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fide of the Meyn, which were plentifully stored c H A P.

with corn and cattle, felt the ravages of an invading army. The principal houses, constructed with some imitation of Roman elegance, were consumed by the flames; and the Caesar boldly advanced about ten miles, till his progress was stopped by a dark and impenetrable forest, undermined by subterraneous passages, which threatened, with secret shares and ambush, every step of the affailant. The ground was already covered with snow ; and Julian, after repairing an ancient castle which had been erected by Trajan, granted a truce of ten months to the submissive Barbarians. At the expiration of the truce, Julian undertook a second expedition beyond the Rhine, to humble the pride of Surmar and Hortaire, two of the kings of the Alemanni, who had been pre

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to restore all the Roman captives who yet remained alive; and as the Caesar had procured an exaćt account from the cities and villages of Gaul, of the inhabitants whom they had lost, he detected every attempt to deceive him with a degree of readiness and accuracy, which almost established the belief of his supernatural knowledge. His third expedition was still more splendid and important than the two former. The Germans had colle&ted their military powers, and moved along the opposite banks of the river, with a design of destroying the bridge, and of preventing the pas{age of the Romans. But this judicious plan of defence was disconcerted by a skilful diversion. Three hundred light armed and active soldiers

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230 THE DECLINE AND FALL

c H A P. were detached in forty small boats, to fall down XIX: the stream in filence, and to land at some distance ‘T- from the posts of the enemy. They executed." their orders with so much boldness and celerity, that they had almost surprised the Barbarian chiefs, who returned in the fearless confidence of intoxication from one of their noćturnal festivals. Without repeating the uniform and disgusting tale of slaughter and devastation, it is sufficient to observe, that Julian dićtated his own conditions of peace to fix of the haughtiest kings of the Alemanni, three of whom were permitted to view the severe discipline and martial pomp of a Roman camp. Followed by twenty thousand captives, whom he had rescued from the chains of the Barbarians, the Caesar repassed the Rhine, after terminating a war, the success of which has been compared to the ancient glories of the Punic and Cimbric vićtories. o, As soon as the valour and condućt of Julian joj had secured an interval of peace, he applied himself to a work more congenial to his humane and philosophic temper. The cities of Gaul, which had suffered from the inroads of the Barbarians he diligently repaired; and seven important posts, between Mentz and the mouth of the Rhine, are particularly mentioned, as having been rebuilt and fortified by the order of Julian *. The van- quished

86 Ammian. xviii. 2. Libanius, Orat. x. p. 279, 280. Of these seven posts, four are at present towns of some consequence; Bingen, Andernach, Bonn, and Nuyss. The other three, Tricefimae, Quadriburgium, and Castra Herculis, or Heraclea, no longer subfift; but there is room to believe, that, on the ground of Quadri- burgium

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humiliating condition of preparing and conveying the necessary materials. The active zeal of Julian urged the prosecution of the work; and such was the spirit which he had diffused among the troops, that the auxiliaries themselves, waving their exemption from any duties of fatigue, contended in the most servile labours with the diligence of the Roman soldiers. It was incumbent on the Caesar to provide for the subsistence, as well as for the safety, of the inhabitants and of the garrisons. The desertion of the former, and the mutiny of the latter, must have been the fatal and inevitable consequences of famine. The tillage of the provinces of Gaul had been interrupted by the calamities of war; but the scanty harvests of the continent were supplied, by his paternal care, from the plenty of the adjacent island. Six hundred large barks, framed in the forest of the Ardennes, made several voyages to the coast of Britain; and returning from thence laden with corn, sailed up the Rhine, and distributed their cargoes to the several towns and fortresses along the banks of the river *7. The arms of Julian had

burgium, the Dutch have construćted the fort of Schenk, a name so offensive to the fastidious delicacy of Boileau. See d’Anville Notice de l’ancienne Gaule, p. 183. Boileau, Epître iv. and the notes.

87 We may credit Julian himself, Orat, ad S. P. Q. Atheniensem, p. 28o. who gives a very particular account of the transaction. Zosimus adds two hundred vessels more, l. iii. p. 145. If we compute the 6oo corn ships of Julian at only seventy tons each, they were capable of exporting 120,000 quarters (see Arbuthnot's vveights and Measures, p. 237.); and the country which could bear so large an exportation, must already have attained an in

proved state of agriculture. - Q_4 restored

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w his dignity,

Civil administration of Julian.

stantius had offered to purchase at the expence of and of a tributary present of two thousand pounds of filver. The emperor parsimoniously refused to his soldiers the sums which he granted with a lavish and trembling hand to the Barbarians. The dexterity, as well as the firmness, of Julian, was put to a severe trial, when he took the field with a discontented army, which had already served two campaigns, without receiving any regular pay or any extraordinary donative”. A tender regard for the peace and happiness of his subječts, was the ruling principle which direćted, or seemed to direct, the administration of Julian *. He devoted the leisure of his winter. quarters to the offices of civil government; and affected to assume, with more pleasure, the cha. raćter of a magistrate, than that of a general. Be. fore he took the field, he devolved on the provincial governors, most of the public and private causes which had been referred to his tribunal ; but, on his return, he carefully revised their proceedings, mitigated the rigour of the law, and pronounced a second judgment on the judges themselves. Superior to the last temptation of virtuous minds, an indiscreet and intemperate zeal for justice, he restrained, with calmness and dignity, the warmth of an advocate who prose.

* The troops once broke out into a mutiny, immediately before the second passage of the Rhine. Aminian. xvii. 9.

** Ammian. xvi. 5. xviii. 1. Mamertinus in Penegyr. Vet. xi. 4.

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'cuted, for extortion, the prefident of the Narbonnese province. “Who will ever be found

“ guilty,” exclaimed the vehement Delphidius,

“if it be enough to deny f" “ and who,” replied

Julian, “ will ever be innocent, if it be sufficient

“ to affirm * In the general administration of

peace and war, the interest of the sovereign is

commonly the same as that of his people; but

Constantius would have thought himself deeply

injured, if the virtues of Julian had defrauded

him of any part of the tribute which he extorted

from an oppressed and exhausted country. The

prince who was invested with the ensigns of

royalty, might sometimes presume to correct the

rapacious infolence of the inferior agents; to ex

pose their corrupt arts, and to introduce an equal

and easier mode of collection. But the manage

ment of the finances was more safely entrusted to

Florentius, Praetorian praefect of Gaul, an effe

minate tyrant, incapable of pity or remorse; and the haughty minister complained of the most decent and gentle opposition, while Julian himself

was rather inclined to censure the weakness of his

own behaviour. The Caesar had rejected with abhorrence, a mandate for the levy of an extraordinary tax; a new superdićtion, which the praefe&t had offered for his signature; and the faithful picture of the public misery, by which he had been obliged to justify his refusal, offended the court of Constantius. We may enjoy the pleasure of reading the sentiments of Julian, as he expresses them with warmth and freedom in a letter to one of his most intimate friends. After stating his

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