was.--Being asked, Whether concerned in the management of any of the offices the old debt was recognized by the court of direcor departments hereinbefore mentioned ; and, for tors ? he said, Yes, it has been : and the court of the better execution of this present act, the said directors have sent out repeated orders to the precommissioners, or any two of them, are hereby au- sident and council of Madras, to enforce its recothorized to meet and sit, from time to time, in very and payment.—Being asked, If the interest such place or places as they shall find most con- upon the new debt is punctually paid ? he said, It venient, with or without adjournment, and to was not during his residence at Madras, from 1777 send their precept or precepts, under their hands to 1779, in which period he thinks no more than and seals, for any person or persons whatsoever, 5 per cent. interest was paid, in different diviand for such books, papers, writings, or records, dends of 2 and 1 per cent.-Being asked, What is the usual course taken by the nabob concern- or tankah on the country of Tanjore, payable in ing the arrears of interest ? he said, Not having six months, without interest. — Being asked, ever lent him monies himself, he cannot fully Whether, at the time he asked the nabob his price answer as to the mode of settling the interest with for the pearls, the nabob beat down that price, as him.

dealers commonly do? he said, No; so far from Being asked, Whether he has reason to believe it, he offered him more than he asked by 1,000 the sixty lacks of pagodas was all principal money pagodas, and which he rejected. Being asked, really and truly advanced to the nabob of Arcot, Whether in settling a transaction of discount with or a fictitious capital, made up of obligations given the nabob's agent, he was not offered a greater by him, where no money or goods were received, discount than 121. per cent. ? he said, In discountor which was encreased by the uniting into it a ing a soucar's bill for 180,000 pagodas, the nabob's greater interest than the 12 per cent. expressed to agent did offer him a discount of 24 per cent. per be due on the capital ? he said, He has no reason annum, saying, that it was the usual rate of disto believe that the sum of sixty lacks of pagodas count paid by the nabob; but which he would was lent in money or goods to the nabob, because not accept of, thinking himself confined by the that sum he thinks is of more value than all the act of parliament limiting the interest of monies money, goods, and chattels in the settlement; but to 12 per cent, and accordingly he discounted the he does not know in what mode or manner this bill at 12 per cent. per annum only.-Being asked, debt of the nabob's was incurred or accumulated. Whether he does not think those offers were made

— Being asked, Whether it was not a general and him, because the nabob thought he was a person well-grounded opinion at Madras, that a great part of some consequence in the settlement ? he said, of this sum was accumulated by obligations, and Being only a private merchant, he apprehends was for services performed or to be performed that the offer was made to him more from its for the nabob ? he said, He has heard that a part being a general practice, than from any opinion of this debt was given for the purposes mentioned of his importance. in the above question, but he does not know that it was so.-Being asked, Whether it was the general opinion of the settlement ? he said, He cannot say that it was the general opinion, but it was

No. III. the opinion of a considerable part of the settlement.-- Being asked, Whether it was the declared

Referred to from p. 325. opinion of those that were concerned in the debt, or those that were not ? he said, It was the opinion A Bill for the better government of the territoof both parties, at least such of them as he con- rial possessions and dependencies in India. versed with.-Being asked, Whether he has reason to believe that the interest really paid by the [One of Mr. Fox's India Bills.] nabob, upon obligations given, or money lent, did not frequently exceed 12 per cent ? he said, Prior And be it further enacted by the authority to the first of August, 1774, he had had reason to aforesaid, that the nabob of Arcot, the rajah of believe, that a higher interest than 12 per cent. Tanjore, or any other native protected prince in was paid by the nabob on monies lent to him ; India, shall not assign, mortgage, or pledge any but from and after that period, when the last act territory or land whatsoever, or the produce or of parliament took place in India, he does not revenue thereof, to any British subject whatsoever; know that more than 12 per cent. had been paid neither shall it be lawful to and for any

British subby the nabob, or received from him.-Being ject whatsoever to take or receive any such assignasked, Whether it is not his opinion, that the ment, mortgage, or pledge; and the same are nabob has paid more than 12 per cent. for money hereby declared to be null and void ; and all paydue since the 1st of August 1774 ? he said, He has ments or deliveries of produce or revenue, under heard that he has, but he does not know it.- any such assignment, shall and may be recovered Being asked, Whether he has been told so by any back by such native prince paying or delivering considerable and weighty authority, that was likely the same, from the person or persons receiving the to know; he said, He has been so informed by same, or his or their representatives. persons who he believes had a very good opportunity of knowing it.-Being asked, Whether he was ever told so by the nabob of Arcot himself? he said, He does not recollect that the nabob of Arcot

No. IV. directly told bim so, but, from what he said, he did infer that he paid a higher interest than 12 Referred to from p. 332 and p. 333. per cent. Mr. Smith being asked, Whether, in the course

(COPY.) of trade, he ever sold any thing to the nabob of

27th May, 1782. Arcot ? he said, In the year 1775 he did sell to the nabob of Arcot pearls to the amount of 32,500 Letter from the Committee of assigned Revenue, pagodas, for which the nabob gave him an order to the President and Select Committee, dated

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27th May, 1782; with comparative statement, countries. Their prospect of relief from the heavy and minute thereon.

burthens of the war was indeed but little advanced

by the nabob's concession; and the revenues of To the Right Honourable Lord MACARTNEY, K. B. the Carnatick seemed in danger of being irrecover

President, and Governour, &c. Select Commit-ably lost, unless a speedy and entire change of tee of Fort St. George.

system could be adopted.

On our minutes of the 21st January, we treated My Lord, and Gentlemen,

the subject of the assignment at some length, and

pointed out the mischiefs which, in addition to ALTHOUGH we have, in obedience to your the effects of the war, had arisen from what we commands of the 5th January, regularly laid be-conceived to be wrong and oppressive managefore you our proceedings at large, and have oc- ment.- We used the freedom to suggest an entire casionally addressed you upon such points as alteration in the mode of realizing the revenues. required your resolutions or orders for our guid- We proposed a considerable and immediate reance, we still think it necessary to collect and duction of expences, and a total change of the digest, in a summary report, those transactions in principal aumildars who had been employed under the management of the assigned revenue, which the nabob. have principally engaged our attention, and which, Our ideas had the good fortune to receive your upon the proceeding, are too much intermixed approbation; but the removal of the nabob's serwith ordinary occurrences to be readily traced vants being thought improper at that particular and understood.

period of the collections, we employed our attenSuch a report may be formed with the greater tion chiefly in preserving what revenue was left propriety at this time, when your lordship, &c. the country, and acquiring such materials as might have been pleased to conclude your arrangements lead to a more perfect knowledge of its foriner for the rent of several of the nabob's districts. and present state. Our aim in it is briefly to explain the state of the These pursuits, as we apprehended, met with Carnatick at the period of the nabob's assignment; great obstructions from the conduct of the nathe particular causes which existed, to the preju- bob's servants. The orders they received were dice of that assignment, after it was made; and evaded under various pretexts; no attention was the measures which your lordship, &c. have, upon paid to the strong and repeated applications made our recommendation, adopted for removing those to them for the accounts of their management; causes, and introducing a more regular and bene- and their attachment to the company's interest ficial system of management in the country. appeared, in every instance, so feeble, that we saw

Hyder Ally having entered the Carnatick with no prospect whatever of success, but in the aphis whole force, about the middle of July, 1780, pointment of renters under the company's sole and employed fire and sword in its destruction for authority. nearly eighteen months before the nabob's assign- Upon this principle we judged it expedient to ment took place, it will not be difficult to con- recommend, that such of the nabob's districts as ceive the state of the country at that period. In were in a state to be farmed out might be imthose provinces which were fully exposed to the mediately let by a publick advertisement, issued ravages of horse, scarcely a vestige remained either in the company's name, and circulated through of population or agriculture : such of the miserable every province of the Carnatick; and, with the inhabitants as escaped the fury of the sword were view of encouraging bidders, we proposed, that either carried into the Mysore country, or left to the countries might be advertised for the whole struggle under the horrours of famine. The Ar- period of the nabob's assignment, and the secucot and Trichinopoly districts began early to feel rity of the company's protection promised, in the the effects of this desolating war. Tinnevelly, fullest manner, to such persons as might become Madura, and Ramnadaporum, though little infest- renters. ed with Hyder's troops, became a prey to the in- This plan had the desired effect; and the atcursions of the Polygars, who stript them of the tempts which were secretly made to counteract it, greatest part of the revenues; Ongole, Nellore, afforded an unequivocal proof of its necessity : and Palnaud, the only remaining districts, had but the advantages resulting from it were more suffered but in a small degree.

pleasingly evinced, by the number of proposals The misfortunes of war, however, were not the that were delivered, and by the terms which were only evils which the Carnatick experienced. The in general offered for the districts intended to be nabob's aumildars, and other servants, appear to farmed out. have taken advantage of the general confusion to Having so far attained the


of the asenrich themselves. A very small part of the reve- signment, our attention was next turned to the nue was accounted for; and so high were the or- heavy expences entailed upon the different prodinary expences of every district, that double the vinces ; and here, we confess, our astonishment apparent produce of the whole country would not was raised to the highest pitch. In the Trichihave satisfied them.

nopoly country, the standing disbursements apIn this state, which we believe is no way exag-peared, by the nabob's own accounts, to be one gerated, the company took charge of the assigned lack of rupees more than the receipts. In other

districts, the charges were not in so high a pro- titude for every species of fraud and oppression. portion, but still rated on a most extravagant Such a system has, in the few latter years of the scale; and we saw, by every account that was nabob's necessities, brought all his countries into brought before us, the absolute necessity of re- that situation, from which nothing but the most trenching considerably in all the articles of ex- rigid economy, strict observance of the conduct pence.

of managers, and the most conciliating attention Our own reason, aided by such enquiries as we to the rights of the inhabitants, can possibly rewere able to make, suggested the alterations we cover them. have recommended to your lordship, &c. under It now only remains for us to lay before your this head. You will observe, that we have not lordship, &c. the inclosed statement of the sums acted sparingly; but we chose rather, in cases of at which the districts lately advertised have been doubt, to incur the hazard of retrenching too let, compared with the accounts of their produce much, than too little; because it would be easier, delivered by the nabob, and entered on our proafter any stated allowance for expences, to add ceedings of the 21st January. Likewise a comwhat might be necessary, than to diminish. We parative view of the former and present expences. hope, however, there will be no material encrease The nabob's accounts of the produce of these in the articles as they now stand.

districts state, as we have some reason to think, One considerable charge upon the nabob's the sums which former renters engaged to pay country was for extraordinary sibbendies, sepoys, to him, (and which were seldom, if ever, made and horsemen, who appeared to us to be a very good,) and not the sums actually produced by the unnecessary incumbrance on the revenue. Your districts; yet we have the satisfaction to observe, lordship, &c. have determined to receive such of that the present aggregate rents, upon an average, these people as will inlist into the company's ser- are equal to those accounts. Your lordship, &c. vice, and discharge the rest. This measure will cannot indeed expect, that, in the midst of the not only relieve the country of a heavy burthen, danger, invasion, and distress, which assail the but tend greatly to fix in the company that kind Carnatick on every side, the renters now apof authority, which is requisite for the due collec- pointed will be able at present to fulfil the terms tion of the revenues.

of their leases; but we trust, from the measures In consequence of your determination respect. we have taken, that very little, if any, of the acing the nabob's sepoys, &c. every charge under tual collections will be lost, even during the war; that head has been struck out of our account of and that on the return of peace and tranquillity, expences. If the whole number of these people the renters will have it in their power fully to perbe enlisted by the company, there will probably form their respective agreements. be no more than sufficient to complete their ordi- We much regret that the situation of the Arcot nary military establishment. But should the pre- province will not admit of the same settlement sent reduction of the nabob's artillery render it which has been made for the other districts : but expedient, after the war, to make any addition to the enemy being in possession of the capital, togethe company's establishment, for the purposes of ther with several other strong holds, and having the assigned countries, the expence of such addi- entirely desolated the country, there is little room tion, whatever it be, must be deducted from the to hope for more from it than a bare subsistence present account of savings.

to the few garrisons we have left there. In considering the charges of the several dis- We shall not fail to give our attention towards tricts, in order to establish better regulations, we obtaining every information respecting this prowere careful to discriminate those incurred for vince that the present times will permit, and to troops kept, or supposed to be kept, up for the take the first opportunity to propose such ardefence of the country, from those of the sibbendy, rangements for the management as we may

think servants, &c. for the cultivation of the lands, and eligible. the collection of the revenues, as well as to pay

We have the honour to be, attention to such of the established customs of the country, ancient privileges of the inhabitants, and

Your most obedient, publick charities, as were necessarily allowed, and

Humble servants, appeared proper to be continued; but which, under the nabob's government, were not only

Charles Oakley, rated much higher, but had been blended under

Eyles Irwin, one confused and almost unintelligible title of

Hall Plumer,

David Haliburton, expences of the districts ; so joined, perhaps, to Fort St. George, afford pleas and means of secreting and appropri- 27th May, 1782.

George Moubray. ating great part of the revenues to other purposes

A true copy, than fairly appeared ; and certainly betrayed the

J. Hudleston, Sec. utmost neglect and mismanagement, as giving la


COMPARATIVE STATEMENT of the Revenues and Expences of Nellore, Ongole, Patnaud, Trichinopoly, Madura, and Tennevelly Countries, while

in the Hands of the Nabob, with those of the same Countries on the Terms of the Leases lately granted for Four Years to commence with the beginning of the Phazeley 1192, or the 12th July, 1782. Abstracted from the Accounts received from the Nabob, and from the Rents stipulated for, and Expences allowed by the present Leases.

Nellore and Sevapully

N. B. In this statement, Madras Pagodas are calculated at 10 per cent. Batta, Chuckrums at 2-3ds. of a Porto Novo Pagoda, which are reckoned at 115 per 100 Star Pagodas, and Rupees at 350 per 100 Star Pagodas. To avoid fractions, the nearest internal numbers have been taken.

(a) In this statement, the Ongole country, though it is included under the head of gross revenue, has been let for a certain sum, exclusive of charges. If the expences specified in the nabob's vassool accounts for this district are added, the present gross revenue even would appear to exceed the nabob's-and as the country is only let for one year, there may hereafter be an encrease of its revenue.

(6) The Trichinopoly countries let for the above sum, exclusive of the expences of Şibbendy and Saderwared, amounting by the nabob's accounts to rupees 1,30,00 per annum, which are to be defrayed by the renter.–And the jaghires of Amur ul Omrah, and the Begum, are not included in the present lease.


Charles Oakley,
Eyles Irwin,
Hall Plumer,
David Haliburton,
George Moubray.

Fort St. George, 27th May, 1782.

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