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C O N TENTS.
13. Roman - - - . 75
14. Byzantine and Romanesque 107
15. (a) Origin of the Pointed
Areh - - • . 119
(b) Mediaeval Artificers . 125
5. Iron . - • * * . 508 Electric Appliances. . 726
PRACTICE of ARCHITECTURE.
25. Proportions of Rooms. . 933
PRINCIPLES OF PROPORTION.
5. General Principles of Pro-
VALUATION OF PROPERTY.
CIVIL AND ECCLESIASTICAL
DILAPIDATIONS . - ... 1093 Pound will Purchase for
CALCULATION OF INTEREST . 1101 , 6. Showing the Value of an
Observations . - - - . 1104
Annuity on One Life ac-
Continuance of Two
any Number of Years . 1106 Probabilities of Life in
CHAPTER IV. ties of Life in London . 1126
1. Paotection from the inclemency of the seasons was the ancestor of architecture. Of ttle account at its birth, it rose into light and life with the civilisation of mankind; and. proportionately as security, peace, and good order were established, it became, not less than its sisters, painting and sculpture, one method of transmitting to posterity the degree of importance to which a nation had attained, and the moral value of that nation amongst the kingdoms of the earth. If the art, however, be considered strictly in respect of its actual utility, its principles are restricted within very narrow limits; for the mere art, or rather science, of construction, has no title to a place among the fine arts. Such is in various degrees to be found among people of savage and uncivilised habits; and until it is brought into a system founded upon certain laws of proportion, and upon rules based on a refined analysis of what is suitable in the highest degree to the end proposed, it can pretend to no rank of a high class. It is only when a nation has arrived at a certain degree of opulence and luxury that architecture can be said to exist in it. Hence it is that architecture, in its origin, took the varied forms which have impressed it with such singular differences in different countries; differences which, though modified as each country advanced in civilisation, were, in each, so stamped, that the type was permanent, being refined only in a higher degree in their most important examples.
2. The ages that have elapsed, and the distance by which we are separated from the nations among whom the art was first practised, deprive us of the means of examining the shades of difference resulting from climate, productions of the soil, the precise spots upon which the earliest societies of man were fixed, with their origin, number, mode of life, and social institutions; all of which influenced them in the selection of one form in preference to another. We may, however, easily trace in the architecture of nations, the types of three distinct states of life, which are clearly discoverable at the present time; though in some cases the types may be thought doubtful.