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rally burning after the manner of Ætna, in Iceland; the like written of Groenland, and divers other the cold countries.* The treesin the cold countries are such as are fuller of rosin, pitch, tar, which are matters apt for fire, and the woods themselves more combustible than those in much hotter countries; as, for example, fir, pineapple, juniper: Qu. whether their trees of the same kind that ours are, as oak and ash, bear not, in the more cold countries, a wood more brittle and ready to take fire than the same kinds with us ? The sun-beams heat manifestly by reflexion, as in countries pent in with hills, upon walls or buildings, upon pavements, upon gravel more than earth, upon arable more than grass, upon rivers if they be not very open, &c. The uniting or collection of the sun-beams multiplieth heat, as in burning-glasses, which are made thinner in the middle than on the sides, as I take it, contrary to spectacles; and the operation of them is, as I remember, first to place them between the sum and the body to be fired, and then to draw them upward towards the sum, which it is true maketh the angle of the cone sharper. But then I take it ifthe glass had been first placed at the same distance to which it is after drawn, it would not have had that force, and yet that had been all one to the sharpness
of the angle. ' Qu.
* No doubt but infinite power the heat of the sun in cold countries, though it be not to the analogy of men, and fruits, &c.
So in that the sun's beams are hotter perpendicularly than obliquely, it may be imputed to the uniom of the beams, which in case of perpendicularity reflect into the very same lines with the direct; and the further from perpendicularity the more obtuse the angle, and the greater distance between the direct beam and the reflected beam. The sun-beams raise vapours out of the earth, and when they withdraw they fall back in dews. The sun-beams do many times scatter the mists which are in the mornings. The sun-beams cause the divers returns of the herbs, plants, and fruits of the earth; for we see in lemon-trees and the like, that there is coming on at once fruit ripe, fruit unripe, and blossoms ; which may shew that the plant worketh to put forth continually, were it not for the variations of the accesses and recesses of the sun, which call forth, and put back. The excessive heat of the sun doth wither and destroy vegetables, as well as the cold doth nip and blast them. The heat or beams of the sun doth take away the smell of flowers, specially such as are of a milder odour. The beams of the sun do disclose summer flowers, as the pimpernel, marigold, and almost all flowers else, for they close commonly morning and evening, or in over-cast weather, and open in the brightness of the sun : which is but imputed to dryness and moisture, which doth make the beams heavy or erect; and not to any other propriety in the sun-beams ; so they report not only a closing, but a bending or inclining in the * heliotropium" and * calendula." Qu. The sun-beams do ripen all fruits, and addeth to them a sweetness or fatness ; and yet some sultry hot days overcast, are noted to ripen more than bright days. The sun-beams are thought to mend distilled waters, the glasses being well-stopped, and to make them more virtuous and fragrant. The sun-beams do turn wine into vinegar ; but Qu. whether they would not sweeten verjuice ? The sun-beams do pall any wine or beer that is set in them. The sun-beams do take away the lustre of any silks or arras. There is almost no mine but lieth some depth in the earth ; gold is conceived to lie highest, and in the hottest countries; yet Thracia and Hungary are cold, and the hills of Scotland have yielded gold, but in small grains or quantity. If you set a root of a tree too deep in the ground, that root will perish, and the stock will put forth a new root nearer the superficies of the earth. Some trees and plants prosper best in the shade: as the bayes, strawberries, some wood-flowers. Almost all flies love the sum-beams, so do snakes; toads and worms the contrary. The sun-beams tanneth the skin of man; and in some places turneth it to black. The sun-beams are hardly endured by many, but cause head-ach, faintness, and with many they cause rheums; yet to aged men they are comfortable. The sun causes pestilence, which with us rages about autumm : but it is reported in Barbary they break up about June, and rage most in the winter. The heat of the sun, and of fire, and living creatures, agree in some things which pertain to vivification ; as the back of a chimney will set forward an apricot-tree as well as the sum; the fire will raise a dead butterfly as well as the sun ; and so will the heat of a living creature. The heat of the sun in sand will hatch an egg. Qu. The heat of the sun in the hottest countries iiothing so violent as that of fire, no not scarcely so hot to the sense as that of a living creature. The sun, a fountain oflight as well as heat. The other celestial bodies manifest in light, and yet “ non * constat" whether all borrowed, as in the moom, but obscure in heat. The southern and western wind with us is the warmest, whereof the ome bloweth from the sun, the other from the sea ; the northern and easterm the more cold. ; Qu. whether in the coast of Florida, or at Brasil, the east wind be not the warmest, and the west the coldest ; and so beyond the antarctic tropic, the southerm wind the coldest. The air, useth to be extreme hot before thunders. The sea and air ambient, appeareth to be hotter than that at land ; for in the, northern voyages two or three degrees farther at, the opem sea, they find less ice than two or three degrees more south near
land: but Qu. for that may be by reason of the shores and shallows. The snows dissolve fastest upon the sea-coasts, yet the winds are counted the bitterest from the sea, and such as trees will bend from. Qu. The streams or clouds of brightness which appear in the firmament, being such through which the stars may be seen, and shoot not, but rest, are signs of heat. The pillars oflight, which are so upright, and do commonly shoot and vary, are sigms ofcold ; but both these are signs of drought. The air when it is moved is to the sense colder ; as in winds, fannings, ventilabra. The air in things fibrous, as fleeces, furs, &c. warm ; and those stuffs to the feeling warm. The water to man's body seemeth colder than the air ; and so in summer, in swimming it, seemeth at the first going in; and yet , after one hath been in a while, at the coming forth again, the air seemeth colder tham the water. The snow more cold to the sense than water, and the ice than snow ; and they have in Italy means to keep snow and ice for the cooling of their drinks: Qu. whether it be so in froth in respect of the liquor ? Baths of hot water feel hottest at the first going im. - - - - - The frost dew which we see in hoar frost, and in the rymes upon trees or the like, accounted more mortifying cold than snow ; for snow cherisheth the