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= - - s OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 19 | and while he shewed the Cesars to the armies and c H. A. P. provinces, he maintained every part of the empire XYiii. in equal obedience to its supreme head”. The S----' tranquillity of the last fourteen years of his reign was scarcely interrupted by the contemptible insurre&tion of a camel-driver in the island of Cy- o prus *, or by the active part which the policy of Constantine engaged him to assume in the wars of the Goths and Sarmatians. Among the different branches of the human Minners race, the Sarmatians form a very remarkable *" shade; as they seem to unite the manners of the Asiatic barbarians with the figure and complexion of the ancient inhabitants of Europe. According to the various accidents of peace and war, of alliance or conquest, the Sarmatians were sometimes confined to the banks of the Tanais; and : they sometimes spread themselves over the immense plains which lie between the Vistula and the Volga ". The care of their numerous flocks and herds, the pursuit of game, and the exercise of war, or rather of rapine, directed the vagrant

s4 Eusebius (l. iv. c. 51, 52.), with a design of exalting the authority and glory of Constantine, affirms, that he divided the Roman empire as a private citizen might have divided his patrimony. His distribution of the provinces may be coilešled from Eutropius, the two Vićtois, and the Walesian fragment.

ss Calocerus, the obscure leader of this rebellion, or rather tumult, was apprehended and burnt alive in the market place of Tarsus, by the vigilance of Dalmatius. See the elder Viètor, the Chronicle of Jerom, and the doubtful traditions of Theophanes and Cedrenus.

se Cellarius has colle&ted the opinions of the ancients concerning the European and Asiatic Salmatia; and M. d’Anville has applied them to modern geography with the skill and accuracy which always dislinguist that excellent writer.

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37 Atomian. 1. xvii. c. 12. The Sarmatian horses were castrated, to prevent the mischievous accidents which might happen from the noisy and ungovernable passions of the males.

3° Pausanias, 1. i. p. 5o. edit. Kuhn. That inquisitive traveller had carefully examined a Sarmatian cuirass, which was preserved in the temple of Æsculapius at Athens.


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39 Aspicis et mitti sub adoco toxica ferro,
Et telum causas mortis habere duas.
Ovid. ex Ponto, l. iv. op. 7. ver, 7.

See in the Recherches sur les Americains, tom. ii. p. 236–271, a
very curious differtation on poisoned darts. The venon was com.
monly extrašted from the vetegable reign; but that employed by the -
Scythians appears to have been drawn from the viper, and a mixture .
of human blood. The use of poisoned arms, which has been so read
over both worlds, never preserved a savage tribe from the arms of a
disciplined enemy.

4e The nine books of Poetical Episoles, which Ovid composed during the seven first years of his melancholy exile, possess, besides the merit of elegance, a double value. They exhibit a pićture of the human mind under very fingular circumstances; and they contain many curious observations, which no Roman, except Ovid, could have an opportunity of making. Every circumstance which tends to iliustrate the history of the Barbarians, has been drawn together by the very accurate Count de Buat. Hist. Anciente des Peuples de l'Europe, tom, iv. c. xvi. p. 236–317. - and


c H A P. and Sarmatians, who were associated for the purKVIII. poses of destruction; and from the accounts of history, there is some reason to believe that these Sarmatians were the Jazygae, one of the most numerous and warlike tribes of the nation. The allurements of plenty engaged them to seek a permanent establishment on the frontiers of the empire. Soon after the reign of Augustus, they obliged. the Dacians, who subsisted by fishing on the banks of the river Teyss or Tibiscus, to retire into the hilly country, and to abandon to the vićtorious Sarmatians the fertile plains of the Upper Hungary, which are bounded by the course of the Tanube and the semi-circular inclosure of the Carpathian mountains ". In this advantageous position, they watched or suspended the moment of attack, as they were provoked by injuries or appeased by presents; they gradually acquired the skill of using more dangerous weapons; and although the Sarmatians did not illustrate their name by any memorable exploits, they occasionally assisted their eastern and western neighbours, the Goths and the Germans, with a formidable. body of cavalry. They lived under the irregular aristocracy of their chieftains “; but after they had received into their bosom the fugitive Wan

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dals, who yielded to the pressure of the Gothic power, they seem to have chosen a king from that nation, and from the illustrious race of the Aftingi, who had formerly dwelt on the shores of the northern ocean *. This motive of enmity must have inflamed the subjects of contention, which perpetually arise on the confines of warlike and independent nations. The Vandal princes were stimulated by fear and revenge; the Gothic kings aspired to extend their dominion from the Euxine to the frontiers of Germany; and the waters of the Maros, a small river which falls into the Teyss, were stained with the blood of the contending Barbarians. After some experience of the fuperior strength and number of their adversaries, the Sarmatians iniplored the protection of the Roman monarch, who beheld with pleasure the discord of the nations, but who was justly alarmed by the progress of the Gothic arms. As soon as Constantine had declared himself in favour of the weaker party, the haughty Araric. king of the Goths, instead of expecting the attack of the Legions, boldly passed the Danube, and spread terror and devastation through the province of Macfia. To oppose the inroad of this destroying host, the aged emperor took the field in person; but on this occasion either his conduct or his fortune betrayed the glory which he had acquired in so many so

43 This hypothesis of a Vanda! king reigning over Sarmatian subjećts, seems necessary to econcile the Goth Jornandes with the Grctk and Latin historians of Constantine. It may be observed that Isidere, who lived in Spain under the dominion of the Goths, gives them for enemies, not the Vandals, but the Saroatians. See his Chio;icle in “Grotius, p. 709s

C H A P.

The Go-
thic war,

A.D. 351.

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