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permanent stations or garrisons established on the
frontiers of the empire, amounted to five hundred
and eighty-three; and that, under the successors
of Constantine, the complete force of the military
establishment was computed at fix hundred and
forty-five thousand soldiers”. An effort so pro-
digious surpassed the wants of a more ancient, and
the faculties of a later, period.
In the various states of society, armies are re-
cruited from very different motives. Barbarians
are urged by the love of war; the citizens of a
free republic may be prompted by a principle of
duty; the subjects, or at least the nobles of a mo-
narchy, are animated by a sentiment of honour;
but the timid and luxurious inhabitants of a de-
clining empire must be allured into the service
by the hopes of profit, or compelled by the dread
of punishment. The resources of the Roman trea-
sury were exhausted by the increase of pay, by
the repetition of donatives, and by the invention
of new emoluments and indulgences, which, in
the opinion of the provincial youth, might com-
pensate the hardships and dangers of a military
life. Yet, although the stature was lower-


of levies.

armorum auxiliorumque erat. T. Liv. l. xxxvii. c. 39, 4o. Fiaminius, even before the event, had compared the army of Antiochus to a supper, in which the flesh of one vile animal was di. versified by the skill of the cooks. See the life of Flaminius in Plutarch.

*34. Agathias, I. v. p. 157. edit. Louvre. ed.


ed”, although slaves, at least by a tacit connivance, c H A P. were indiscriminately received into the ranks, the XVII. insurmountable difficulty of procuring a regular \--" and adequate supply of volunteers, obliged the emperors to adopt more effectual and coèrcive methods. The lands bestowed on the veterans, as the free reward of their valour, were henceforward granted under a condition, which contains the first rudiments of the feudal tenures; that their sons, who succeeded to the inheritance, fhould devote themselves to the profession of arms, at soon as they attained the age of manhood; and their cowardly refusal was punished by the loss of honour, of fortune, or even of life". But as the annual growth of the sons of the veterans bore a very small proportion to the demands of the service, levies of men were frequently required from the provinces, and every proprietor was obliged either to take up arms, or to procure . a substitute, or to purchase his exemption by the payment of a heavy fine. The sum of forty-two pieces of gold, to which it was reduced, ascertains the exorbitant price of volunteers, and the reluc

13s Valentinian (Cod. Theodos. 1. vii. tit. xiii. leg. 3.) fixes the standard at five feet seven inches, about five feet four inches and a half English measure. It had formerly begn five feet ten inches, and in the best corps fix Roman feet. Sed tunc erat amplior multitudo, & plures sequebantur militiam armatan. Vegetius de Re Militari, l. i. c. 5.

136 See the two titles, De Veteranis, and De Filiis Veteranerum, in the seventh book of the Theodosian Code. The age at which their military service was required, varied from twenty-five to sixreen. If the sons of the veterans appeared with a horse, they had a right to serve in the cavalry two horses gave them some valuable privileges.

Vol. III. F £3. IICe:

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alternative". Such was the horror for the pro-
fesfion of a soldier, which had affected the minds
of the degenerate Romans, that many of the
youth of Italy, and the provinces, chose to cut
off the fingers of their right hand to escape from
being pressed into the service; and this strange ex-
pedient was so commonly praćtised, as to deserve
the severe animadversion of the laws “, and a pe-
culiar name in the Latin language".
The introdućtion of Barbarians into the Roman
armies became every day more universal, more
necessary, and more fatal. The most daring of
the Scythians, of the Goths, and of the Germans,
who delighted in war, and who found it more

*37 Cod. Theod. 1. vii. tit. xiii. leg. 7. According to the historian Socrates (See Godefroy ad loc.), the same emperor Valens sometimes required eighty pieces of gold for a recruit. In the following law it is faintly expressed, that saves shall not be admitted inter optimas le&isfimorum militum turmas.

*** The person and property of a Roman knight, who had mutilated his two sons, were sold at public auëtion by order of Augustus. (Sueton. in August. c. 27.) The moderation of that artful usurper proves, that this example of severity was justified by the spirit of the times. Ammianus makes a distinétion between the effeminate Italians and the hardy Gauls. (L. xv. c. 12.) Yet only fifteen years afterwards, Valentinian, in a law addi essed to the prae

fečt of Gaul, is obliged to ena&t that these cowardly deserters shalf

be burnt alive. (Cod. Theod. I. vii. tit, xiii. leg. 5.) Their numbers in Illyricum were so confiderable, that the province complained of a scarcity of recruits. (Id. leg. 1 o.)

"So They were called Murci, Murcidus is found in Plautus and Festus, to denote a lazy and cowardly person, who, according to Arnobius and Augustin, was under the immediate protećtion of the goddess Murcia. From this particular instance of cowardice, tourcare is used as synonymous to mutilare, by the writers of the In adle Latinity. See Lindenbrogius, and Walesius ad Ammian. Marcellin. i. xv. c. 12.


c H. A. P. tance with which the government admitted of this profitable to defend than to ravage the provinces, c H A P.

were enrolled, not only in the auxiliaries of their respective nations, but in the legions themselves, and among the most distinguished of the Palatine troops. As they freely shingled with the subjects of the empire, they gradually learned to despise their manners; and to initate their arts. They abjured the implicit reverence, which the pride of Rome had exacted from their ignorance, while they acquired the knowledge and possession of those advantages by which alone she supported her declining greatness. The Barbarian soldiers, who displayed any military talents, were advanced, without exception, to the most important commands; and the names of the tribunes; of the counts and dukes, and of the generals themselves, betray a foreign origin, which they no longer condescended to disguise. They were often entrusted with the condućt of a war against their countrymen ; and though most of them preferred the ties of allegiance to those of blood, they did not always avoid the guilt, or at least the suspicion, of holding a treasonable correspondence with the enemy, of inviting his invasion, or of sparing his retreat. The camps, and the palace of the son of Constantine, were governed by the powerful faction of the Franks, who preserved the strictest connection with each other, and with their country, and who resented every personal affront as a national indignity “.

14o Malarichus—adhibitis Francis quorum ea tempestate in palatio multitudo florebat, erectius jam loquebatur tumultuabaturque.

Ammian. 1. xv. c. 5.
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tempt of the laws, were incapable of exercising

any civil offices, the powers of the human mind were contračted by the irreconcileable separation of talents as well as of professions. The accom

plished citizens of the Greek and Roman repub

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'4" Barbaros omnium primus, ad usque fasces auxerat et trabeas

consulares. Ammian. 1. xx. c. 1 o' Eusebius (in Vit. Constantin.

1. iv. c. 7.) and Aurelius Vićtor seem to confirm the truth of this assertion ; yet in the thirty-two consular Fasti of the reign of Constantine, I camot discover the name of a single Barbarian. I should therefore interpret the liberality of that prince, as relative to the ornaments, rather than to the office, of the consulship.


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