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pride of Diocletian, reduced to an humble station by the prudence of Constantine", they multiplied in the paiaces of his degenerate sons, and insensibly acquired the knowledge, and at length the direction, of the secret councils of Constantius. The aversion and contempt which mankind has so uniformly entertained for that imperfect species, appears to have degraded their character, and to have rendered them almost as incapable as they were supposed to be, of conceiving any generous sentiment, or of performing any worthy action '. But the eunuchs were


By the word sp-do, the Romans very forcibly expressed their abhorrence of this mutilated condition. The Greek appellation of eunuchs, which insensibly prevailed, had a milder sound, and a more ambiguous sense.

* We need only mention Posides, a freedman and eunuch of Claudius, in whose favour the emperor prostituted some of the most honourable rewards of military valour. See Sueton. in Claudio, c. 28. Posides employed a great part of his wealth in building.

Ut Spado vincebat Capitolia nostra
Posides. Juvenal. Sat. xiv.

5 Castrari mares vetuit. Sueton. in Donitian. c. 7. See Dion. Cassius, l. lxvii. p. 1 ro7. I. lxviii. p. 1119,

6 There is a passage in the Augustan History, p. 137; in which Lampridius, whilst he praises Alexander Severus and Constantine for restraining the tyranny of the eunuchs, deplores the mischiefs which they occasioned in other reigns. Huc accedit quod eunuchos nec in consiliis nec in ministeriis habutt ; qui soil principes perdunt, dum eos more gentium aut regum Pe: arum volunt vivere ; qui a populo etiam amicisfimum semc vent; qui internuntii sunt, aliud quain respondetur referentes ; claudentes principem suum, et agentes ante omnia ne quid sciat.

7 xenophon (Cyropoedia, 1. viii. p. 540.) has stated the specious reasons which engaged Cyrus to entrust his person to the guard of


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C. H. A. P.

XIX. \-

eunuchs. He had observed in animals, that although the praćtice of
castration might tame their ungovernable fierceness, it did not dimi-
mish their strength or spirit; and he persuaded himself, that those who
were separated from the rest of human kind, would be more firmly
attached to the person of their benefactor. But a long experience
has contradićted the judgment of Cyrus. Some particular instances
may occur of eunuchs distinguished by their fidelity, their valour,
and their abilities; but if we examine the general history of Persia,
India, and China, we shall find that the power of the eunuchs has
uniformly marked the decline and fall of every dynasty.
* See Ammianus Mal cellinus, l. xxi. c. 16. l. xxii. c. 4. The
whole tenor of his impartial history serves to justify the invečtives of
Mamertinus, of Libanius, and of Julian himself, who have insulted
the vices of the court of Constantius.
9 Aurelius Viètor censures the negligence of his sovereign in
chusing the governors of the provinces, and the generals of the army,
and concludes his history with a very bold observation, as it is much
more dargerous under a feeble reign to attack the ministers than the
master himself. “ Uti verum absolvam brevi, ut Imperatore ipso
“clarius ita apparitor un Plerisque magis atrox nihil.”
- favourite,

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to Apud quem (s. ve: * dici debcat) multum Constantius potuit. Ammian. 1. xviii. c. 4. or Gregory Nazianzen (Orat. iii. p. 90.) reproaches the apostate with his ingratitude towards Mark, bishop of Arethusa, who had contributed to save his life ; and we learn, though from a less respeštable authority, (Tillemont, Hist, des Empereurs, tom. iv. p. 916.), that Julian was concealed in the sančtuary of a church,


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rant". Their prison was an ancient palace, the residence of the kings of Cappadocia; the fituation was pleasant, the building stately, the inclofure spacious. They pursued their studies, and practised their exercises, under the tuition of the most skilful masters; and the numerous household appointed to attend, or rather to guard, the nephews of Constantine, was not unworthy of the dignity of their birth. But they could not disguise to themselves that they were deprived of fortune, of freedom, and of safety; secluded from the society of all whom they could trust or esteem, and condemned to pass their melancholy hours in the company of slaves, devoted to the commands of a tyrant, who had already injured them beyond the hope of reconciliation. At length, however, the emergencies of the state compelled the emperor, or rather his eunuchs, to invest Gallus, in the twenty-fifth year of his age, with the title of Caesar, and to cement this political conneétion by his marriage with the princess Constantina. After a formal interview, in which the two princes mutually engaged their faith never to undertake any thing to the prejudice of each other, they repaired without delay to their respective stations. Constantius continued his march towards the West, and Gallus fixed his re

Gallus declared Caefar, A.D. 351. March 5.

** The most authentic account of the education and adventures of Julian, is contained in the epistle or manifesto which he himself addressed to the senate and people of Athens. Libanius (Orat. Paren. tasis), on the side of the Pagans, and Socrates (l. iii. c. 1 ), on that of the Chiistians, had preserved several interesting circumstances.


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13 For the promotion of Gallus, see solatius, Zosimus, and the two Vićtors. According to Philostorgius (i. iv. c. 1.), Theophi. jus, an Arian bishop, was the witness, and, as it were, the guarantee, of this solemn engagement. He supported that character with generous firmness; but M. de Tillemont (Hist, des Empe

teurs, tom. iv. p. 11zo.) thinks it very improbable that an heretic

should have possessed such virtue.
14 Julian was at first permitted to pursue his studies at Constanti-
nople, but the reputation which he acquired soon excited the jea-
lousy of Constantius ; and the young prince was advised to with-
draw himself to the less conspicuous scenes of Bithynia and Ionia.
15 See Julian ad S. P.Q. A. p. 271. Jerom. in Chron. Aurelius
vićtor, Eutropius, x. 14. I shall copy the words of Eutropius, who

and im-


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