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198 At',anao. tom. i. F. 729. Foarius has related (in Vit. Sophist, p. 36, 37. erit. Comnolin) a strange xa:mpic of the cruelty and credulity of Constantine on a similar occasion. The eloquent Sopater, a syrian p!?!osophor, crjoyed his friendship, and provoked the resentment of
Ahlavius, his 'rietorian procèt. The corn-ficet was detained for want of
a south wind; the pot of Constartinople were discontented; and
• crtico, that he a.
* .. - - the
that Co. sia:*:int ir; it.'... . . .
the specious pretence of dedicating the cathedral. They composed an ambiguous creed, which is faintly tinged with the colours of Semi-Arianism, and twenty-five canons, which still regulate the discipline of the orthodox Greeks”. It was decided, with some appearance of equity, that a
his episcopal funétions, till he had been absolved by the judgment of an equal synod; the law was immediately applied to the case of Athanasius; the council of Antioch pronounced, or rather confirmed his degradation: a stranger named
Gregory, was feated on his throne; and Phila. grius", the praefect of Egypt, was instructed to
support the new primate with the civil and military powers of the province. Oppressed by the conspiracy of the Asiatic prelates, Athanafius withdrew from Alexandria, and passed three * years as an exile and a suppliant on the holy threshold
f 10 See Peveridge Pando &. tom, i. p. 420–452. and tom. ii. Aprotation. p. 182. Tillemont, Mém. Eccles tom. vi. p. 31.c-324. St. Hilary of Poitiers has mentioned this sy: od of Antioch with too much favour and respect. He reckons ninety-seven bishops. 111 This magistrate, so cqious to Athanasius, is praised by Gregoly Naziarzon, tom. i. Orat. xxi. p. 399, 301. Saepe premente Deo fert Deus alter cpcm. For the credit of human nature, i am always pleased to discover some good qualities in those men whom party has repress nted as tyrants and monsters. - 1 12. The chronological difficulties which perplex the residence of Atha- nasius at Rome, are strenuously agitated by Valefius (Observat ad Całcem, tom. ii. Hist. Eccles l. i. c 1–5.) and Tillemont (Mem. Eccles.
tom. viii. p. 674, &c.). I have sollowed the simple hypothesis of
Valefius, who allows only one journey, after th: intrusion of Grogory. . of
c H. A. P. of the Vatican". By the affiduous study of the
A. D. 346.
113 I cannot forbear transcribing a judicious observation of Wetstein (Prolegomen. N. T. p. 19.) : Si tamen Historiam Ecclesiasticam velimus consulere patebit jam inde a seculo quarto, cum, ortis controversiis, ecclefia Graeciae doćtores in duas partes scinderentur, ingenio, eloquentia, numero, tantum non aequales, eam partem quae vincere cupiebat Roman confugiff, majestatemque pontificis comiter coluisse, ecque pado oppressis per pontificem et épiscopos Latinos adversariis praevaluisse, atque orthodoxiam in confiliis stabilivisse. Eam ob causam Athanasius, non fine comitatu, Roman petiit, pluresque annos ibi haesit.
*4 Philostorgius, i. iii, c. 12. If any corruption was used to promote the interest of religion, an advocate of Athanasius might justify or excuse this questionable condućt, by the example of Cato and Sidney; the former of whom is said to have given, and the latter to have received, a bribe, in othe cause of liberty.
nions 115 The Canon, which allows appeals to the Roman pontiffs, has almost raised the council of Sardica to the dignity of a general council; and its aćts have been ignorantly or artfully confounded with those of the Nicene synod. See Tillemont, tom. viii. p. 689. and Geddes's Tracts, vol. ii. p. 419–460. *16 As Athanafius dispersed secret inve&tives against Constantius (see the Epistle to the Monks), at the same time that he assured him of his profound respect, we might distrust the Professions of the archbishop. Tom. i. p. 677. the
lament the error of Constantius; but he boldly arraigned the guilt of his eunuchs and his Arian prelates; deplored the distress and danger of the Catholic church; and excited Constans to emulate the zeal and glory of his father. The emperor declared his resolution of employing the troops and treasures of Europe in the orthodox cause; and fignified, by a concise and peremptory epistle to his brother Constantius, that unless he con
he himself, with a fleet and army, would seat the archbishop on the throne of Alexandria". But this religious war, so horrible to nature, was prevented by the timely compliance of Constantius; and the emperor of the East condescended to solicit a reconciliation with a subject whom he had
*7 Notwithstanding the discreet silence of Athanasius, and the manifest forgery of a letter inseited by Socrate, these menaces are proved by the unquestionable evidence of Lucifer of Cagliari, ai.d even of constantius himself. See Tii-moot, tom, viii. p. 693. •.