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provinces of Gaul. The detachments, however,
which were ordered either to press or to intercept
the flight of Magnentius, condućted themselves
with the usual imprudence of success; and allowed
him, in the plains of Pavia, an opportunity of turn-
ing on his pursuers, and of gratifying his despair
by the carnage of a useless vićtory “.
The pride of Magnentius was reduced, by re-
peated misfortunes, to sue, and to sue in vain, for
peace. He first dispatched a senator, in whose
abilities he confided, and afterwards several bi-
shops, whose holy charaćter might obtain a more
favourable audience, with the offer of resigning
the purple, and the promise of devoting the re-
mainder of his life to the service of the emperor.
But Constantius, though he granted fair terms of
pardon and reconciliation to all who abandoned
the standard of rebellion *, avowed his inflexible
resolution to inflict a just punishment on the crimes
of an assassin, whom he prepared to overwhelm
on every fide by the effort of his vićtorious
arms. An imperial fleet acquired the easy pos.
session of Africa and Spain, confirmed the waver-
ing faith of the Moorish nations, and landed a
confiderable force, which passed the Pyrenees,
and advanced towards Lyons, the last and fatal
station of Magnentius *. The temper of the ty.

Last defeat and death of Magmentius, A.D. 353 August 10.

9" Zofim. l. ii. p. 153. Vićtor in Epitome. The panegyrists of Constantius, with their usual candour, forget to mention this accidental defeat. * Zonaras, tom. ii. 1. xiii. p. 17. Julian, in several places of the two orations, expatiates on the clemency of Constantius to the rebels. 93 Zosim, l. ii. p. 133. Julian, Orat. i. p. 4o. ii. p. 74. 7 rant, 94 Ammian. xv. 6. Zosim. i. ii. p. 123. Julian, who (Orat. i. p. 4o.) inveighs against the cruel eff&s of the tyrant's despair, mentions (Orat. i. p. 34.) the oppressive edicts which were dićtated by his necessities, or by his avarice. His subjects were compelled to purchase the Imperial demesnes; a doubtful and dangerous species of property, which, in case of a revolution, might be imputed to them as a treasonable usurpation.

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shutting her gates against Decentius, who had been raised by his brother to the rank either of Caesar or of Augustus”. From Treves, Decentius was obliged to retire to Sens, where he was soon surrounded by an army of Germans, whom the pernicious arts of Constantius had introduced into the civil diffensions of Rome *. In the meantime, the Imperial troops forced the passages of the Cottian Alps, and in the bloody combat of Mount Seleucus irrevocably fixed the title of rebels on the party of Magnentius". He was un

95 The medals of Magnentius celebrate the vićtories of the two Augusti, and of the Caesar. The Caesar was another brother, named Desiderius. See Tillemont, Hist, des Empereurs, tom. iv. p. 757.

96 Julian, Orat. i. p. 40. ii. p. 74, with Spanheim, p. 263. His Commentary illustrates the trar sa&tions of this civil war. Mons Seleuci was a small place in the Cotti on Alps, a few miles distant from Vapincum, or Gap, an episcopal city of Dauphiné, See d’Anville Notice de la Gaule, p. 464, ; and Longuerue Description de la France, p. 327. -

97 Zosimus, I. ii. p. 134. Liban. Orat. x. p. 268, 269. The latter most vehemently arraigns this cruel, and f fish policy of Con{{antius.

- M 3 able

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able to bring another army into the field; the fidelity of his guards was corrupted; and when he appeared in public to animate them by his exhortations, he was saluted with an unanimous shout of “Long live the emperor Constantius!” The tyrant, who perceived that they were preparing to deserve pardon and rewards by the sacrifice of the most obnoxious criminal, prevented their design by falling on his sword *; a death more easy and more honourable than he could hope to obtain

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ico Ammian, xiv, 5, xxi. 16.

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Constantius sole Emperor.—Elevation and Death of
Gallus.-Danger and Elevation of Julian.—Sar-
matian and Persian Wars.-Wićtories of julian in
Gaul. -

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