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Trajan, and Diocletian, had been disappointed of c H A P.
posterity; and the frequent revolutions had never
grow up and multiply under the shade of the
purple. But the royalty of the Flavian line,
7 Zosimus and Zonaras agree in representing Minervina as the concubine of Constantine : but Durange has very gallantly rescued her charaćter, by producing a decisive passage from one of the panegyrics : “Ab ipso fine pueritiae te matrimonii isgibus dedisti.”
8 Ducange (Familiae Byzantinae, p. 44.) bestows on him, after
- - . o Zonaras, the name of Constantine; a name somewhat unlikely, as it
was already occupied by the elder brother. That of Hannibalianus is mentioned in the Paschal Chronicle, and is approved by Tillemont, Hist, des Empereurs, tom. iv. p. 527.
admirably qualified to form the taste, and to c H A p.
excite the virtues, of his illustrious disciple". At the age of seventeen, Crispus was invested with the title of Caesar, and the administration of the Gallic provinces, where the inroads of the Germans gave him an early occasion of signalizing his military prowess. In the civil war which broke out soon afterwards, the father and son divided their powers; and this history has already celebrated the valour as well as condućt displayed by the latter, in forcing the streights of the Hellespont, so obstinately defended by the superior fleet of Licinius. This naval vićtory contributed to determine the event of the war; and the names of Constantine and of Crispus were united in the joyful acclamations of their eastern subjects: who loudly proclaimed, that the world had been subdued, and was now governed, by an emperor endowed with every virtue; and by his illustrious son, a prince beloved of heaven, and the lively image of his father's perfections. The public favour, which seldom accompanies old age, diffused its lustre over the youth of Crispus. He deserved the esteem, and he engaged the affections, of the court, the army, and the people. The experienced merit of a reigning monarch is acknowledged by his subjects with reluctance, and frequently denied with partial and discon
9 Jerom. in Chron. The poverty of Laëtantius may be applied either to the praise of the disinterested philosopher, or to the shame of the unfeeling patron. See Tillemont, Mem. Ecclesiast. tom. vi. part i. p. 345. Dupin, Bibliotheque Ecclesiast. tom. i. p. 205. JLardner's Credibility of the Gospel History, part ii. vol. vii. p. 66.
tented murmurs; while, from the opening vir-
” Euseb. Hist. Ecclesiast. 1.x. c. 9, Eutropius (x. 6.) styles him “egregium virum ;” and Julian (Orat. i.) very plainly alludes to the exploits of Crispus in the civil war. See Spanheim. Comment. p. 92.
** Compare Idatius and the Paschal Chronicle, with Ammianus (l. xiv. c. 5.). The year in which Constantius was created Caesar, seems to be more accurately, fixed by the two chronologists; but the historian who lived in his court, could not be ignorant of the day of the anniversary. For the appointment of the new Caesar to the provinces of Gaul, see Julian, Orat. i. p. 12. Godefroy, Chronol. legum, p. 26, and Blondel de la Primauté de l'Eglise, p. 1183.