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jects of Great Britain ; this Bill in its Europe the same weapons, the same disci. principle is both arbitrary and unjust. pline, the same military arts are in pracAnd as we do not conceive any ground of tice; war is attended with a profusion of expectation that the provinces will yield expence; and the deepest pursc is the to such hard conditions, a civil war, which best assurance of success. Hence the may probably end in the total separation encouragement of manufacture and trade of the colonies from the mother country, is the pursuit of every nation in this quarwill too naturally be the consequence of ter of the globe, except two; who derive this Bill ; in respect of which, as well as the treasure, which Europe wants, from for the other reasons hereby assigned, we distant mines, with a facility, enervating do most solemnly and heartily protest their own industry, while the rest are against the same. (Signed) Abing- exerting theirs, each for a share in that

don, Craven, Abergavenny, Stan- wealth, which the other two introduce, hope, Leinster, Wycombe, Rich- and can only be obtained through the mond, Devonshire, Torrington, commercial channel. By this, Holland, Rockingham, Camden, Effingham, with a territory insufficient to nourish her Ponsonby, Cholmondeley, Fitz- inhabitants, hath in her day stood forth a william, Manchester.”

bulwark against tyranny and superstition.

An artificial strength, created by comMr. Glover's Speech at the Bar of the merce, enabled her to make head, with House of Commons in behalf of the West numerous fleets and armies, against powers India Merchants and Planters.] March immensely her superiors in natural force. 16. The House resolved itself into a Above all in commercial arts and advanCommittee of the whole House, to consider tage is Great Britain. Her purse, kept further of the Petition of the merchants, full by her credit, the resource of a tradtraders, and others, of the city of London, ing nation, an annual expenditure at least concerned in the commerce of North of 16 to 18 millions recent'y supported so America, and of the several other Peti- long, so extensive, and so vigorous a war. tions referred to the consideration of the. Had her purse been scanty, she never said Committee. Evidence was heard in would have seen a navy, which bore little support of the Petition of the West India short of 90,000 men, could never have Planters, (See p. 219.) Mr. Glover ap- engaged a potent ally, nor furnished such peared as agent for the petitioners, and troops, as acted so efficiently, and at the manager of the evidence in support of the same time in such different parts of the Petition. After Mr. George Walker, and globe. Hence it is evident her system is Mr. John Ellis, had been examined, commercial; her strength and resources Mr. Glover* summed up the evidence

are wholly derived from trade. I allow, in the following Speech :

the first interest in rank among us is the

landed, but interwoven altogether with I begin with investigating the general trade. Pay no regard to a doctrine from system of the British empire, not only in me, but pay all to the supreme authority description, but illustration by comparison. of the clearest luminary this country ever Ancient nations were possessed of the produced, the great Mr. Locke. His widest dominion, not with commercial words are these, “ The decays that come helps. To be brief, I shall confine the upon, and bring to ruin any country, do enquiry to one, to the Romans in their constantly first fall upon the land; and ages of purity. Cultivation of their soil, though the country gentleman is not very rude manufacture just adequate to their forward to think so, yet this nevertheless necessities, severity of manners, supe- is an undoubted truth, that he is more riority in martial discipline, enthusiasm for concerned in trade, and ought to take a the very name of Rome, and the dulce et greater care that it be well managed and decorum pro patria mori made them mas- preserved, than even the merchant himters of the world. War was conducted self.” with little expence, and the weightiest On the firm ground of such authority arms in the most skilful hands prevailed. let enquiry be made, whether we should Commerce flourished among others, whose not remain content with the lot assigned affluence submitted to the steel of Rome. us, which hath raised us so high among What is the system now? All over the modern nations, where all are in rivalry

for manufacture and trade ; whether we • The celebrated author of Leonidas. should degrade our refinements by a pa.

rallel with an unpolished and rugged race end at Christmas 1773, and renders a of old, and contaminate the delicacy of total of more than 19 millions, and more modern sensations with those primitive than 1,100,0001. at the annual medium. and stern principles, which imposed such I only observe in this place, that the in. a yoke on mankind as the majestas populi crease of the latter upon the former is in Romani :' or whether, confining our spe- the proportion of eleven to seven ; and of culations to the placid sphere of enjoy the value in both two-thirds are British ments with more quiet, and less hazard, goods, and one-third only foreign. than the restless pursuits of their ambition, A second set of accounts contain the we should not have in contemplation upon exports to North America. The first 17 all extraordinary convulsions, how far the years yield more than 17 millions in the means of those enjoyments may be affected, whole, and than one million at the annual that influx of wealth, the creature of com- medium. The last period renders more merce, which solely constitutes our envied than 40 millions in the whole, and largely power and rank in the present world. more than 2,300,0001. at the annual me

To elucidate by facts a system so essen- dium ; an increase upon the former in tial to our being, your petitioners have a proportion of 23 to io, with a value in appeared at this tremendous crisis ; when both of three-fourths British goods to oneGreat Britain and America, the parent fourth foreign. and the child, with equal irritation are The third account relates to Africa, menacing at least, what barely in words, whose commerce with England owes its what barely in thought, is horror--to un existence to her colonies. The first 17 sheathe the sword of parricide, and sever years reach nearly to three millions, and the dearest ties of consanguinity, of mu- to an annual medium something short of tual aids, and general prosperity.

180,0001. the last 17 years nearly to eight Your petitioners preferred but one sup- millions, and an annual medium of 470,000). plication to the All-merciful Being; their an increase upon the first in a proportion own reason' suggested no other, than to of 47 to 18, with a value in each of two. be heard by you. He hath inclined you thirds British goods to one-third foreign. to hear, truth enables us to speak. Truth On this augmentation of exports to your in its nature is healing, and productive of colonies, irrefragable proof is founded

, reflection: reflection leads to composure that through whatever channels riches of mind, and strengthens in our breasts a have lowed among them, that influx hath hope, that an hour may come, when this made a passage from them to the mother humble application may not be found al. country, and in the most wholesome mode; together ineffectual: if too, for that auspi- not like the dash of an oriental torrent, cious purpose, it

may prove my good for. but in salubrious, various, placid, and cotune so to collect and combine the various pious streams, refreshing and augmenting evidence from your bar, and from the sober industry by additional employment copied records of office upon your table, to thousands, and ten thousands of fami. as to establish a system of the whole, and lies, and lightening the burthen upon rents, found that whole upon truth ; whose effi- by reducing the contribution of parishes cacy upon the mind I have described be to poverty unemployed. fore, and with some fervour of hope anti- But this requires a further explanation

. cipate now.

The date of the last period is the comiHere, Sir, I entreat your acceptance of mencement of the last war. The expena clue through the seeming labyrinth of diture of public money was one source of accounts. The ways indeed are all un- wealth to the West Indies. That tempo adorned, but the least perplexed of any rary acquisition being soon exhausted, by to a little attention; and to make them its return to England, sufficient sums were short shall be mine.

procured upon credit after the peace, to You have before you official accounts of cultivate new land and improve the old

, the exports from England to the West still further enlarging the consumption of Indies, from Christmas 1739 to Christmas our commodities there and in Africa, that 1773.' of these 34 years, the first 17, from the year of the peace to Christmas ending at Christmas, 1756, form a period, 1773, the import of sugar only to England

, which closes in the first year of the last who, without her West Indies, must pure war; the whole value exceeds 12 millions, chase that immense article from foreigners

, and gives an annual medium

of more than hath risen from 130,000 to 170,000 hoge; 700,0001. The last period of 17 years heads, an augmentation in value of 800,000.

The public expenditure, being much | ports during that period, which renders a larger in North America, produced a pro- medium of 16 millions. What part is the portionate effect on the consumption of colony branch? Five and a half is rather our manufactures through that continent. more than a third. Does the magnitude This money returned from its peregrina- appear in a stronger light by the compation to the mother country by 1761, or rison ? Or hath it been admitted in this 1765 at the furthest. But, as the West view, before it was stated ? Be it so. I Indies had a succedaneum, so had North have something behind, perhaps enough America through a new opening of trade, for the keenest appetite of admission to which converted the misfortune of Eng-digest. land into a blessing. Though I am con- Sir, one part of our exports to foreigners vinced, that the same number of hands at is supplied by colony produce, tobacco, least is devoted to agriculture here, and rice, sugar, &c. through Great Britain, that the earth at a medium of years hath for a million sterling at a low estimation. yielded the same increase; as we have Add 2 millions more, exported of all kinds been disposed to consume it all among from England to her principal colony, ourselves, or as our presumption may im- Ireland, and both to the former 5 millions pute the scarcity to Providence restrain- and a half; your whole colony branch will ing the fertility of our soil for ten years then exceed the half of your whole export past, in either case we could not spare, as in the proportion of eight and a half to heretofore, our grain to the foreigner; a sixteen. reduction in our exports one year with an- Thanks to the care and forecast of our other of more than 600,0001. The Ame- forefathers one hundred and twenty years rican subject took place of the British in since. In the circle of ancient trade, markets we could no longer supply, ex- narrow in comparison with the modern, tended their vent from season to season, the great trading states, Carthage preand from port to port, and by a circuition eminent to all, suffered but little from riof fresh money, thus acquired by them- valship. All in Europe are our rivals, all selves, added fresh numbers to your ma- devoted to manufacture and traffic, as nufactures, the rents of land increasing capital pursuits of policy: while we, strugat the same time, till the amount of ex- gling with such competition, have in some ports to North America for the last three instances already experienced its hurtful years, ending at Christmas 1773, stand effects, and must prepare for more; we upon your papers at 10 millions and a had always one consolation left, that our half, or 3 millions and a half at the annual colony tråde, kept to ourselves by old and medium ; add 1,300,0001. the medium of salutary regulations, hath been augmentthe same three years for the West Indies, ing from period to period, till at present it and 700,0001. for Africa, and the total constitutes more than half of the whole, value of exports to the colonies, nearly in with a prospect of further growth, rather a proportion of three fourths British to than diminution, unless we create our own one fourth foreign goods, is 5 millions and rivals. a half at the medium of these three years, One more observation remains, of all ending at Christmas, 1773. A slight the most important, so far as safety to a matter this to the great prestion before state is a consideration above all others. you, says the general voice without doors, of this trade, the part which depends on and readily admitted without the cere- the associated provinces, contributes in mony of proof. This I inention by way of naval stores, in other low priced and preparation to introduce the most material bulky commodities more to the British account of all; which will demonstrate, marine, than triple the present exports in that the magnitude of 5 millions and a commodities of such higher value, and if half

, exported in the colony branches, the shipped so largely in foreign bottoms to West Indian, North American, and the foreign market. Such was your situaAfrican, is not to be considered as an ob- tion. ject so striking in itself, as in comparison Upon the present question I will not with the whole export of England to all take that larger half before-mentioned for countries whatsoever. The annual me- my ground. I will deduct the 2 millions dium for twelve years back stands on to Ireland, and the odd 500,0001, fur

papers at less than 15 millions ; but nished to provinces not of the combinaas I have limited the colony branch to tion, though they did not receive more 1771, 2 and 3, I shall take the general ex- than 400,0001. in value, at the medium of (VOL. XVIII.]

[ 3 H]

these

these three last years; when there will perish. The remainder must divert to remain six millions out of the eight and a provisions the culture of the produce so half: nay, I will further reduce the six by valuable to Great Britain.

The same nearly 700,000l. to remove all suspicion must be the practice in great part throughof exaggeration, and to make an exact | out Jamaica, and the new settled acquisithird of the sixteen ; and which is the part tions. They may feel a distress just short immediately affected by the association in of destruction, but must divert for subNorth America.

sistence so much labour as, in proportion, From this ground see what is put in will shorten their rich product. In fact, hazard; not merely a monied profit, but why should they raise the latter, if lumber our bulwark of defence, our power in of- should be wanting for its package to Great fence, the arts and industry of our nation. Britain ? How vague, how uncertain, how Instead of thousands and ten thousands of nearly impracticable would be a supply of families in comfort, a navigation extensive these necessaries through any new chan. and enlarging, the value and rents of land nel, I need not repeat; but shall close this yearly rising, wealth abounding, and at head with another short general state, in hand for further improvements, see, or confirmation of Mr. Walker's most accuforesee, that this third of our whole com- rate detail. The gross amount of imports, merce, that sole basis of our empire, and at an annual medium, from these now un. this third in itself the best, once lost, car- fortunate islands, exceed four millions ; ries with it a proportion of our national 190,000 casks of sugar and rum, besides faculties, our treasure, our public revenue, many other articles, the bulky loading for and the value of land, succeeded in its fall such a multitude of vessels, more than auby a multiplication of taxes to reinstate thorise my assertion. Of these annual that revenue, an increasing burden on four millions, the exchequer receives its every decreasing estate, decreasing by the proportion, the navigator and merchant reduced demand of its produce for the theirs; the rest centers with the planter: support of manufacture and manufac- and how distributed by him? In the pur. turers, and menaced with a heavier cala- chase of 1,300,0001. in our exports direct, mity still, the diminution of our marine, and the largest part of 700,0001. more in of our seamen, of o'r general popula- circuition through Africa for a constant tion, by the emigrations of useful subjects, supply of negroes. What is left, consistrengthening that very country you wish derable as it may be among residents here, to humble, and weakening this in the sight is applied to home consumption ; not with of rival powers, who wish to humble us. a sparing hand, and to investments, up.

Having been hitherto merely general, holding the price of land and the credit of I must now descend to a detail, but of public funds. At the same time they are parts so large, that each is separately big furnishing commodities to us of such newith sufficient evils to draw the utmost cessary use, which else must be paid for stretch of your attention. I begin with to foreigners, and with a superfuity for those which threaten the West Indies. foreign consumption likewise; I avoid

To recapitulate the heads of that ma- comparison, but judge from this state how terial evidence, delivered by Mr. Walker valuable a subject is the planter. All and Mr. Ellis, would be tedious in me, these benefits, the healthy progeny unnecessary in itself. Leaving it there- active trade, all or part must sleep as in a fore to its own powerful impression, I grave, during a total or partial stagnation, here add only, in a general mode of my Upon the North American imports I own, that of the inhabitants of those shall only remark, that the most consideislands above four hundred thousand are rable part of their bulky productions is blacks; from whose labours the immense bought by the foreigner, and of the amount riches there, so distinctly proved at your consumed in Great Britain, the exchequer bar, are derived, with such immense ad- hath a capital share. Nor will I take vantage to these kingdoms. How far North America for a companion in my these multitudes, if their intercourse with present melancholy walk, because she may North America is stopped, may be ex- prove the only gainer, and as the composed to famine, you have heard. One munity become more sound and healthy, half in Barbadoes and the Leeward islands, while every other member of the empire say one hundred thousand negroes, in lies bleeding. But my heart bleeds when, value at least four millions sterling, possi- renewing my gloomy progress, I turn 8 bly, it grieves me to say probably, may view towards one kingdom, a great mem

of

ber, which may unhappily be distinguished | mous countrymen without doors ? Digabove all sufferers in the present conjunc. nity! Supremacy! The evil hour is adture; I mean the kingdom of Scotland : vancing, not yet come; no sooner come, and among my honourable hearers, they than felt: it may produce a discovery too whose particular attention I may now en- late, that high-sounding words imply no gage, have no cause to doubt the sincerity food to the hungry, no raiment to the of my feelings. I have taken equal pains naked; and these throughout our empire with the accounts of exports from that may amount to millions in number. But kingdom, as from this. The papers I could new channels of supply shall be found; collect began at Christmas 1748, and end our potency can surmount all difficulties. at Christmas 1772, with two years want. It is full time to begin the essay in Ireland, ing; a circumstance, however, which will lest, during the experiment, emigration so not in the least impede me in illustrating constant there, should change to depoputhe progress and improvement of the North lation in the Protestant quarters. British trade. A first period shews an I now return to England, not a memannual medium of about 500,000l. In a ber, but the bead. Her sorrows I will second it rises to 860,0001. In a third leave to the contemplation of that superior to 1,150,0001. And in the last for 1770, class, which must be the ultimate and per1771, and 1772, to 1,700,0001. of which manent sufferer. The sage Mr. Locke about 400,0001. is colony export, exclu- would tell the country gentleman, that his sive of Ireland, and the far greater part visible property must replace the loss of to the tobacco provinces, where many of public revenue; that he must provide for my most worthy friends have a property a nation of hungry and naked, or sink lying much larger than I chuse to conjec into utter debility and despondency; when ture. To this I add a known export of the sun rises no more on this once Hourishlinen exceeding 200,000l. supplied to ing island, but to see the desertion of inEngland for American use. The whole habitants, and a wretched remnant wanmay be little short of 700,0001. but calling dering unclad and unfed in lamentation it six, I ask, if Scotland can well endure over a wilderness. a stagnation of such a value for twelve I have mentioned the revenue, and shall months to come? Whether their export now be very concise upon that head: deto Ireland of 3 to 400,0001. will be af- ducting bounties and drawbacks, the neat fected; and how far emigration, of late so receipts at the exchequer from duties and prevalent, may be extended by the pres-excise on West India productions I vensure of a new calamity, I will not forbode. ture to set at more than 700,0001. and Sir, I feel—Sir, those feelings forbid me another receipt in the North American to expatiate further-I chuse to drop the branch, at just so much as with the forsubject observing only, that the colony mer, may render a total of one million. export from Scotland is to their whole To that amount the public revenue is immuch in the same proportion with ours; mediately concerned.' Consequential loss, I will now pass over to Ireland.

for instance, in the great article of tea, That kingdom takes from England and for want of the usual supply of sugar, or Scotland little short of 2,400,0001. an- in any other articles, I do not dwell upon nually in goods. How doth she pay for here, but leave to reflection. them? A large part in linen and yarn, Thus far, Sir, I hope that I have proved the remainder in cash, acquired by her what was your situation, happy in receivforeign traffic. In the printed report to ing from your colonies all the possible adthis House, from their linen committee, vantage attainable in the nature of things. it

appears, that in 1771 the linen made Could our forefathers, the authors of such and brought to market for sale in that a system, which, exclusive of foreign prokingdom, for its own use and ours, fit, could bring the numerous subjects of amounted to 2,150,0001. and the

yarn ex

the same state in such dispersed habitaported to about 200,0001. This immense tions over the earth, thousands and thouyalue, the employment of such numbers, sands of miles asunder, to a concurrence hath its source in North America. The in the extirpation of idleness, in promoting flax-seed from thence, not worth 40,0001. the comfort, and calling forth the facula trifle to that continent, forms the basis ties of each other:-Could those venerable of Ireland, and reverts largely in manufac-founders of a structure so stupendously ture from her to the original seat of growth. great arise, and seeing it brought to such In reply, what is the cry of my magnani- perfection by time and experience, yet

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