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monarch 1so Sancimus igitur vicem legum obtirere, quae a quatuor San&is Conciliis . . , expositae sunt aut firmatae. Praedićtarum enim quatuor synodorum dogmata ficut sam&tas Scripturas et regulas sicut Jeges observamus. Justinian. Novel, czzxi. Beveridge (ad Pande&t. proleg. p. 2.) remarks, that the emperors never made new laws in ecclesiastical matters; and Giannone observes, in a very different spirit that they gave a legal sam&tion to the canons of councils. Istoria Civile di Napoli, tom. i. p. 136. *31 See the article ConcILE in the Encyclopedie, tom. iii. p. 668. —679, edition de Lucques. The author, M. le doćteur Bouchaud, has discussed, according to the principles of the Gallican church, the principal questions which relate to the form and constitution of general, national, and provincial councils. The editors (see Preface, p. xvi.) have reason to be proud of this article. Those who consult their immense compilation, seldom depart so well satisfied.

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Vol. III. X

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- HE grateful applause of the clergy has con-
- * secrated the memory of a prince who in-
dulged their passions and promoted their interest.
Constantine gave them security, wealth, honours,
and revenge; and the support of the orthodox faith
was confidered as the most sacred and o
duty of the civil magistrate. The edićt of Milan,
the great charter of toleration, had confirmed to
each individual of the Roman world the privilege
of chufing and professing his own religion. But
this inestimable privilege was soon violated: with
the knowledge of truth, the emperor imbibed the
maxims of persecution; and the sects which dis.

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1 Eusebius in Vit. Constantin. l. iii. c. 63, 64, 65, 66.

* After some examination of the various opinions of Tillemont, Beausobre, Lardner, &c. I am convinced that Manes did not propagate this sečt, even in Persia, before the year 270. It is strange, that a philosophic and foreign heresy should have penetrated so rapidly into the African provinces; yet I cannot easily reject the edićt of Diocletian against the Manichaeans, which may be found in Baronius. (Annal. Eccl. A. D. 287.)

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manity. Two immaterial circumstances may serve, . however, to prove that the mind of Constantine was not cntirely corrupted by the spirit of zeal and bigotry. Before he condemned the Mani

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