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fernal furies tormented with an insatiate thirst of
human blood". Instead of employing her in-
fluence to infinuate the mild counsels of prudence
and humanity, she exasperated the fierce passions
of her husband; and as she retained the vanity,
though she had renounced the gentleness of her
sex, a pearl necklace was esteemed an equivalent
price for the murder of an innocent and virtuous
nobleman". The cruelty of Gallus was some-
times displayed in the undiflembled violence of
popular or military executions: and was some-
times disguised by the abuse of law, and the forms
of judicial proceedings. The private houses of
Antioch, and the places of public resort, were be-
fieged by spies and informers; and the Caesar
himself, concealed in a plebeian habit, very fre-
quently condescended to assume that odious cha-
raćter. Every apartment of the palace was adorn-
ed with the instruments of death and torture, and

capital of Syria. The Prince of the East, as if he

wrote his abridgment about fifteen years after the death of Gallus, when there was no longer any motive either to flatter or to depreciate his charasier. “Multis incivilibus gestis Gallus Cæsar ... vir “naturâ ferox et ad tyrannidem promior, si suo jure imperare “ licuisset. ”

16 Megaera quidem mortalis, inflammatrix soevientis assidua, humani cruoris avida, &c. Ammian. Marcellin. I. xiv. c. 1. The sincerity of Ammianus would not suffer him to misrepresent facts or charaćters, but his love of ambitious ornaments frequently betrayed him into an unnatural vehemence of expression.

17 His name was Clematius of Alexandria, and his only crime was a refusal to gratify the desires of his mother-in-law; who soli. cited his death, because she had been disappointed of his love. Am

mian, 1. xiv. c. 1, had

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a general consternation was diffused through the

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purple, or at least to remove him from the indolent luxury of Afia to the hardships and dangers of a German war. The death of Theophilus, consular of the province of Syria, who in a time of scarcity had been massacred by the people of

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of Constantine, who could ill brook the insolence of a subjećt, expressed their resentment by instantly delivering Domitian to the custody of a guard. The quarrel still admitted of some terms of accommodation. They were rendered impracticable by the imprudent behaviour of Montius, a statesman, whose art and experience were frequently betrayed by the levity of his disposition”. The quaestor reproached Gallus in haughty language, that a prince who was scarcely authorized to remove a municipal magistrate should presume to imprison a Praetorian praefect; convoked a meeting of the civil and military officers; and required them, in the name of their sovereign, to defend the person and dignity of his representatives. By this rash declaration of war, the impatient temper of Gallus was provoked to embrace the most desperate counsels. He ordered his guards to stand to their arms, assembled the populace of Antioch, and recommended to their zeal the care of his safety and revenge. His commands were too fatally obeyed. They rudely seized the praefect and the quaestor, and tying

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zo In the present text of Ammianus, we read, Asper, quidem, sed ad lenitatem propensior; which forms a sentence of contradićtory nonfense. With the aid of an old manuscript, Valefias has reëtified the first of these corruptions, and we perceive a ray of light in the substitution of the word wafer. If we venture to change lenitatem into lewitatem, this alteration of a single letter will render the whole passage clear and consistent,

Vol. III. N mangled

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mangled and lifeless bodies into the stream of the Orontes”.

After such a deed, whatever might have been the defigns of Gallus, it was only in a field: of battle that he could assert his innocence with any hope of success. But the mind of that prince was formed of an equal mixture of violence and weakness. Instead of assuming the title of Augustus, instead of employing in his defence the troops and treasures of the East, he suffered himself to be deceived by the affected tranquillity of Constantius, who, leaving him the vain pageantry of a court, imperceptibly recalled the veteran legions

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21 Instead of being obliged to colle&l scattered and imperfe& hints from various sources, we now enter into the full stream of the his. . . toty of Ammianus, and need only refer to the seventh and ninth chap- ters of his fourteenth book. Philosłorgius, however (l. iii. c. 28.),

though partial to Gallus, should not be entirely overlooked.


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