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c H. A. P. Barbarians, was never introduced to attest the pub

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lic ačts of the emperors. 4. The extraordinary title of count of the sacred largesses, was bestowed on the treasurer-general of the revenue, with the intention perhaps of inculcating, that every payment flowed from the voluntary bounty of the monarch. To conceive the almost infinite detail of the annual and daily expence of the civil and

military administration in every part of a great

empire, would exceed the powers of the most vigorous imagination. The actual account employed several hundred persons, distributed into eleven different offices, which were artfully contrived to examine and control their respective operations. The multitude of these agents had a natural tendency to encrease; and it was more than once thought expedient to dismiss to their native homes the useless supernumeraries, who, deserting their honest labours, had pressed with too much eagerness into the lucrative profession

of the finances". Twenty-nine provincial re

ceivers, of whom eighteen were honoured with the title of count, corresponded with the treasurer; and he extended his jurisdićtion over the mines from whence the precious metals were extracted, over the mints, in which they were converted into the current coin, and over the public

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were deposited for the service of the state. The foreign trade of the empire was regulated by this minister, who directed likewise all the linen and

** Cod. Theod. 1. vi. tit. 30. Cod. Justinian. l. xii. tit. 24. - woollen

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•sz. In the departments of the two counts of the treasury, the eastern part of the Notitia happens to be very defective. It may be observed, that we had a treasury chest in London, and a gyneceum or manufa&ture at Winchester. But Britain was not thought worthy either of a mint or of an arsenal. Gaul alone possessed three of the former, and eight of the latter.

*53 Cod. Theod. I. vi. tit. xxx. leg. 2. and Godefroy ad loc.

3 the

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• H A P. the rich temple of Comana, where the high-priest XVII. of the goddess of war supported the dignity of a STT sovereign prince; and they applied to their pri

vate use the consecrated lands, which were inhabited by fix thousand subjects or slaves of the deity and her ministers *. But these were not the valuable inhabitants: the plains that stretch from the foot of Mount Argaeus to the banks of the Sarus, bred a generous race of horses, renowned above all others in the ancient world, for their majestic shape, and incomparable swiftness. These sacred animals, destined for the service of the palace and the Imperial games, were prote&ted by the laws from the profanation of a vuigar master". The demesnes of Cappadocia were important enough to require the inspection of a count “; officers of an inferior rank were stationed in the other parts of the empire; and the deputies of the private, as well as those of the public, treasurer, were maintained in the exercise of their independent functions, and encouraged to con

*54 Strabon. Geograph. l. xii. p. 809. . The other temple of Comana, in Pontus, was a colony from that of Cappadocia, l. xii. p. 825. The president Des Brosses (see his Saluste, tom. ii. p. 21 ) eonječtures that the deity adored in both Comanas was Beltis, the Venus of the east, the goddess of generation; a very different being indeed from the goddess of war.

'53 Cod. Theod. 1. x, tit. vi. de Grege loominico. Godefroy has collečied every circumstance of antiquity relative to the Cappadocian horses. One of the finest breeds, the Palmatian, was the for feiture of a rebel, whose estate lay about fixteen miles from Tyana, near the great road between Constantinople and Antioch.

*** Justinian (Noveli. 30.) subjećted the province of the count of Cappadocia to the immediate authority of the favourite eunuch, whe presided over the sacred bedchamber. - o

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trol the authority of the provincial magistrates ".. c H. A. P.
6, 7. The chosen bands of cavalry and infantry, xvii.
which guarded the person of the emperor, were F.T.’
under the immediate command of the two counts counts
of the domestics. The whole number consisted of i.
three thousand five hundred men, divided into "“
seven schools, or troops, of five hundred each ;
and in the east, this honourable service was al-
most entirely appropriated to the Armenians.
Whenever, on public ceremonies, they were
drawn up in the courts and porticoes of the palace,
their lofty stature, filent order, and splendid arms
of silver and gold, displayed a martial pomp, not
unworthy of the Roman majesty". From the
seven schools two companies of horse and foot
were selected, of the protectors, whose advan-
tageous station was the hope and reward of the
most deserving soldiers. They mounted guard in
the interior apartments, and were occasionally dil-
patched into the provinces, to execute with cele-
ority and vigour the orders of their master ‘’’.
The counts of the domestics had succeeded to
the office of the Praetorian praefects; like the prae-
fe&ts, they aspired from the service of the palace
to the command of armies.

157 Cod. Theod. l. vi. tit. xxx. leg. 4, &c.

158 Pancirolus, p. 102. 136. The appearance of these military

domestics is described ih the Latin poem of Corippus, de Laudibus

Justin. i. iii. 157–179. P. 419, 429, of the Appendix Hist. Byzantin. Rom. 177.

159 Ammianus Marcellinus, who served so many years, obtained only the rank of a protector. The first ten among these honourable

soldiers were Clariffini. The

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The perpetual intercourse between the court and the provinces was facilitated by the construction of roads and the institution of posts. But these beneficial establishments were accidentally connected with a pernicious and intolerable abuse. Two or three hundred agents or messengers were employed, under the jurisdiction of the master of the offices, to announce the names of the annual consuls, and the edićts or vićtories of the emperors. They insensibly assumed the licence of reporting whatever they could observe of the condućt either of magistrates or of private citizens; and were soon confidered as the eyes of the monarch “, and the scourge of the people. Under the warm influence of a feeble reign, they multiplied to the incredible number of ten thousand, disdained the mild though frequent admonitions of the laws, and exercised in the profitable ma- . nagement of the posts a rapacious and insolent oppression. These official spies, who regularly corresponded with the palace, were encouraged, by favour and reward, anxiously to watch the progress of every treasonable design, from the faint and latent symptoms of disaffection, to the actual preparation of an open revolt. Their careless or criminal violation of truth and justice was covered by the consecrated mask of zeal; and they might securely aim their poisoned arrows at the breast either of the guilty or the innocent, who had pro

Agents or cfficial spies.

10° Xenophon. Cyropaed. 1. viii. Brisson, de Regno Perfico, 1. i. No 190. p. 264. The emperors adopted with pleasure this Persian metaphor.


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