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* from the same Shepherd [of the Flock of Israel."] And of this tranlation, Bacon speaks in the following letter. ** To Mr. TOBIE MATTHEw.” “ It is true, my labours are now most set to have “ those works, which I had formerly published, as “ that of Advancement of Learning, that of Hen. VII. “ that of the Essays, being retractate, and made “ more perfect, well translated into Latin by the “ help of some good pens, which forsake me not. “ For these modern languages will, at one time or “ other, play the bankrupt with books: and since I “ have lost much time with this age, I would be “ glad, as God shall give me leave, to recoverit with “ posterity. “ For the Essay of Friendship, while I took your * speech of it for a cursory request, I took my pro“ mise for a compliment. But since you call for it, * I shall perform it. In his letter* to Father Fulgentio giving some account of his writings, he says, “ The Novum Or* ganum should immediately follow, but my Moral * and Political writings step in between as being “ more finished. These are the History of King “ Henry the Seventh, and the small Book, which in “ your language you have called Saggi Morali, but * I give it a graver title, that of Sermones Fideles, * or Interiora Rerum, and these Essays will not

“ only be enlarged in number but still more in “ substance."

* Baconiana, page 196.

I have annexed an Appendix* containing ** A “ fragment of an Essay of Fame," which was pub lished by Dr. Rawley in his Resuscitatio: and ** Of ae “ King,"+ which was published in 1648, in a volume entitled “ Remains," which also contains an Essay * On Death." This Essay I have inserted in page 432 of this volume.f

During the life of Bacon, various editions of the Essays were published and in different languages, in 1618, in Italian:§ in 1619, in French:] in 1621, in Italian,< and in French.**

Since Lord Bacon's death, the press has abounded with editions. In some of these editions the editors have substituted their own translations of the Latin for the beautiful English by Lord Bacon.

* Page 154. + There is a manuscript of this Essay in the Lansdown Collection, B. Museum 135, 6. In Blackburn's edition of Bacon's Works, published in 1640, he says, ** I have inserted ** from the Remains, an Essay of a King : and my reason is, it •• is so collated and corrected by Archbishop Sancroft's well •* known hand, that it appears to be a new work ; and though ** it consists of short propositions mostly, yet I will be so pre•* sumptuous as to say, that I think it now breathes the true ** spirit of our author ; and there seems to be an obvious reason •• why it was omitted before." f There is a MS. of this in the Harleiam MS. Vol. II. p. 196. § Essays, Italice, 8vo. B. Museum and Oxford. | Essays Moraux, par Gorges. B. Museum and Oxford. 4 Saggi Morali, opera nuova de F. Bacon corretta a data en luce dal. Sig. Andr: Croli et un tributo, 24mo. B. Museum. •* Essais trad. en Francois, par Bandouin, 16mo. Paris. B.


How well they have succeeded the reader may judge by the following specimens. In a translation published by William H. Willymott, L. L. D. A. D. 1720, he says, “ VVanting an English Book for my Scholars * to Translate, which might improve them in Sense * and Latin at once, (Two Things which should “ never be divided in Teaching) I thought nothing “ more proper for that purpose tham Bacon's Essays, “ provided the English, which is in some Places “ grown obsolete, were a little reformed, and made “ more fashiomable. Accordingly having by me his “ Lordship's Latin Volume of the Essays, (which as “ it was a later, so seems to be a perfecter Book) I “ fell to Translating it, not tying myself strictly to “ the Latim, but comparing both Languages toge“ ther, and setting down that Sense (where there “ was any Difference) that seem'd the fullest and « ylainest.” The following is a specimen :

Dr. JVillymott.

“The principal Virtue “ of Prosperity, is Tem“ perance; of Adversity, “ Fortitude ; which in “Morals is reputed the “ most heroical Virtue. “ Again, Prosperity be“longs to the Blessings “ of the Old Testament; “ Adversity to the Bea* titudes of the New,


Lord Bacon.

“ But to speak in a ** mean, the virtue of “ prosperity is temper** ance, the virtúe of ad“ versity is fortitude, ** which in morals is the ** more heroical virtue. “ Prosperity is the bless“ ing of the Old Testa“ ment, adversity is the “ blessing of the New,


“ which are both in « which carrieth the “ Reality greater, and * greater benediction,

“ carry a clearer Reve“ lation of the Divine “ Favour. Yet, even in ** the Old Testament, if “ you listen to David's “ Harp, you'll find more ** lamentable Airs, than “ Triumphant ones."

« and the clearer revela«« tion of God's favour« Yet even in the Old ** Testament, if your * listem to David's harp, “ you shall hear as many ** herse-like airs as ca** rols.”

So too Shaw has made a similar attempt, of which the following is a specimen from the Essay ** Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature."

Lord Bacon.

“ The parts and signs ** of goodness are many. ** If a manbe gracious and ** courteous to strangers, ** it shews he is a citizen ** of the world, and that ** his heartis noisland cut ** offfrom otherlands, but “ a continent thatjoins to “ them; if he be compas** sionate towards the af** flictions of others, it ** shews that his heart is ** like the noble tree that ** is wounded itself when “ it gives the balm : if he

** easily pardons and re

Dr. Shaw.

** There are several “parts and signs ofgood** ness. If a mam be civil ** and courteousto stran“ gers, it shews him a ** citizen of the world, ** whoseheartis no island ** cutofffrom otherlands, ** but a continent that “ joins them. If he be “ compassionate to the ** afflicted, it shews a ** noble soul, like the ** tree which is wounded “ when it gives the balm. “ If he easily pardons * and forgives offences, it

* mits offences, it shews “ shews a mind perched “ that his mind is planted * above the reach ofinju“ above injuries, so that ** ries. If he be thankful * he cannot be shot; ifhe ** for small benefits, it “ be thankful for small ** shews he values men's * benefits, it shews that ** mindsbefore their trea“ he weighs men's minds, “ sure." * and not their trash.” § 2. MEDITATIONES SACRÆ. The first and, Ibelieve, the only editiomofthis tract which was published in Latin by Lord Bacon, appearedim 1597. During his life, and since his death, it has been frequently reprinted. If the reader will compare the Meditation upon Atheism, in page 215, with the Essay on Atheism, page 53, and his observation upon Atheism, in page 13 of vol. 2, he will see that these Meditations are but the seeds of his opinions upon this important subject. The sentiments and the very words are similar. In the Meditations, he says, “ This I dare affirm in knowledge “ of nature, that a little natural philosophy, and “ the first entrance into it, doth dispose the opinion “ to atheism ; but on the other side, much natural “philosophy and wading deep into it willbring about “ men's minds to religion ; wherefore atheism every “ way seems to be joined and combined with folly “ and ignorance, seeing nothing cam be more justly * allotted to be the saying of fools, than this, * There “is mo God.'* In the Advancement of Learning, he says, “ It

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