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iew awful moments, the dignity of go- of statesmen seated in firm array not far vernment and the honour of this country, from your chair, who have, ever since the were given up for ever. That this was birth of this parliament, uniformly shrunk the immediate effect, I believe every gen. (and I am sure their consciences always Weman who hears me and was present on must shrink, whatsoever their politics or that very extraordinary day must admit their eloquence may do) from the great I have expressed myself warmly, I felt American question; they have wished to and do still feel my disappointment warmly; defer to the latest hour possible, all disI estimated the noble lord's public wisdom, cussion of this critical topic, io hopes, as prudence, and above all his political reso. | they term it, to learn what is actually lution, at as high a rate as I honoured, doing on the other side of the Atlantic. and do'still honour, those private virtues Sir, I can inform them; there rises not a which adorn his character, and which sun in that hemisphere, but sets to such shine illustriously pure amidst a licentious additional grievances and outeries, as the and a dissipated age.
most soothing future concessions, the most I will address a few words to the ho- exemplary future sacrifices on your part, nourable lord, and have done; I will tell will scarce be able to atone for.
of some when employed to but indifferent purposes, individuals the subject may be, I shall render their possessor respectable; 'I will take the liberty, with the indulgence of speak with tenderness, I will not tell the the House, to affirm, that these measures noble lord what effect, even with the best of compelling the Americans by force of intentions, the contrary qualities will have. arms to acknowledge the paramount and I will conclude with telling the noble lord, unlimited authority of parliament, in the that if he adopts a decided line of conduct, taxation of their property, a property be will have decided friends, and he may created by their faculties, and by their still stand on firm ground; but that if he industry, are not just, not politic, not praccontinues to waver between both, he will ticable, but a traitorous infringement on fall to the ground unsupported by either. the constitution of the colonies, which
Mr. Temple Luttrell. Sir, upon a for- rests upon the same fundamental princimer occasion I presumed to state a few of ples that uphold the property and uphold my sentiments to the House, relative to the franchises of every native of this island. the war impending over the Americans, Sir, I ever will contend, that the united because I was sure I could not answer it parliaments of England and Scotland canto my own feelings, I thought I could not not legally impose a tax on the subjects answer it to my country, had I neglected in any other part of the British dominions, at the very earliest moment that might without the consent of such subjects, offer, to declare my utter abhorrence of either by themselves in person, or by their those unconstitutional, arbitrary, and dia- representatives. Let the champions of bolical projects, devised by his Majesty's despotism avail themselves of all their ministers for the destruction of that un- knowledge and sophistry, I will venture to happy people. I Aatter myself a certain maintain this proposition, not arrogantly illustrious character may soon be left out presuming on my talents or skill to maof this opprobrious list of projectors ; there nage it, but on its own clear intrinsic seems to be a divine gleam of radiance merits, and the conviction that to every coming round his temples: and I foresee dispassionate mind must naturally result almost
, if not altogether, as marvellous from its investigation. The coercion proconversion into the right path, as that posed militates against the privileges of which happened in days of yore to the all emigrants of their description, from the great persecutor of the Christian followers time of the patriarchal disjunctions to this on the plains of Damascus.
day; emigrants who carried with them (as To whạt black storm in the political fir- their penates) certain inherent rights namament we are indebted for this sudden tural to mankind, immutable and uvalienchange, I, Sir, move in too contracted a able ; confirmed to them for an heritage, sphere to discover; but the noble lord by that blessed constitution of Saxon conwill allow me to tender him my hearty texture under which they were born. congratulations, that he is at length awa Laws established on first necessity and imkening to that clemency, and to that jus potence between them and the present tice, which will best agree with the innate state, either by express or tacit 'assent, texaper of his heart. There is a long line were not of an universal, indefinite obliga
tion, they were of a fiduciary nature, mentary edicts, and of which no form of adapted to the comparative state of the government whatever can deprive them. contracting parties, for the purpose of Laws not founded on constitutional justemporary expedience, and must of course tice, are in themselves null and void ; nor vary conformably to such other relative are the makers of them legislators, but alterations as lapse of time and the vicis. usurpers. A very wise and learned writer, situde of human affairs may effect. Acts judge Blackstone, has in bis Commentaries of parliaments, or other diplomatic titles, the following passage: “ If the sovereign may be produced to shew'a formal, and power advance with gigantic strides and perhaps uncontested assumption of power threaten desolation to a state, mankind at some given period of time, but will not will not be reasoned out of the feelings of countervail the primeval and indefeasible humanity, nor will sacrifice their liberty rights of mankind, whenever such rights by a scrupulous adherence to those polishall be asserted by a clear major part of tical maxims, which were originally estathe community. On this ground, and this blished to preserve that liberty.” ground only, rests our spiritual reform If the powers and pretensions of a few under Harry the 8th, and that most glo- adventurers and fugitives, occupying about rious of all civil revolutions—the Revolu- two centuries ago a small corner of a tion by which James 2 lost the throne graceless desart, and possessed of none of these realıns. Those gentlemen who of the good things of ihis life, are to as• plead for the omnipotence of parliaments, certain the powers and pretensions of and the infallibility of their codes, should three millions of people, spread over a advert to the many absurd, contradictory land flowing with milk and honey, and a positions and doctrines laid down during thousand leagues in circumference, they the contention of the several pretenders of may, with the same justice and propriety, the Plantagenet line, and afterwards of be brought two centuries hence to ascer. the heiresses of the House of Tudor. tain the rights and pretensions of 30 mil
In fact, Sir, your statutes of those days lions, when the inhabitants of this diminu. borrowed too frequently their maxims and tive isle shall scarce reach a fourth part of complexion from whatsoever brow might that number: neither can I own such dis. happen to be encircled with the regal parity in the calculation of increase to be diadem. In the reign of Richard 2, a at all exaggerated, if we consider the valaw passed to transfer the power of both rious drains from this country, and the Houses of Parliament to twelve barons. daily influx of persons of both sexes at the By an act under one of the Henries, the very meridian of life into these inviting King's proclamation, with the consent of regions ; besides, new settlers usually rehis privy-council, was thenceforward to strict themselves to hunting and agricul
. carry with it the force and efficacy of a ture, to toils which afford vigour to the law of the land. And we all know that body, and enterprise to the mind. They the parliament of 1641 voted itself per- live on plain, wholesome diet; their propetual, never to be dissolved nor pro- geny is healthful, and of boundless inrogued but by its own consent; and the crease; whereas in nations that have Act read by an honourable member to the reached their full zenith of luxury, the committee on the present Resolution, and mass of the people are occupied at sedenwhich he treated with so much deference, tary arts and manufactures, drawing in
, because it declared the people of the Mas- from morn to eve, an impure, contined sachuset's Bay in a state of revolt, was atmosphere, or brooding over uswholepassed by this immaculate parliament. some furnaces : hence the vital stamina
Now, Sir, let us suppose (what in these are hurt, the appetites soon appaled, the our uncorrupt days there can be no rea spirits easily depressed ; they become en. son to apprehend) that a statute should feebled ere the sand of their morcal glass be procured by some future minister and be half run out; their offspring is sapless minion of the sovereign, vesting the whole and emasculate. legislative as well as executive power in America has been loudly charged with the crown, totally to abolish both Houses ingratitude towards the parent country, of Parliament; would such statute be from whom she received protection during valid and binding on the subject through the late conflict of war. 'Tis not quite out Great Britain and America ? All per- clear how far the balance of that account sons have natural rights a free people is in her disfavour: however, she cannot have legal rights, independent of parlia- be so ignorant of the real springs of war
or peace, as to persuade herself that your | difference at the onset, that the arm of numerous embattled legions, under tri- the aggrieved is usually braced to bolder, umphant fleets sent to her coasts, were more decisive efforts of rage and despair, supplied purely from motives of parental than that of the aggressor : “ Aquilæ non affection, or sympathetic benevolence. generant columbus." Let us, sir, rather Had, Sir, that vast territory been planted rejoice that our breed has not degenewith Portuguese scions, instead of those rated; that these colonists have a sense from your own stock, ponderating as the of rational freedom, becoming the sons of political scales of Europe then were, such high-mettled progenitors. Ill would would you not have afforded to a people, it answer your purpose to bring their in their natural and moral character as far bodies under a short-lived subjection, and from unison with yourselves as discord is to leave impressed upon their minds an from harmony, an equal supply of men unabated rancour and aptness for revolta and treasure? Remember, Sir, your Revenge is an unchristian passion ; yet prowess at the eve of that same war, near how rarely do we find the human soul ihe banks of the Tagus.
possessed of a sublimer heroism, without The love or enmity of one people to this alloy. another, cannot be estimated by their oc- Neither, Sir, am I altogether unác. casional alliances, compacts, or guarantees, quainted with the people of whom I am as a body politic. It is but a century ago now speaking. Curiosity once led me to that our English brigades served with un- travel many hundreds of miles along their paralleled ardour in the army of that arch- Aourishing and hospitable provinces. I enemy to civil and religious liberty, Lewis found in most of them the Spartan tem14 of France; the execrated revocator of perance, in many the urbanity of Athens ; the edict of Nantz; the aspirer to uni- and, notwithstanding the base and groundversal despotism. We served, Sir, against less imputations on their spirit, which the a people, whose tolerance and charity of cankered tongue of prejudice and slander religion, whose whole system and freedom has with so licentious a virulence here
government we at that very time held poured forth against them, they will, I am in emulative veneration ; a people whose confident, if set to the proof, evince the assistance we supplicated and obtained, Roman magnanimity, ere Rome fell under scarce 20 years after, to deliver us from sceptered usurpation. But, Sir, if a fomonarchical tyranny.
reign enemy should
appear your gates Such coercion was highly impolitic, be- and you need their assistance, will there cause it is from the prosperity, peace, and then be found among them many a Corica contentment of her colonies, that re- lanus ? He stands single as the prodigy of sources of wealth and laurels of honour forgiveness, in the annals of a people are won to a mother country. History whose attachment to their native land was teaches us, that populousness and affluence carried to the utmost height of enthuare the product of that clime alone, where siasm. How soon that foreign enemy the people may reap in security a full may appear at your gates, I know not. harvest of their labour; where they have According to the horological predictions afluence in their leaders and governors ; of a most enlightened state soothsayer, where no exactions are inflicted by an we have about seven years more of proalien hand; where the municipal, if not found tranquillity with the House of the imperial jurisdiction, together with Bourbon to trust to; but, from the sympthe power of levying taxes, are vested in toms of our domestic distraction, and the substitutes of their own free choice or ap- | improved state of the government and probation.
finances of our neighbours, I should judge That saying of a despot, “ Oderint dum it prudent to be somewhat better provided metuant,” may be applicable to the swar- than we are at present for an early rupthy sons of the opposite division of the ture; not entirely to dismantle our ports globe; but, Sir, it will never accord with and our coasts of soldiers and seamen, the sentiments of our brethren in America. sent to immolate, the martyrs to liberty of Threats and violence used against hearts their own flesh and blood, on the distant of the same sturdy temper with your own, continent of America. must induce the most calamitous events It has been made evident to you, that a to both parties. There will be seeds of defection of the northern colonies will equal courage and perseverance found in soon bring on the complete ruin of your the one battle as in the other, with this West India settlements, which cannot
elsewhere affordably provide themselves racy and carnage of York and Lancaster, with cattle, lumber, and divers other arti- will here be joined to all the elementary cles requisite for the support of a planta- hardships and maladies of a bigot crusade. tion.
Shall not such dreadful æras in our earlier Let us turn our eyes to the inland trad- chronicle, serve us for beacons at this peing towns here at home; those large iron rilous crisis ? Those rash expeditions, infounderies which used to supply the an- deed, undertaken by a few martial zealots chors of commerce and implements for ou misconceived piety, began to decline husbandry and the ingenious arts, are now at the death of the hot-brained, savageset at work in moulding the sword and hearted king, under whom they were first the bayonet to enslave America. From enterprized; and the sluices of kindred the former commissions there accrued blood, which had long inundated the land constant returns of profit, and numberless in the red and white roses, were at length comforts; from the latter, what can be happily put a stop to, by a single matriexpected but poverty, dejection, and monial contract. Now, Sir, who can look mourning! Peace with America will make forward to a probable epoch in the red your thousands of manufacturers and arti- volume of time, when the sword drawn in sans a thriving, obedient people; war with this quarrel shall be sheathed in peace ! America will make them idle, profligate, I can see no end, till slaughter, proscripand tumultuary. In short, the first open tion, extirpation, shall totally have annihihostilities committed by your troops on lated either one or the other people. that continent, will realize to the race of Far be it from me to anticipate by conman, from one extremity of the earth to jecture to either country so dreadful a the other, more fatal evils than were even sentence; but, Sir, without a gift of precontained in the fabled box of Pandora. ternatural foresignt, I may remark, that
It is well known, through melancholy there are features in the aspect of infant observation, drawn from the fate of the America, which denote at maturer years Assyrian, Persian, and Roman empires, a most colossal force. The Helvetic and that national societies, as well as the indi- Flemish confederacies have demonstrated vidual mortals of whom those societies are what extraordinary obstacles a small band composed, have their non-age, their adult of insurgents may surmount in the cause vigour, and their decline. Whatsoever of liberty. The Helvetic confederacy share of indulgence and independency consisted of a few straggling peasants, Great Britain shall, in this her forid and bannered against a mighty prince; yet athletic stage, generously bestow on her firmness and desperation supplied that rising colonies, they will, no doubt, amply energy, which the best disciplined num. repay to her in some future generation, bers could not resist. The tragic scenes when she is verging towards that aweful of Numantia, and of Saguntum, shew to goal which must close her race of glory. how dire a catastroplie a spirited people
The military coercion of America will will devote themselves, sooner than submit be impracticable. What has been the fate to an unjust dominion. It appears from of your famous Bills passed in the last one of the American letters of a late date session of the deceased parliament? I brought to your table, that the inhabitants mean, Sir, the Boston Port Bill, and the of Boston were inclined to copy in part Bill for altering the charter of Massachu- these dire examples; that they neditated set's Bay. America, as an earnest of her to abandon the town with their wives and triumph over the future labours for which families, and the reducing it to ashes
. envy and malice may reserve her, has, Did not we ourselves give a very striking like another Hercules in the cradle, al proof at the commencement of the twelfth ready grappled with those two serpents century, to what an incendiary height the sent for her destruction. Neither shall Aame of vengeance might reach, when we be long able to sustain the unhallowed we invited over, and received into the war at so remote a distance ;-unexplored very center of this island, a whole arnay of desarts, wood-land ambuscades, latitudes Frenchmen to aid us against a tyrant no. to which few of our soldiery have been narch and his iniquitous counsellors? We seasoned ;-the southern provinces scarce owe perhaps that sacred palladium of our to be endured in the summer months, the liberty, Magna Charta, northern provinces not approachable in dauphin of France, as to a king of Eng. the winter season ;-shipwrecks, pesti- land. lence, famine. The unrelenting invete- The Americans allege, that what they
as much to a
now contend for is that reasonable portion where they are not maintainable on prinof liberty with which they were chartered ciples of justice, of sound policy, or the as their birthright, not by any earthly po- constitution of the land. If you persist tentate, but by the King of kings, “ to in pride and error, what will be the conmake their lives happy, in the possession sequence ? Intestine enmities will be enof which liberty they do now hourly increased—devastation and havock must envoke that King of kings, or to make their sue. When questions of such weight and death glorious in its just defence.” magnitude as these now in agitation, con
What is the aim and scope of the reso- cerning America, shall come before you, lution before you? To lure some of the every member ought to reflect, that the less refractory provinces of America, to fate of a whole nation may possibly dedissociate from, and betray their fellow. pend on his single vote. Whosoever gives sufferers; to join in raising a contribution the power of oppression, is in fact a tythroughout one half of the colonies, to rant—whosoever gives the power of murder, support your armaments and outrages is in fact an assassin. I am against this against the other half, with a view to an resolution, because I think, that so far sihilate trade, cut off every natural chan- from extinguishing the flame, it will only nel of livelihood and subsistence, and throw oil upon it to aggravate its fury; butcher the disobedient; and how are and, however conciliatory it may seem at these seceders to be recompensed for such first sight, when it comes to be analyzed signal perfidy? Why, by a temporary ex. on the other side of the water, it cannot ercise of certain empty forms and modes possibly have any other construction put of taxation, confirming at the same time a upon it, than that of adding insult' to right in the crown and parliament of injury. Great Britain, to fix the gross amount of Sir P.J. Clerke said he should not be all continental subsidies whatsoever; that surprised, such was the fluctuating state is, in fact, they are to be still subject to a of our counsels, to see another resolution ministerial majority in this House, which proposed in a few days, totally contradictmay levy imposts on them, not by any ing the present, and those persons who fair scale of proportion to the burthen laid are most zealous in support of this resoluon the mother country, but the demand tion, equally warm in support of the next. may perhaps be carried beyond their abi. Mr. Hariley. I am called upon on this lities, or they may be liable to the dis- occasion particularly as I made a conciliacharge of an immense national debt. By tory proposition on this subject of the way of earnest, however, against the nu. American disputes to the House before merous abuses in future to which this cuChristmas, which I shall, at a proper time, sous plan lies open, they shall instantly offer to the House as a regular motion. repose entire faith and confidence in the The proposition alluded to, was to make a present set of the King's ministers at free requisition to the colonies for a supply Westminster, so remarkable for consis. towards the expence of defending, protency, lenity, and wisdom.
tecting, and securing the colonies. The The noble lord puts me in mind of king present motion is not free but compulsory ; Arthur, in our niodern dramatic mask, it is attended with menaces and threats, where that first of the British worthies therefore not a lenient or conciliatory stands balancing between Grimbald and measure, but only thrown out as such for Philadel. He has just caught a glympse a pretext. To say, Give me as much of the cloven foot of the infernal fiend by money as I wish, till I say enough, or I whose dazzling snares and incantations he will take it from you, and then to call such has been thus long fascinated, and is turn- a proposition conciliatory for peace, is ining to the fair, heavenly spirit, who would sult added to oppression. The proposition guide him into the ways of happiness and which I made before Christmas, was, what honour. Let him not stop short, but it appeared, a free requisition. A requi pursue the only track that can save his sition by a secretary of state is an ancient, country—perhaps save himself from per- legal, approved, constitutional way. It
states the case, represents the services ne. I should be as strenuous an advocate cessary to be done, and requires the free for the just authority of parliament as aid of the subject for those necessary serany man; but I think we ought candidly vices, leaving, as a constitutional controul, and effectually to relinquish all vain pre. to the subject whose money is required, tences to supreme sovereignty, in cases the judgment upon the necessity of the