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442. Bernard Adams and Lawrence Bradshaw were also eminent among the architects of the period under our consideration; but we must notice more particularly Gerard Chrismas, who was associated with Bernard Jansen in the erection of Northampton, afterwards Suffolk, and now Northumberland House, not strictly belonging in time, though in style, to the reign of Elizabeth. Both of these architects are considered to have been much employed. In the balustrade and on the street front were the letters H. N. and C. E., which no doubt stood for Henric. Howard. Northampton. Comes Edificavit. Yet C. AE. has been supposed to denote “Chrismas AEdificavit.” Such letters were repeated, a practice then much in vogue, for there are many examples of inscriptions of letters enclosed within the balustrade, as if within lines, and pierced so that the sky seen through them renders them distinct from almost every point of view. Bernard Jansen was probably the architect first employed at the splendid mansion of Audley Inn in Essex, for Thomas IIoward, Earl of Suffolk; and, besides the association with Chrismas above mentioned, was joined with Moses Glover in completing Northumberland House, and was probably the architect who finished Sion House in Middlesex, for Henry Earl of Northumberland, who had at the time expended 9000l. in the work.
443. Robert and Huntingdon Smithson, father and son, were engaged on Wollaton Hall (fig. 203. at the foot of the preceding page), in Nottinghamshire, as also at Bolsover in Derbyshire. The former died in 1614, at the age of seventy-nine, and the latter in 1648, but very possibly John Thorpe was consulted in this splendid work, for among his designs, as the reader will recollect, are some for Wollaton.
444. Thomas Holt, a native of York, was the architect of the public schools at Oxford
(fig 204.), of which the hint might have been taken from the Campanile of Santa Chiara at Naples, and of the quadrangles of Merton and Wadham colleges. He was the first in this country who introduced the classical orders in series above each other. He evidently borrowed the practice from Philibert Delorme, who had done the same thing at the Chateau d'Anet, near Paris, one of the victim edifices of the Revolution. We apprehend any argument to prove the absurdity of such conceits is unnecessary.
+45. Many of the grandest works of what is termed the Elizabethan, or, in truth, the last Tudor style, were not completed before the middle of the reign of James I. ; so that it may be said to have been practised until the days of Inigo Jones, in whose early works it may be traced. “This fashion,” says Dallaway, “ of building enormous houses was ex. tended to that period, and even to the civil war. Audley Inn, Hatfield, Charlton, Wilts, and particularly Wollaton, are those in which the best architecture of that age may be seen. Others of the nobility, deserting their baronial residences, indulged themselves in a rivalship in point of extent and grandeur of their country-houses, which was, of course, followed by opulent merchants, the founders of new families. Sir Baptist Hickes, the king's mercer (afterwards ennobled), built Campden House, Gloucestershire, which was scarcely inferior to Hatfield, afterwards burnt down. There is scarcely a county in England which cannot boast of having once contained similar edifices; a very few are stil. inhabited; others may be traced by their ruins, or remembered by the oldest villagers, who can confirm the tradition; and the sites, at least, of others are pointed out by descriptions as having existed within the memory of man.”
446. The following is a list of some of the principal palatial houses finished before 1600. Others of the reign of Elizabeth's successors will hereafter be noticed. Of so many of them are the names of the architects undetermined, though many are assigned to those we have already mentioned, that we shall not attempt to assign a column to the artists in question, for fear of misleading our readers.
447. Relative to Osterley, in the above table, a curious anecdote has been preserved by Puller, in his Worthies of Middlesex. , Queen Elizabeth, when visiting its magnificent amerchant, the owner, observed to him that the court ought to have been divided by a wall. He immediately collected so many artificers, that before the queen had risen the next morning, says the historian, a wall had been actually erected.
448. Many of these houses possessed terraces of imposing grandeur, which were connected by broad or double flights of steps, with balustrades, whereof, if we may judge from Winstanley's print of Wimbledon, the seat of Sir Edward Cecil, it was a very fine example. The following extracts from the parliamentary survey of it in 1649 will convey some notion of its extent. “The scite of this manor-house being placed on the side slipp of a rising grownde, renders it to stand of that height, that betwixt the basis of the brick wall of the lower court, and the hall door of the sayd manor-house, there are five several ascents, consisting of three score and ten stepps, which are distinguished in a very graceful manner. The platforms were composed of Flanders brick, and the stepps of freestone, very well wrought. . On the ground floor was a room called the stone gallery, 108 foot long, pillared and arched with gray marble." The ceiling of the hall “was of fret or parge work, in the middle whereof was fixed one well-wrought landskip, and round the same, in convenient distances, seven other pictures in frames, as ornaments to the whole roome; the floor was of black and white marble.”
449. As we have above observed, the Elizabethan style is a mixture of Gothic and Italian. It is characterised by orders very inaccurately and rudely profiled; by arcades whose openings are often extravagantly wide, their height not unfrequently running up into the entablature. The columns on the piers are almost universally on pedestals, and are often banded in courses of circular or square blocks at intervals of their height; when square, they are constantly decorated with prismatic raisings, in imitation of precious stones, a species of £ '' ' • #' like unbroken entablatures 'ptions, which at their '' par £ y in scrolls for the reception of in- * * es, are voluted and curled up, like so many pieces of scorched leather. All these eccentricities are so concentrated in their sepulchral monuments that no better insight into the leading principles of the style can be afforded than an example from Westminster Abbey, here given in the monument of Queen Elizabeth herself (fig. 205.). In this it will be seen that the taste is cumbrous and confused; and to add to the anomalies, the figures were coloured, and the different sorts of marbles and alabasters of numberless hues. The general composition consists in a large altar tomb under an open arcade, with a rich and complicated entablature. The columns are usually of black or white marble, of the Doric or Corinthian order. Small pyra. midal figures, whose sides were richly veneered with variously coloured pieces, disposed in ornamented squares or circles supporting globes, are of continual occurrence. Armorial bearings in their various colours were introduced to excess. When the monument is placed against a wall, which is more usually the case, the plan was accommodated | - to it, and the alcove with its Fig. 205. Qt, Frn Elizabern's Alox usikxr. columns universally retained. Among the best examples are those of Thomas Ratcliffe Earl of Sussex at Boreham in Essex, to cost 1500l., and of his countess in Westminster Abbey; of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester at Warwick; and of Henry Carey Lord Hunsdon in Westminster Abbey. 450. It seems droll in this age, when throughout Europe the principles of good taste in architecture are so well understood, that fashion, induced by the cupidity and ignorance of upholsterers and decorators,—the curses of the art.—should again sanction an adoption of the barbarous forms and unmeaning puerilities which it might be supposed Jones and Wren had, by their example, consigned to a merited oblivion. We fear our warning voice will do little to suppress the rage till its cycle is completed. We have, in the prolongation of the subject, sacrificed our own feelings to the rage in the present day for designs of this class, and have assigned to it a far longer description than it deserves. The wretched cockney imitations of it perpetrated for retired shopkeepers in the insignificant villas of the suburbs of the metropolis, and occasionally for the amusement of country gentlemen a little more distant, as well as the use of what is called Gothic, appear to us in no other light than mockeries of a style which is repudiated by the manners of the nineteenth century. The style called Elizabethan we consider quite as unworthy of imitation as would be the adoption in the present day of the model of the ships of war, with their unwieldly and topheavy poops, which encountered the Armada, in preference to the beautiful and compact form of a well-moulded modern frigate.
JAMES 1. TO ANNE.
451. The first of the reigns that heads this section has, in some measure, been anticipated in our notice of Elizabethan architecture, which it was impossible to keep altogether distinct from the following reign. The angular and circular bay windows now disappeared entirely, and were supplanted by large square ones, of very large dimensions in their height, unequally divided by transoms, and placed in lengthened rows, so as to form leading features in the several stories of the building. Battlements were now entirely omitted. and the general effect of the pile became one of massive solidity, broken by a square turret loftier than those at the angles. The houses built in the reign of James I. are deficient in the picturesque beauty found in those of his predecessors. Many of them were finished by the architects named in the last section, and they were on a larger scale than even those of the age of Elizabeth. Audley Inn in 1616, Hatfield in 1611, and Charlton House in Wiltshire for Sir Henry Knevett, were, perhaps, the best specimens. The house at Campden, Gloucestershire, built by Sir Baptist Hickes, and which was burned down during the civil wars, consisted of four fronts, the principal one being towards the garden, upon the ground terrace; at each angle was a lateral projection of some feet, with spacious bay windows; in the centre a portico, with a series of the columns of the five orders (as in the schools at Oxford), and an open corridor. The parapet was finished with pediments of a capricious taste, and the chimneys were twisted pillars with Corinthian capitals. A very capacious dome issued from the roof, which was regularly illuminated for the direction of travellers during the night. This immense building was enriched with friezes and entablatures, most profusely sculptured; it is reported to have been erected at the expense of 29,000l., and to have occupied, with its offices, a site of eight acres.”
452. The use of the orders became more general. In Glamorganshire, at Beaupré Castle (1600), which has a front and porch of the Doric order, we find a composition including that just named, the Ionic and the Corinthian, wherein the capitals and columns are accurately designed and executed. The following table exhibits some of the principal houses of the period : —
House. Date. County. Founder.
Holland House - 1607 |Middlesex - Sir Walter Cope - - Perfect J. Thorpe (?) Bramshill - - 1607–12| Hants -|Edward Lord Zouche - do. Uncertain
453. Under James, the pride and magnificence of the aristocracy was as equally displayed in the sumptuous monuments erected to the memory of the departed as in their stately palaces; and we can scarcely point to a county in England whose parish churches do not attest the fact by the gorgeous tombs that exist in villages where the mansions of those thus commemorated have not long since passed from the memory of man. A year's rental of an estate, and that frequently under testamentary direction, was often squandered in the sepulchral monument of the deceased lord of a manor.
454. In the reign of James I. properly commences the career of Inigo Jones, to which we hasten with delight, as indicating the dawn of true architecture (for the Gothic had irretrievably passed away) in England. It resembles the arrival of a traveller at an oasis in the desert, after a parching and toilsome journey. “Jones, if a table of fame,” says Walpole, “like that in the Tatler, were to be formed for men of real and indisputable genius in every country, would save England from the disgrace of not having her representative among the arts. She adopted Holbein and Vandyck, she borrowed Rubens, she produced Inigo J mes. Vitruvius drew up his grammar, Palladio showed him the practice, Rome displayed a theatre worthy his emulation, and King Charles was ready to encourage, employ, and reward his talents. This is the history of Inigo Jones as a genius." Generally speaking, we are not admirers of Walpole, who often sacrificed truth to fancy, and the character of an artist to a prettily-turned period; hence we are disinclined to concur in his criticisms without many qualifications; but in this case he has so well expressed our own feelings, that we regret we cannot add force to the observations in which we so fully Concull". 455. Inigo Jones was the son of a clothworker, and was born about 1572. From the most probable accounts he appears to have been apprenticed to a joiner, in which state he was, from some accounts, discovered by the Earl of Arundel, from others by William Earl of Pembroke, and by one or other of these noblemen sent to Italy, rather, however, according to Walpole, to study the art of painting, than that of architecture, for the former of which, the author named says, Nature appears not to have fitted him, inasmuch as “he dropped the pencil, and conceived Whitehall.” But our own belief is, that though he might have afterwards been patronised by both the noblemen above mentioned, he owed this part of his education to neither of them; for, considering that at his first visit to Italy, before 1605, Lord Pembroke was but just of age, and that Lord Arundel was somewhat younger, there is no great probability that either of them thus assisted him in his studies on the Continent. 456. Of his employment as an architect nothing can be traced previous to the visit of James I. to the University of Oxford, in 1605, at which time he was thirty-three years old; and then, according to Leland (Collectanea, App. vol. vi. p. 647.), “They " the University) “hired one Mr. Jones, a great traveller, who undertook to further them with rare devices, but performed little to what was expected. He had for his pains, I have constantly heard, 50l.;” from which it is certain that his earliest visit to Italy was before 1605. At Venice he became acquainted with the works of Palladio; and there, as Walpole observes, “learned how beautifully taste may be exerted on a less theatre thar the capital of an empire.” In this city his reputation was so great, that Christian IV. appointed him his architect, though of the buildings erected by him in Denmark we know nothing. In this country's capital, however, he was found by James, and by his Queen (Anne) was removed from Copenhagen to Scotland, in the quality of her architect. By Prince Henry he was employed in the same capacity, and about this time had the grant in reversion of surveyor general of the works. On the untimely and lamented death of that prince, he once more visited Italy, where he perfected his taste and ripened his judgment It appears more than probable that it was previous to his second journey that he designed those of his buildings that partake of a bastard style. These buildings, however, are such as could, under the circumstances, have been designed only by a great master in a state of transition from one style to another; such, for instance, are the north and south sides of the quadrangle at St. John's College, Oxford, in which he seems to have copied all the faults of the worst examples of his great master Palladio; still the composition is so picturesque, that, though reluctantly, we cannot avoid admiring it. In the garden front of
the same college (fig. 206.), notwithstanding its impurity, there is a breadth and grandeur which subdue criticism, and raise our admiration; and we by no means subscribe to Horace walpole's dictum, that “Inigo's designs of that period have a littleness of parts and a weight of ornament.” Previous to his second return to England, the surveyor's place had fallen in, and finding the office in debt, he prevailed, as Walpole observes, with an air of