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stupid a contrivance, in point of wisdom, as well effectually exposed, than by demonstrating that as so perfectly detestable for its wickedness, that I they lead to consequences directly inconsistent must always consider the correctives, which might with and subversive of the arrangements grounded make it in any degree practicable, to be so many upon them? If this kind of demonstration is not new objections to it.

permitted, the process of reasoning called deductio In that wretched state of things, some are afraid ad absurdum which even the severity of geometry that the authors of your miseries may be led to does not reject, could not be employed at all in precipitate their further designs, by the hints they legislative discussions. One of our strongest weamay receive from the very arguments used to pons against folly acting with authority would be expose the absurdity of their system, to mark the lost. incongruity of its parts, and its inconsistency with You know, Sir, that even the virtuous efforts of their own principles; and that your masters may your patriots to prevent the ruin of your country be led to render their schemes more consistent, by have had this very turn given to them. It has rendering them more mischievous. Excuse the been said here, and in France too, that the reignliberty which your indulgence authorizes me to ing usurpers would not have carried their tyranny take, when I observe to you, that such apprehen- to such destructive lengths, if they had not been sions as these would prevent all exertion of our stimulated and provoked to it by the acrimony of faculties in this great cause of mankind.

your opposition. There is a dilemma to which A rash recourse to force is not to be justified in every opposition to successful iniquity must, in the a state of real weakness. Such attempts bring on nature of things, be liable. If

you disgrace; and, in their failure, discountenance and are considered as an accomplice in the measures discourage more rational endeavours. But reason in which you silently acquiesce. If you resist, you is to be hazarded, though it may be perverted by are accused of provoking irritable power to new craft and sophistry; for reason can suffer no loss

The conduct of a losing party never nor shame, nor can it impede any useful plan of appears right: at least it never can possess the future policy. In the unavoidable uncertainty, as only infallible criterion of wisdom to vulgar judgto the effect, which attends on every measure of

ments—success. human prudence, nothing seems a surer antidote The indulgence of a sort of undefined hope, an to the poison of fraud than its detection. It is obscure confidence, that some lurking remains of true the fraud may be swallowed after this dis- virtue, some degree of shame, might exist in the covery; and perhaps even swallowed the more breasts of the oppressors of France, has been among greedily for being a detected fraud. Men some- the causes which have helped to bring on the comtimes make a point of honour not to be disabused; mon ruin of king and people. There is no safety and they had rather fall into an hundred errours for honest men, but by believing all possible evil than confess one. But after all,—when neither of evil men, and by acting with promptitude, deour principles nor our dispositions, nor, perhaps, cision, and steadiness on that belief. I well reour talents, enable us to encounter delusion with member at every epocha of this wonderful history, delusion, we must use our best reason to those that in every scene of this tragick business, that when ought to be reasonable creatures, and to take our your sophistick usurpers were laying down mischance for the event. We cannot act on these chievous principles, and even applying them in anomalies in the minds of men. I do not con- direct resolutions, it was the fashion to say, that ceive that the persons who have contrived these they never intended to execute those declarations things can be made much the better or the worse in their rigour. This made men careless in their for any thing which can be said to them. They opposition, and remiss in early precaution. By are reason proof. Here and there, some men, who holding out this fallacious hope, the impostors were at first carried away by wild, good intentions, deluded sometimes one description of men, and may be led, when their first fervours are abated, sometimes another, so that no means of resistance to join in a sober survey of the schemes into which were provided against them, when they came to they had been deluded. To those only (and I am execute in cruelty what they had planned in fraud. sorry to say they are not likely to make a large

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cases in which a man would be description) we apply with any hope. I may speak ashamed not to have been imposed on. There is it upon an assurance almost approaching to abso- a confidence necessary to human intercourse, and lute knowledge, that nothing has been done that has without which men are often more injured by not been contrived from the beginning, even before their own suspicions than they would be by the the states had assembled. Nulla nova mihi res perfidy of others. · But when men whom we know inopinave surgit. They are the same men and the to be wicked impose upon us, we are something same designs that they were from the first, though worse than dupes. When we know them, their varied in their appearance. It was the very same fair pretences become new motives for distrust. animal that at first crawled about in the shape of There is one case indeed, in which it would be a caterpillar, that you now see rise into the air, madness not to give the fullest credit to the most and expand his wings to the sun.

deceitful of men, that is, when they make declaProceeding, therefore, as we are obliged to pro- rations of hostility against us. ceed, that is, upon an hypothesis that we address I find that some persons entertain other hopes, rational men, can false political principles be more which I confess appear more specious than those by which at first so many were deluded and dis-councils and desperate measures. The people of armed. They flatter themselves that the extreme France, almost generally, have been taught to look misery brought upon the people by their folly will for other resources than those which can be deat last open the eyes of the multitude, if not of rived from order, frugality, and industry. They their leaders. Much the contrary, I fear. As to are generally armed ; and they are made to expect the leaders in this system of imposture,—you much from the use of arms. Nihil non arrogant know, that cheats and deceivers never can repent. armis. Besides this, the retrograde order of soThe fraudulent have no resource but in fraud. ciety has something flattering to the dispositions They have no other goods in their magazine. of mankind. The life of adventurers, gamesters, They have no virtue or wisdom in their minds, to gipsies, beggars, and robbers is not unpleasant. which, in a disappointment concerning the profit-It requires restraint to keep men from falling into able effects of fraud and cunning, they can retreat. that habit. The shifting tides of fear and hope, The wearing out of an old serves only to put the flight and pursuit, the peril and escape, the them upon the invention of a new delusion. Un alternate famine and feasts of the savage and the luckily too, the credulity of dupes is as inex- thief, after a time, render all course of slow, steady, haustible as the invention of knaves. They never progressive, unvaried occupation, and the prosgive people possession; but they always keep them pect only of a limited mediocrity at the end of in hope. Your state doctors do not so much as long labour, to the last degree tame, languid, and pretend that any good whatsoever has hitherto insipid. Those who have been once intoxicated been derived from their operations, or that the with power, and have derived any kind of emolupublick has prospered in any one instance, under ment from it, even though but for one year, never their management. The nation is sick, very sick, can willingly abandon it. They may be distressed by their medicines. But the charlatan tells them in the midst of all their power ; but they will that what is passed cannot be helped ;—they have never look to any thing but power for their relief. taken the draught, and they must wait its opera-When did distress ever oblige a prince to abdicate tion with patience ;—that the first effects indeed his authority? And what effect will it have upon are unpleasant, but that the very sickness is a those who are made to believe themselves a people proof that the dose is of no sluggish operation ;- of princes ? that sickness is inevitable in all constitutional re- The more active and stirring part of the lower volutions ;—that the body must pass through pain orders having got government, and the distribution to ease ;—that the prescriber is not an empirick of plunder into their hands, they will use its rewho proceeds by vulgar experience, but one who sources in each municipality to form a body of grounds this practice sure rules of art, adherents. These rulers, and their adherents, will which cannot possibly fail. You have read, Sir, be strong enough to overpower the discontents of the last manifesto, or mountebank's bill, of the those who have not been able to assert their share National Assembly. You see their presumption of the spoil. The unfortunate adventurers in the in their promises is not lessened by all their failures cheating lottery of plunder will probably be the in the performance. Compare this last address of least sagacious, or the most inactive and irresolute, the Assembly and the present state of your affairs of the gang. If, on disappointment, they should with the early engagements of that body; engage- dare to stir, they will soon be suppressed as rebels ments which, not content with declaring, they and mutineers by their brother rebels. Scantily solemnly deposed upon oath ; swearing lustily, fed for a while with the offal of plunder, they that if they were supported they would make their will drop off by degrees; they will be driven country glorious and happy; and then judge out of sight and out of thought ; and they will whether those who can write such things, or those be left to perish obscurely, like rats, in holes and who can bear to read them, are of themselves to be brought to any reasonable course of thought or From the forced repentance of invalid mutiaction.

neers and disbanded thieves, you can hope for no As to the people at large, when once these mi

Government itself, which ought to conserable sheep have broken the fold, and have got strain the more bold and dextrous of these robthemselves loose, not from the restraint, but from bers, is their accomplice. Its arms, its treasures, the protection, of all the principles of natural au- its all are in their hands. Judicature, which above thority and legitimate subordination, they become all things should awe them, is their creature and the natural prey of impostors. When they have their instrument. Nothing seems to me to render once tasted of the flattery of knaves, they can your internal situation more desperate than this no longer endure reason, which appears to them one circumstance of the state of your judicature. only in the form of censure and reproach. Great Many days are not passed since we have seen a distress has never hitherto taught, and whilst the set of men brought forth by your rulers for a most world lasts it never will teach, wise lessons to any critical function. Your rulers brought forth a set part of mankind. Men are as much blinded by of men, steaming from the sweat and drudgery, the extremes of misery as by the extremes of pros- and all black with the smoke and soot, of the forge perity. Desperate situations produce desperate of confiscation and robbery-ardentis massa fuli

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It is said in the last guackish address of the National As- arrangements upon vulgar practice; but on a theory which can sembly to the people of France, that they have not formed their not fail; or something to that effect.

resource.

gine lippos, a set of men brought forth from the things in which your philosophick usurpers choose trade of hammering arms of proof, offensive and to follow Cromwell. defensive, in aid of the enterprises, and for the One would think, that after an honest and subsequent protection, of housebreakers, mur- necessary revolution (if they had a mind that derers, traitors, and malefactors ; men, who had theirs should pass for such) your masters would their minds seasoned with theories perfectly con- have imitated the virtuous policy of those who formable to their practice, and who had always have been at the head of revolutions of that glolaughed at possession and prescription, and defied rious character. Burnet tells us, that nothing all the fundamental maxims of jurisprudence. To tended to reconcile the English nation to the gothe horrour and stupefaction of all the honest part vernment of King William so much as the care he of this nation, and indeed of all nations who are took to fill the vacant bishopricks with men who spectators, we have seen, on the credit of those had attracted the public esteem by their learning, very practices and principles, and to carry them eloquence, and piety, and, above all, by their further into effect, these very men placed on the known moderation in the state. With you, in sacred seat of justice in the capital city of your your purifying revolution, whom have you cholate kingdom. We see that in future you are to sen to regulate the church ? Mr. Mirabeau is a be destroyed with more form and regularity. This fine speaker-and a fine writer,--and a fine-a is not peace; it is only the introduction of a sort very fine man;—but really nothing gave more of discipline in their hostility. Their tyranny is surprise to every body here, than to find him the complete in their justice ; and their lanterne is supreme head of your ecclesiastical affairs. The not half so dreadful as their court.

rest is of course. Your Assembly addresses a One would think that out of common decency manifesto to France, in which they tell the people, they would have given you men who had not been with an insulting irony, that they have brought in the habit of trampling upon law and justice in the church to its primitive condition. In one rethe Assembly, neutral men, or men apparently spect their declaration is undoubtedly true; for neutral, for judges, who are to dispose of your they have brought it to a state of poverty and lives and fortunes.

persecution. What can be hoped for after this? Cromwell, when he attempted to legalize his Have not men, (if they deserve the name,) under power, and to settle his conquered country in a this new hope and head of the church, been made state of order, did not look for dispensers of jus bishops for no other merit than having acted as tice in the instruments of his usurpation. Quite instruments of atheists; for no other merit than the contrary. He sought out, with great solicitude having thrown the children's bread to dogs ; and and selection, and even from the party most op- in order to gorge the whole gang of usurers, pedposite to his designs, men of weight and decorum lars, and itinerant Jew-discounters at the corners of character; men unstained with the violence of of streets, starved the poor of their Christian the times, and with hands not fouled with confis-flocks, and their own brother pastors? Have not cation and sacrilege: for he chose an Hale for his such men been made bishops to administer in chief justice, though he absolutely refused to take temples, in which (if the patriotick donations have his civick oaths, or to make any acknowledgment not already stripped them of their vessels) the whatsoever of the legality of his government. churchwardens ought to take security for the alCromwell told this great lawyer, that since he did tar plate, and not so much as to trust the chalice not approve his title, all he required of him was, in their sacrilegious hands, so long as Jews have to administer, in a manner agreeable to his pure assignats on ecclesiastick plunder, to exchange for sentiments and unspotted character, that justice the silver stolen from churches ? without which human society cannot subsist : that I am told, that the very sons of such Jew-jobbers it was not his particular government, but civil have been made bishops; persons not to be susorder itself, which, as a judge, he wished him to pected of any sort of Christian superstition, fit colsupport. Cromwell knew how to separate the insti- leagues to the holy prelate of Autun, and bred tutions expedient to his usurpation from the ad-at the feet of that Gamaliel. We know who it ministration of the publick justice of his country. was that drove the money-changers out of the For Cromwell was a man in whom ambition had temple. We see too who it is that brings them not wholly suppressed, but only suspended, the in again. We have in London very respectable sentiments of religion, and the love (as far as it persons of the Jewish nation, whom we will keep; could consist with his designs) of fair and honour- but we have of the same tribe others of a very able reputation. Accordingly, we are indebted different description,-housebreakers, and receivto this act of his for the preservation of our laws, ers of stolen goods, and forgers of paper currency, which some senseless assertors of the rights of men more than we can conveniently hang. These we were then on the point of entirely erasing, as can spare to France, to fill the new episcopal relicks of feudality and barb sm. Besides, he thrones; men well versed in swearing; and who gave in the appointment of that man, to that age, will scruple no oath which the fertile genius of and to all posterity, the most brilliant example of any of your reformers can devise. sincere and fervent piety, exact justice, and pro- În matters so ridiculous, it is hard to be grave. found jurisprudence. But these are not the On a view of their consequences, it is almost

• See Burnet's Life of Hale.

What mercy

inhuman to treat them lightly. To what a state | They may be tolerably safe at present, because of savage, stupid, servile insensibility must your the comparative power of France for the present people be reduced, who can endure such proceed is little. But times and occasions make dangers. ings in their church, their state, and their judica- Intestine troubles may rise in other countries. ture, even for a moment! But the deluded people There is a power always on the watch, qualified of France are like other madmen, who, to a mi- and disposed to profit of every conjuncture, to racle, bear hunger, and thirst, and cold, and con- establish its own principles and modes of mischief, finement, and the chains and lash of their keeper, wherever it can hope for success. whilst all the while they support themselves by the would these usurpers have on other sovereigns, imagination that they are generals of armies, pro- and on other nations, when they treat their own phets, kings, and emperours. As to a change of king with such unparalleled indignities, and so mind in these men, who consider infamy as ho- cruelly oppress their own countrymen ? nour, degradation as preferment, bondage to low The king of Prussia, in concurrence with us, tyrants as liberty, and the practical scorn and con- nobly interfered to save Holland from confusion. tumely of their upstart masters as marks of respect | The same power, joined with the rescued Holland and homage, I look upon it as absolutely imprac- and with Great Britain, has put the emperour in ticable. These madmen, to be cured, must first, the possession of the Netherlands; and secured, like other madmen, be subdued. The sound part under that prince, from all arbitrary innovation, of the community, which I believe to be large, the ancient, hereditary constitution of those probut by no means the largest part, has been taken vinces. The chamber of Wetzlar has restored the by surprise, and is disjointed, terrified, and dis-bishop of Liege, unjustly dispossessed by the rearmed. That sound part of the community must bellion of his subjects. The king of Prussia was first be put into a better condition, before it can bound by no treaty, nor alliance of blood, nor had do any thing in the way of deliberation or per- any particular reasons for thinking the emperour's suasion... This must be an act of power, as well government would be more mischievous or more as of wisdom; of power, in the hands of firm, oppressive to human nature than that of the Turk: determined patriots, who can distinguish the misled yet on mere motives of policy that prince has infrom traitors, who will regulate the state (if such terposed with the threat of all his force, to snatch should be their fortune) with a discriminating, even the Turk from the pounces of the imperial manly, and provident mercy; men who are purged eagle. If this is done in favour of a barbarous of the surfeit and indigestion of systems, if ever nation, with a barbarous neglect of police, fatal to they have been admitted into the habit of their the human race, in favour of a nation, by prinminds; men who will lay the foundation of a real ciple in eternal enmity with the christian name; reform, in effacing every vestige of that philosophy a nation which will not so much as give the saluwhich pretends to have made discoveries in the tation of peace (Salam) to any of us; nor make terra australis of morality; men who will fix the any pact with any christian nation beyond a truce ; state upon these bases of morals and politicks, if this be done in favour of the Turk, shall it which are our old, and immemorial, and, I hope, be thought either impolitick, or unjust, or unchawill be our eternal, possession.

ritable, to employ the same power to rescue from This power, to such men, must come from captivity a virtuous monarch (by the courtesy of without. It may be given to you in pity; for Europe considered as Most Christian) who, after surely no nation ever called so pathetically on the an intermission of one hundred and seventy-five compassion of all its neighbours. It may be given years, had called together the states of his kingby those neighbours on motives of safety to them- dom to reform abuses, to establish a free governselves. Never shall I think any country in Europe ment, and to strengthen his throne; a monarch, to be secure, whilst there is established, in the very who at the very outset, without force, even withcentre of it, a state (if so it may be called) found out solicitation, had given to his people such a ed on principles of anarchy, and which is, in Magna Charta of privileges as never was given reality, a college of armed fanaticks, for the pro- by any king to any subjects ?—Is it to be tamely pagation of the principles of assassination, robbery, borne by kings who love their subjects, or by subrebellion, fraud, faction, oppression, and impiety. jects who love their kings, that this monarch, in Mahomet, hid, as for a time he was, in the bottom the midst of these gracious acts, was insolently and of the sands of Arabia, had his spirit and character cruelly torn from his palace by a gang of traitors been discovered, would have been an object of and assassins, and kept in close prison to this very precaution to provident minds. What if he had hour, whilst his royal name and sacred character erected his fanatick standard for the destruction were used for the total ruin of those whom the of the christian religion in luce Asiæ, in the midst laws had appointed him to protect ? of the then noon-day splendour of the then The only offence of this unhappy monarch civilized world ?. The princes of Europe, in the towards his people was his attempt, under a mobeginning of this century, did well not to suffer narchy, to give them a free constitution. For this, the monarchy of France to swallow up the others. by an example hitherto unheard-of in the world, They ought not now, in my opinion, to suffer all he has been deposed. It might well disgrace sovethe monarchies and commonwealths to be swal- reigns to take part with a deposed tyrant. It lowed up in the gulph of this polluted anarchy. would suppose in them a vicious sympathy. But

race.

not to make a common cause with a just prince, tion of a design which they have long since enterdethroned by traitors and rebels, who proscribe, tained. In spite of their solemn declarations, their plunder, confiscate, and in every way cruelly op- soothing addresses, and the multiplied oaths which press their fellow-citizens, in my opinion is to they have taken and forced others to take, they forget what is due to the honour and to the rights will assassinate the king when his name will no of all virtuous and legal government.

longer be necessary to their designs; but not a I think the king of France to be as much an moment sooner. They will probably first assasobject both of policy and compassion as the Grand sinate the queen, whenever the renewed menace Seignior or his states. I do not conceive that the of such an assassination loses its effect upon the total annihilation of France (if that could be anxious mind of an affectionate husband. At preeffected) is a desirable thing to Europe; or even sent, the advantage which they derive from the to this its rival nation. Provident patriots did daily threats against her life is her only security not think it good for Rome that even Carthage for preserving it. They keep their sovereign alive should be quite destroyed; and he was a wise for the purpose of exhibiting him, like some wild Greek, wise for the general Grecian interests, as beast at a fair; as if they had a Bajazet in a cage. well as a brave Lacedemonian enemy, and gene- They choose to make monarchy contemptible by rous conquerour, who did not wish, by the exposing to derision in the person of the most destruction of Athens, to pluck out the other eye benevolent of their kings. of Greece.

In my opinion their insolence appears more However, Sir, what I have here said of the in- odious even than their crimes. The horrours of terference of foreign princes is only the opinion the 5th and 6th of October were less detestable of a private individual; who is neither the re- than the festival of the 14th of July. There are presentative of any state, nor the organ of any situations (God forbid I should think that of the party ; but who thinks himself bound to express 5th and 6th of October one of them) in which his own sentiments with freedom and energy in the best men may be confounded with the worst, a crisis of such importance to the whole human and in the darkness and confusion, in the press

and medley of such extremities, it may not be so I am not apprehensive that in speaking freely easy to discriminate the one from the other. The on the subject of the king and queen of France, I necessities created, even by ill designs, have their shall accelerate (as you fear) the execution of excuse. They may be forgotten by others, when traitorous designs against them. You are of opin- the guilty themselves do not choose to cherish ion, Sir, that the usurpers may, and that they will, their recollection, and by ruminating their ofgladly lay hold of any pretext to throw off the fences, nourish themselves through the example very name of a king :-assuredly I do not wish of their past, to the perpetration of future, crimes. ill to your king; but better for him not to live (he It is in the relaxation of security, it is in the exdoes not reign) than to live the passive instrument pansion of prosperity, it is in the hour of dilataof tyranny and usurpation.

tion of the heart, and of its softening into festiI certainly meant to shew, to the best of my vity and pleasure, that the real character of men is power, that the existence of such an executive discerned. If there is any good in them, it apofficer, in such a system of republick as theirs, is pears then or never.

Even wolves and tygers, absurd in the highest degree. But in demonstrat- when gorged with their prey, are safe and gentle. ing this—to them, at least, I can have made no It is at such times that noble minds give all the discovery. They only held out the royal name to reins to their good nature. They indulge their catch those Frenchmen to whom the name of genius even to intemperance, in kindness to the king is still venerable. They calculate the dura- afflicted, in generosity to the conquered ; forbeartion of that sentiment; and when they find it ing insults, forgiving injuries, overpaying benefits. nearly expiring, they will not trouble themselves Full of dignity themselves, they respect dignity in with excuses for extinguishing the name, as they all, but they feel it sacred in the unhappy. But it have the thing. They used it as a sort of navel is then, and basking in the sunshine of unmerited string to nourish their unnatural offspring from fortune, that low, sordid, ungenerous, and reptile the bowels of royalty itself. Now that the mon- souls swell with their hoarded poisons; it is then ster can purvey for its own subsistence, it will only that they display their odious splendour, and shine carry the mark about it, as a token of its having out in full lustre of their native villainy and basetorn the womb it came from. Tyrants seldom It is in that season that no man of sense or want pretexts. Fraud is the ready minister of in- honour can be mistaken for one of them. justice; and whilst the currency of false pretence in such a season, for them of political ease and and sophistick reasoning was expedient to their security, though their people were but just emerged designs, they were under no necessity of drawing from actual famine, and were ready to be plunged upon me to furnish them with that coin. But into the gulph of penury and beggary, that your pretexts and sophisms have had their day, and philosophick lords chose, with an ostentatious have done their work. The usurpation no longer pomp and luxury, to feast an incredible number seeks plausibility. It trusts to power.

of idle and thoughtless people, collected, with art Nothing that I can say, or that you can say, and pains, from all quarters of the world. They will hasten them, hy a single hour, in the execu- constructed a vast amphitheatre in which they

ness.

It was

VOL. I.

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