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thought, that the remembrance of a conjuga} union of twenty years, and the honour of their common offspring, the destined heirs of the throne, might have softened the obdurate heart of Constantine; and persuaded him to suffer his wife, however guilty she might appear, to expiate her offences in a solitary prison. But it feems a superfluous labour to weigh the propriety, unless we could ascertain the truth, of this fingular event; which is attended with some circumstances of doubt and perplexity. Those who have attacked, and those who have defended, the character of Constantine, have alike disregarded two very remarkable passages of two orations pronounced under the succeeding reign. The former celebrates the virtues, the beauty, and the fortune of the empress Fausta, the daughter, wife, sister, and mother of so many princes *. The latter asserts, in explicit terms, that the mother of the younger Constantine, who was slain three years after his father's death, survived to weep over the fate of her son *. Notwithstanding the positive testimony of several writers of the Pagan

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27 Interfecit numerosos amicos. Eutrop. xx. 6.
*8. Saturni aurea sæcula quis requirai :
Sunt haec gemmea, sed Neroniana.
Sidon. Appollinar. v. 3.
It is somewhat fingular, that these satirical lines should be attribut-
ed, not to an obscure libeller, or a disappoint patriot, but to
Ablavius, prime minister and favourite of the emperor. We may
now perceive that the imprecations of the Roman people were dićtat-
ed by humanity, as well as by superstition. Zosim. l. ii. p. 105.
19 Euseb. Orat. in Constantin. c. 3. These dates are sufficiently
corre& to justify the crator.
I 2 the

C H. A. P.

The sons
and ne-
phews of


c H A P. the motives of the emperor, when he endangered XVIII, the safety both of his family and of his people, STT by the unnecessary elevation of his two nephews, Dalmatius and Hannibalianus. The former was raised, by the title of Caesar, to an equality with his cousins. In favour of the latter, Constantine invented the new and fingular appellation of Nobilisimus *; to which he annexed the flattering distinction of a robe of purple and gold. But of the whole series of Roman princes in any age of “, the empire, Hannibalianus alone was distinguish* ed by the title of KING ; a name which the subjects of Tiberius would have detested, as the profane and cruel insult of capricious tyranny. The use of such a title, even as it appears under the reign of Constantine, is a strange and unconneéted fact, which can scarcely be admitted on the joint authority of Imperial medals and contemporary writers”. orhood. The whole empire was deeply interested in the cation, education of these five youths, the acknowledged successors of Constantine. The exercises of the body prepared them for the fatigues of war, and the duties of active life. Those who occasionally mention the education or talents of Constantius, allow that he excelled in the gymnastic arts of

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mit them to descend from that elevated station from whence the various charaćters of human nature appear to wear a smooth and uniform aspećt. The indulgence of Constantine admitted them, at a very tender age, to share the administration of the empire; and they studied the art of reigning at the expence of the people entrusted to their care. The younger Constantine was appointed to hold his court in Gaul; and his brother Constantius exchanged that department, the ancient patrimony of their father, for the more opulent, but less martial, countries of the East.

Italy, the Western Illyricum, and Africa, were

accustomed to revere Constans, the third of his sons, as the representative of the great Constantine. He fixed Dalmatius on the Gothic frontier

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