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7" This ancient city had once flourished under the name of Il
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liberis (Pomponius Mela, ii. 5.). The munificence of Constantine .
gave it new splendor, and his mother's name. Helena (it is still called Elme) became the seat of a bishop, who long afterwards trans. ferred his residence to Perpignan, the capital of modern Rousillon. See d’Anville Notice de l'Ancienne Gaule, p. 330. Longuerue IDescription de la France, p. 223. and the Marca Hispanica, l. i. c. 2.
74 Zosimus, l. ii. p. 119, 1zo. Zonaras, tom. ii. 1. xiii. p. 13. and the Abbreviators.
L 3 - of
c H. A. P. of Illyricum, from the Danube to the extremity XVIII. of Greece, had long obeyed the government of S- Vetranjo, an aged general, beloved for the fimplicity of his manners, and who had acquired some reputation by his experience and services in war”. Attached by habit, by duty, and by gratitude, to the house of Constantine, he immediately gave the strongest assurances to the only surviving son of his late master, that he would expose, with unshaken fidelity, his person and his troops, to inflićt a just revenge on the traitors of Gaul. But the legions of Vetranio were seduced rather than provoked by the example of rebellion; their leader soon betrayed a want of firmness, or a 'want of sincerity; and his ambition derived a specious pretence from the approbation of the princess Constantina. That cruel, and aspiring woman, who had obtained from the great Constantine her father the rank of Augusła, placed the diadem with her own hands on the head of the Illyrian general; and seemed to expect from his vićtory, the accomplishment of those unbounded hopes, of which she had been disappointed by the death of her husband Hannibalianus. Perhaps it was without the consent of Constantina, that the new emperor formed a necessary, though dishonourable, alliance with the usurper of the west,
78 Eutropius (x. 10.) describes Vetramio with more, temper, and probably with more truth, than either of the two Vićtors. Vetranio was born of obscure parents in the wildest parts of Maesia; and so much had his education been neglected, that, after his elevation, he studied the alphabet.
Such was the condućt, and such perhaps was the duty, of the brother of Constans towards the perfidious usurper of Gaul. The situation and chara&ter of Vetranio admitted of milder meafures; and the policy of the eastern emperor was direéted to disunite his antagonist, and to separate the forces of Illyricum from the cause of rebellion. It was an easy task to deceive the frankness and simplicity of Vetranio, who, fluctuating some time between the opposite views of honour and interest, displayed to the world the infincerity of his temper, and was insensibly engaged in the inares of an artful negociation. Constantius acknowledged him as a legitimate and equal colleague in the empire, on condition that he would renounce his disgraceful alliance with Magnentius, and appoint a place of interview on the frontiers of their respective provinces; where they might pledge their friendship by mutual vows of fidelity, and regulate by common consent the future operations of the civil war. In consequence of this agreement, Vetranio advanced to the city of Sardica”, at the head of twenty thousand horse, and of a more numerous body of infantry; a power so far superior to the forces of Constantius, that the Illyrian emperor appeared to command the life and fortunes of his rival, who, depending on the success of his private negociations, had seduced the troops, and undermined
7° Zonaras, tom. ii. 1. xiii. p. 16. The position of Sardica, near the modern city of Sophia, appears better suited to this interview than the situation of either Naissus or Sirmium, where it is placed by
Jerom, Socrates, and Sozomen.
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A. D. 359.