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artificers urged the conclusion of the work with c H A P.
incessant toil: but the impatience of Constantine XVII.
soon discovered, that, in the decline of the arts,
the skill as well as numbers of his architects bore
a very unequal proportion to the greatness of his
designs, The magistrates of the most distant
provinces were therefore dire&ted to institute
schools, to appoint professors, and by the hopes
of rewards and privileges, to engage in the study
and practice of archite&ture a sufficient number
of ingenious youths, who had received a liberal
education *. The buildings of the new city were
executed by such artificers as the reign of Con-
stantine could afford; but they were decorated
by the hands of the most celebrated masters of
the age of Pericles and Alexander. To revive
the genius of Phidias and Lysippus, surpassed in-
deed the power of a Roman emperor ; but the
immoral produćtions which they had bequeathed
to posterity were exposed without defence to the
rapacious vanity of a despot. By his commands
the cities of Greece and Asia were despoiled of
their most valuable ornaments *. The trophies

p. 388. The latter had already furnished the materials of the stately buildings of Cyzicus. 4x See the Codex Theodos. 1. xiii. tit. iv. leg. 1. This law is dated in the year 334, and was addressed to the praefect of Italy, whose jurisdićtion extended over Africa. The commentary of Godefroy on the whole title well deserves to be consulted ** Constantinopolis dedicatur poeme omnium urbium nuditate. Hieronym. Chron. p. 131. See Codinus, p. 8, 9. The author of the Antiquitat. Const. l. iii. (apud Banduri Imp. Orient. tom. i. p. 41.) enumerates Rome, Sicily, Antioch, Athens, and a long list of other cities. The provinces of Greeee and Afia Minor may be supposed to have yielded the richest booty.

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c H A P. of memorable wars, the objects of religious ve

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w heroes, of the sages and poets, of ancient times,

Edifices.

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contributed to the splendid triumph of Constantinople; and gave occasion to the remark of the historian Cedrenus *, who observes, with some enthusiasm, that nothing seemed wanting except the souls of the illustrious men whom those adinirable monuments were intended to represent. But it is not in the city of Constantine, nor in the declining period of an empire, when the human mind was depressed by civil and religious slavery, that we should seek for the souls of Homer and of Demosthenes. -

During the fiege of Byzantium, the conqueror had pitched his tent on the commanding eminence of the second hill. To perpetuate the memory of his success, he chose the same advantageous position for the principal Forum “; which appears to have been of a circular, or rather elliptical form. The two opposite entrances formed triumphal arches; the porticoes, which inclosed it on every fide, were filled with statues; and the centre of the Forum was occupied by a lofty column, of which a mutilated fragment is now degraded by the appellation of the burnt pillar. This column was erected on a pedestal of white

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marble

marble twenty feet high; and was composed of ten pieces of porphyry, each of which measured about ten feet in height, and about thirty-three in circumference *. On the summit of the pillar above one hundred and twenty feet from the ground, stood the colossal statue of Apollo. It was of bronze, had been transported either from Athens or from a town of Phrygia, and was supposed to be the work of Phidias. The artist had represented the god of day, or, as it was afterwards interpreted, the emperor Constantine himself, with a sceptre in his right hand, the globe of the world in his left, and a crown of rays glittering on his head ". The Circus, or Hippodrome, was a stately building about four hundred paces in length, and one hundred in breadth ". The space between the two meta: or goals was filled with statues and obelisks; and we may still remark a very fingular fragment of antiquity; the bodies of three serpents, twisted into one pillar of brass. Their triple heads had once supported the golden tripod which, after the defeat of Xerxes, was consecrated in the temple of

45 The most tolerable account of this column is given by Pocock. Description of the East, vol. ii. part ii. p. 131, But it is still in many instances perpiexed and unsatisfactory.

49 Ducange Coust. i. i. c. 24. p. 76, and his notes ad Alexiad. p. 382. The statue of Constantime or Apollo was thrown down under the reign of Alexis Comnenus.

47 Tournefort (Lettre XII) computes the Atmeidan at four hundred paces. If he means geometrical paces of five feet each, it was three hundred toises in length, about forty more than the great Circus of Rome. See d'Anville Mesures Itineraires,

P. 73. o
C 3 Delphi

c H. A. P.
x VII.
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o H A P. Delphi by the vićtorious Greeks”. The beauty *VII of the Hippodrome has been long fince defaced

by the rude hands of the Turkish conquerors; but, under the fimilar appellation of Atmeidan, it still serves as a place of exercise for their horses. From the throne, whence the emperor viewed the Circenfian games, a winding staircase * deicended to the palace; a magnificent edifice, which scarcely yielded to the residence of Rome itself, and which, together with the dependent courts, gardens, and porticoes, covered a con

siderable extent of ground upon the banks of the

Propontis between the Hippodrome and the church of St. Sophia *. We might likewise celebrate celebrate the baths, which still retained the name c H A r. of Zeuxippus, after they had been enriched, by xvii. the munificence of Constantine, with lofty columns, various marbles, and above threescore statues of bronze ". But we should deviate from the design of this history, if we attempted minutely to describe the different buildings or quarters of the city. It may be sufficient to observe, that whatever could adorn the dignity of a great capital, or contribute to the benefit or pleasure of its numerous inhabitants, was contained within the walls of Constantinople. A particular description, composed about a century after its foundation, enumerates a capitol or school of learning, a circus, two theatres, eight public, and one hundred and fifty-three private, baths, fiftytwo porticoes, five granaries, eight aquedućts or reservoirs of water, four spacious halls for the meetings of the senate or courts of justice, fourteen churches, fourteen palaces, and four thousand three hundred and eighty-eight houses, which, for their size or beauty, deserved to be

* The guardians of the most holy relics would rejoice if they were able to produce such a chain of evidence as may be alleged on this occasion. See Banduri ad Antiquitat. Const. p. 668. Gyllius de Byzant. l. ii. c. 13, 1. The original consecration of the tripod and pillar in the temple of Delphi may be proved from Herodotus and Pausanias. 2. The Pagan Zofimus agrees with the three ecclefiastical historians, Eusebius, Socrates, and Sozomen, that the sacred ornaments of the temple of Delphi were removed to Constantinople by the order of Constantine; and among these the serpentine pillar of the Hippodrome is particularly mentioned. 3. All the European travellers who have visited Constantinople, from Buondelmonte to Pocock, describe it in the same place, and almost in the same manmer; the differences between them are occasioned only by the injuries which it has sustained from the Turks. Mahomet the Second broke the under-jaw of one of the serpents with a stroke of his battle-axe. Thevenot, l i, c. 17. 49 The Latin name Cochlea was adopted by the Greeks, and very frequently occurs in the Byzantine history. Ducange Const. l. ii. C. I. p. 1 o4. $o There are three topographical points which indicate the fieuation of the palace. 1. The staircase, which conneéted it with the Hippodrome or Atmeidan. 2. A small artificial port on the Proponfi: from whence there was an easy ascent, by a flight of marble steps, to to the gardens of the palace. 3. The Augusteum was a spacious court, one fide of which was occupied by the front of the palace and another by the church of St. Sophia. st Zeuxippus was an epithet of Jupiter, and the baths were a part of old Byzantium. The difficulty of assigning their true fituation has not been felt by Ducange. History seems to connect them with St. Sophia and the palace; but the original plan, inserted in Banduri, places them on the other fide of the city, near the harbour. For their beauties, see Chron. Paschal, p. 185, and Gyllius de Byzant...l. ii. c. 7. Christodorus (see Antiquitat. Const. 1. vii.) composed inscriptions in verse for each of the statutes. He was a Theban poet in genius as well as in birth : Bacotum in craffo jurares aere natum.

C 4 distin

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