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natural philosophy deep, Morall graue, Logick and Rhetoricke, able to contend. of discourse. Some in their discourse desire rather commendation of wit in be ing able to hold all arguments, then of iudgement in discerning what is true, as if it were a praise to know what might be said, and not what sholdbe thought. Some haue certain common places and Theames wherein they are good, and want variety, which kind of uerty is for the most part tedious, and now and then ridiculous. he honorablest part of talke is to giue the occasion, and againe to moderate and passe to somewhat else. It is good to vary and mixe speech of the present occasion with argument, tales with reasons, asking of questions, with telling of opinions, and iest with earnest. But some things are priuiledged from iest, namely religion, matters of state, great persons, any mans present businesse of importance, and any case that deserueth pitty. He that questioneth much shall learne much, and coutent much. specially if he apply his questions to the skill of the person of whom he asketh, forThe shal giue them occasion to please themselues in speaking, and himselfe shall continually gather knowledge. ' If you disseinble sometimes your knowledg of that you are thought to know, you shall bee thought another time to know thot you know not. Speech of a mans selfe is not good oftem, and there is but one case, wherein a man may commend himselfe with good grace, and that is in commending vertue in another, especially if it be such a vertue, as wherevnto himselfe pretendeth. Discretion of speech is more than eloquence, and to speake agreeably to him, with whom we deale is more then to speake in good words or in good order. A good continued speech without a good speech of interlocution sheweth slownesse : and a good reply or second speech without a good set speech sheweth shallowness and weaknesse, as we see in beasts, that those that are weakest in the course are yet nimblest in the turne. To vse too many circumstances ere one come to the matter is wearisome, to vse none at al is blunt.
of C E Re MON 1 ES AN D R ESPects. He that is onely reall had neede haue exceeding great parts of vertue, as the stone had neede be rich that is set without foyle. But commonly it is in praise as it is in gaine. For as the prouerbe is true, “ That light gaines make heauy purses ,” because they come thick, wheras great come but now and then, so it is as true that smal matters win great commendation : because they are continually in vse and in note, whereas the occasion 9f anye great vertue coinmeth but on holie daies. To attaine good formes, it sufficeth not to dispise them, for so shal a man observe theim in others, and let him trust himselfe with the rest, for if he care to expresse them hee shall leese their grace, which is to be natural and vnaffected. Some meris behaviour is like a verse wherin euery sillable is measured. How can a man comprehend great matters that breaketh his mind too much to small obseruations ? Not to vse Ceremonies at all, is to teach others not to vse theim againe, and so diminish his respect, especially they be not to be omitted to strangers and strange natures: Amopgst a mans pieres a man shall be sure of familiarity, and there: fore it is a good title to keep state!: among a mans inferiors one shal be sure of reuerence, and therefore it is good a little to be familiar. He that is too much in any thing, so that he give another occasion
of satiety, maketh himselfe cheape. To apply ones selfe to others is good, so it be with demonstration that a man doth it vpon regard, and not upon facility. It is a good precept generally in seconding another: yet to add somewhat of ones own, as if you will graunt his opinion, let it be with some distimction. If you will follow his motion : let it be with condition : if you allow his counsell, let it be with alleadging further reason.
of followers AN d frieNds.
Costly followers are not to beliked, least while a man maketh his trayne longer, he make his wings shorter: I reckon to be costly not them alone which charge the purse, but which are wearisome and importune in sutes. Ordinary following ought to challenge no higher conditions then countenance, recommendation and protection from wrong.
Factious followers are worse to be liked, which follow not wpon affection to him with whom they range themselues, but vpon discontentment conceiued against some other, whervpon commonly insueth that ill intelligence that wee many times see between great personages. The following by certain States answerable to'that which agreat person himself professeth, as ot soulliers to him that hath been emploied in the wars, and the like hath euer beene a thin ciuil and wel taken euen in Monarchies, so it bee without too muel, pompe or popularity. But the most honorable kind of following is to be followed, as one that apprehendeth to aduanee vertue and desert in all sorts of persons, and yet wher there is no eminent oddes in sufficiency, it is better to take with the more passable then with the more áíí:, In gouernment it is good to vse men of one rancke equally, for to countenance some extraordinarily, is to make them insolent, and the rest discontent, because they may claime a due. But in fauours to vse men with much difference and election is good, for it maketh the persons preferred more thankful, and the rest more officious, because all is of fauour* It is good not to make too much of any man at first hecause one cannot hold out that propor. tion. To be gouerned by one is not good, and to be distracted with many is worse : but to take aduice of friends is ever honorable : “ For lookers on many times see more then gamesters, and the vale ** best discouereth the hill." There is little friendship in the world, and least of al between equals, which was wont to bee magnified. That that is, is between superior and inferiour, whose fortunes may comprehend the one the other.
of suto fas. Many ill matters are vndertaken, and manye good matters with ill mindes. Some eml)race Sutes which neuer meane to deale effectually in them. But if they see there may be life in the matter by some other meane, they will be content tó win a thanke, or take à second reward. Some take hold of sutes only for an occasion to crosse some other, or to make an information, whereof they couli not otherwise haue an apt pretext, without care what become of the sute, when that turn is serued. Nay some vndertake sutes with a ful purpose to let them fal, to the end to gratifie the adverse party or competitor. Surely there is in sort a right in euery sute, either a right of equity, ifit be a sute of controuersie : or a right of desert, if it be a sutè of petition. If affection lead a mari to faüour the wrong side in iustice, let him rather vse his countenance to compound the matter then to carry it. If affection lead a man to fauor the lesse worthy in desert, let him do it without deprauing or disabling the better deseruer. In sutes a man doth not well vnderstand, it is good to refer them to some friend of trust and iudgment, that may report whether he may deale in them with honor. Sutors are so distasted with delaies and abuses, that plaine dealing in denying to deale in sutes at first, and reporting the successe barely, and in challenging no more thanks then one hath deserued, is growen not only honorable, but also gratious. In sutes of fauor the first co:ning ought to take little place, so far forth consideration may be had of his trust, that if intelligence of the mater could not otherwise haue been had but by him, aduantage be not taken of the note. To be ignorant of the válue of a sute is simplicity, as wel as to be ignorant of the right thereofis want of conscience. ' Secreey in sutes is a great meam of obtaining, for voycing them to bee in forwardnesse inay discourage some kind of sutors, but doeth quicken and awake others. But tyming of the sutes is the principall, tyming I say not onely in respect of the person that should graunt it, but in respect of those which are like to crosse it. Nothing is thought so easie a request to a great person as his letter, and yet if it bee not in a good cause, it is so much out of his reputation.
Riches are for spending, and spending for honour and good actions. The fore extraordinary expence must bee limited by the worth of the ocasion, for voluntary vndoing may be as weli for a mans country as for the kingdome of heauen, but ordinary expence ought to be limited by a mans estate, and gouerned with such regard as it be within his compasse and not subiect to deceite and abuse of seruants, and ordered to the best shew, that the billes may be lesse then the estimation abroad. It is no basenesse for the greatest to discend and looke into their owne estate. Some forbeare it not $. negligence alone, but doubting to bring themselues into melancholy in respect they shall find it broken. “ But wounds cannot bee ** cured without searching.”
He that cannot looke into his own estate, had need both chuse wel those whom he employeth, yea and change them often. For newe are more timerous and Jesse subtle. In clearing of a inans estate he may as well hurt himselfe in being too suddaine, as in letting it rum on too lo''; for hasty selling is commonlv as disaduantagable as interest. He that hath a state to repaire may not dispise sinal things: and coinonly it is lesse dishonorable - to a bridge petty charges then to stoupe to pettye gettinges. A man ought warily to begin charges, which once begunne must continue. But in matters that returne not, he may bee more magnificent.
of r egi m EN t of he altH. Thereis a wisedome in this beyond the rules of physicke. A mans own obseruation what hee findes good of, and what he findes hurt of, is the best Physicke to preserve health. But it is a safer conclusion to say, This agreeth not well with me, therefor- I will not continue it, then this, I finde no offence, of this therefo * I may vse it. For strength of nature in youth passeth ouer many excesses, which are owing a man till his age. Discerne of the comming on of years, and thinke not to doe the same things still. Beware of any suddaine change in any great point of diet, and if necessity inforce
it, fit the rest to it. To be free minded and chearefully disposed at houres of meate, and of sleepe, and of exercise, is the best precept of long lasting If you fiy pliysieke in health altogether, it will bee too strange to your body when you shall need it. If you make it too familiar it wil work no extraordinary effect when sicknes commeth. Despise mo new accident in the body but aske opinion of it. In sicknesse respect health principally, and in health action. For those that put their bodyes to endure in health, may in most sieknesses which are not very sharpe, be cured onely with diet and tendring. Physitians are somie of them so pleasing and comfortable to the humours of the patient, as they presse not the true cure of the disease : and some other are so regular in proceeding according to art, for the disease, as they respect not sufficiently the condition of the patient. Take one of à middle temper, or if it may not be found in one man, compound two ofboth sortes, and forget not to call as well the best acquainted with your body, as the best reputed of for his faculty. of honou n AN D n E putAtiON. The winning of honor is but the reuealing of a man's vertue and worth without disadvantage, for some in their actions doe affect honour and reputation, which sorte of men are commonly much talked of, but inwardly litle admired : and some darken their vertue in the shew of it, so as they be vnder-valued in opinion. If a man performe that which hath not been attempted before, or attempted and giuen ouer, or hath been atchiued, but not with so good circumstance, hee shall purchase inore honor, then by effecting a matter of greater difficulty or vertue, wherein he is but a follower. If a man so temper his actions as in some one of them he do content euery faction or combination of people, the Mvsicke will be the fuller. A man is an ill husband of É honor that entreth into any action the failing wherin may disgrace him more, then the carrying of it through cani honor him. Discreet followers help much to reputation. Envy which is the canker of honoris best extinguished by declaring a mans selfe in his endes, rather to seeke merite then fame, and by attributing a mans successes rather to deuine prouidence and felicity, then to his vertue 9r policy. The true Marshaling of the degrees of Soueraigne Homour are these. In the first place are “ Conditores,” founders of states. In the second place are ** I.egislatores," Law-giuers, which are also called second founders, or ** Perpetui principes,* because they gouern by their ordinances after theyare gone. In the third place are Liberatores, such as compounde the long miseries of ciuil wars, or deliver their countries from servitude of strangers or tyrants. In the fourth lace are “ propagatores,'' or ** propugnatores imperii,'' such as in onorable wars inlarge their territòries, or make Noble defence against inuaders. And in the last place are “ Patres patriæ,” which raigne justly, and make the times good wherein they liue. Degrees of honóur in subiectes are first “ Participes curarum,” those upon whom princes do discharge the greatest weight of their affaires, their Right hands (as we call them). The next are “ Duces belli,'' great leaders, such as are Princes Lieutenantes, and do them notable services in the warres. The third are “ Gratiosi,” fauorites, such as exceed not this scantling to be solace to the Soveraigne, and harinles to the people. And the fourth “ Negotys pares,'' such as have great place vnler Princes, and execute their places with sufficiency, Vol. III. G g
Many have a newe wisedome indeed, a fond opinion: That for a prince to gouerne his estate, or for a great person to govern his proceedings according to the respects of Factions, is the principall part of policy. - Whereas contrariwise, the chiefest wisedom is eyther in Å these things which are generall, and wherin men of several factions do neuertheles agree, or in dealing with correspondence to particular persons one by one. But I say not that the consideration of Factions is to be neglected. Meane men must adheare, but great men that haue strength in themselues were better to maintaine themselues indifferent and neutral, yet euen in beginners to adheare so moderately, as bee be a man of the one faction, which is passablest with the other, commonly giveth best way. The lower and weaker faction is the firmer in éoijunction. When one of the factions is extinguished, the remaining subdiuideth, which is good for a seeond. It is commonly seene, that men once placed, take in with the contrary faction to that by which they enter, The traitor in faetions lightly goeth away with it, for when matters have stuck long in ballanicing, the winning of some one man casteth them, and he getteth al the thanks.
It is generally better to deale by speech then by letter, and by the mediation of a third then by a mans selfe. Letters are good when a man would draw an aunswere by Letter backe againe, or when it may serue for a mans iustification afterwards to produce his owne Letter. To deale in person is good when a mans face breedes regard, as commorly with inferiors. In choyce ofinstrumentes it is better to chuse men of a playner sorte that are like to doe that that is committed to them, and to report backe againe faithfully the successe, then those that are cunning to contriue out of other men's busines somewhat to grace ά, and will help the matter in reporte for satisfactions sake.
It is better to sounde a person with whom one deales a far off, then to fall vpon the point at, first, except you inean to surprise him by some short question. It is better £; with men in appetite then with those which are where they would be. If a mah deale with another vpon conditions, the start or first performance is al, which a man cannot reasonably demaund, except either the nature of the thing be such which must go before, or else a man can perswade the other party that he shal stil need him in some other thing, or els that he be counted the honester man. All practise is to discouer or to worke : men discouer themselues in trust, in passion, at vnwares, and of necessity, when they would haue somewhat done, and cannot. finde an àpt pretext.7 If you would work any man, you must ' eyther know his nature ând fasbions, and so lead him ; or his ehdes, and so win him; or his weaknesse or disaduantages, and so awe him, or those that haue interest in him, and so gouerne him. ln dealing with cunning persons wee must euer consider their ends to interpret their speeches, and itis good to say little to them, and that which they least looke for.