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most artful infinuation; and he depended on the c H A P. credit of his wife Constantina, till the unseasonable xix. death of that princess completed the ruin in which \-yhe had been involved by her impetuous passions *. . . After a long delay, the reluctant Caesar set for- His dis. wards on his journey to the Imperial court. From so Antioch to Hadrianople, he traversed the wide Bot: extent of his dominions with a numerous and stately train; and as he laboured to conceal his apprehensions from the world, and perhaps from himself, he entertained the people of Constantinople with an exhibition of the games of the circus. The progress of the journey might, however, have warned him of the impending danger. In all the principal cities he was met by ministers of confidence, commissioned to seize the offices of government, to observe his motions, and to prevent the hasty fallies of his despair. The persons dispatched to secure the provinces which the left behind, passed him with cold salutations, or affećted disdain ; and the troops, whose station lay along the public road, were studiously removed on his approach, left they might be tempted to offer their swords for the service of a civil war *.
** She had preceded her husband ; but died of a fever on the road, at a little place in Bithynia, called Coenum Gallicanum.
as The Thebaean legions, which were then quartered at Hadrianople, sent a deputation to Gallus, with a tender of their services. Ammian. J. xiv. c. 11. The Notitia (s. 6, 20, 38. edit. Labb.) mentions three several legions which bore the name of Thebaean. The zeal of M. de Voltaire, to destroy a despicable though celebrated legend, has tempted him on the flightest grounds to deny the existence of a Thebaean legion in the Roman armies. See Oeuvres de Voltaire, tom. Kv. p. 414, quarto edition.
N 2 After
aćtions, and all the treasonable defigns with which c H A p. he was charged; and by imputing them to the xix. advice of his wife, exasperated the indignation of Constantius, who reviewed with partial prejudice the minutes of the examination. The emperor was easily convinced, that his own safety was incompatible with the life of his cousin : the sentence of death was signed, dispatched, and executed; and the nephew of Constantine, with his hands tied behind his back, was beheaded in prison like the vilest malefactor *. Those who are inclined to palliate the cruelties of Constantius, assert that he soon relented, and endeavoured to recal the bloody mandate; but that the second messenger entrusted with the reprieve, was detained by the eunuchs, who dreaded the unforgiving temper of Gallus, and were defirous of reuniting to their empire the wealthy provinces of the East “. Besides the reigning emperor, Julian alone The Danfurvived, of all the numerous posterity of Con- £of stantius Chlorus. The misfortune of his royal }. birth involved him in the disgrace of Gallus. . From his retirement in the happy country of Ionia, he was conveyed under a strong guard to
24 See the complete narrative of the journey and death of Gallus in Ammianus, 1, 14. c. 11. Julian complains that his brother was put to death without a trial ; attempts to justify, or at least to excuse, the cruel revenge which he had inflicted on his enemies; but seems at last to acknowledge that he might justly have been deprived of the purple. -
a; Philostorgius. l. iv. c. 1. Zonaras, l. xiii. tom. ii. p. 19. But the former was partial towards an Arian monarch, and the latter transcribed, without choice or criticism, whatever he found in the
writings of the ancients.
N 3 the
fully acknowledges the steady and generous friend
ship of the empress Eusebia”, a woman of beauty
and merit, who, by the ascendant which she had gained over the mind of her husband, counter
balanced, in some measure, the powerful con
spiracy of the eunuchs. By the intercession of his
patroness, Julian was admitted into the Imperial
presence; he pleaded his cause with a descent
freedom, he was heard with favour; and, notwith
standing the efforts of his enemies, who urged
the danger of sparing an avenger of the blood of
Gallus, the milder sentiment of Eusebia prevailed
in the council. But the effects of a second in
terview were dreaded by the eunuchs; and Ju
lian was advised to withdraw for a while into the
neighbourhood of Milan, till the emperor thought
proper to assign the city of Athens for the place of his honourable exile. As he had discovered
from his earliest youth, a propensity, or rather
passion, for the language, the manners, the learn
ing, and the religion of the Greeks, he obeyed
with pleasure an order so agreeable to his wishes.
Far from the tumult of arms and the treachery
of courts, he spent fix months amidst the groves of the academy, in a free intercourse with the philosophers of the age, who studied to cultivate
the genius, to encourage the vanity, and to in
flame the devotion of their royal pupil. Their
as She was a native of Thessalonica in Macedonia, of a noble
family, and the daughter as well as fister of consuls. Her marriage with the emperor may be placed in the year 352. In a divided age
the historians of all parties agree in her praises. See their testimonies colle&ted by Tillemont, ‘Hist, des Empereurs, tom. iv.
P. 750-754. * * * N 4 labours