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BOOK II.

THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE.

PAGE

CHAPTER I, SECT. 2. Bricklaying and Tiling 558

MATHEMATICS AND MECHANICS OF Fireproof Floors . . 567

CONSTRUCTION. Concrete Building . . 569

PAGE Paving . - - . 572

SECT. 1. Geometry - - - . 264 Terra-cotta . - . 574

2. Practical Geometry . . 291 3. Masonry . - - . 578

3. Plane Trigonometry . . 296 Columns. • - . 584

4. Conic Sections . • . 302 Staircases * - . 587

5. Descriptive Geometry. .317 Stone-cutting . . . 588

6. Mensuration . - . 330 Gothic Vaulting . . 607

7. Mechanics and Statics. . 339 Marbles . - • ... 613

8. Piers and Vaults • . 356 4. Carpentry . * - . 615

9. Walls and Piers. • . 392 - Roofs . • - . 623

10. Beams and Pillars . . 415 Domes . - - ... 646

5. Joinery . - * ... 649

CHAPTER II. 6. Slating • - • . 676

7. Plumbery . - - . 681

MATERIALS USED IN BUILDING. Water-closets . • . 686

SECT. 1. Stone . . . . . 449 Traps . . . . 688

Decay of Stone . . 478 Cisterns and Filters . 690

Preservation of Stone . 480 Copper, Zinc, Brass . 697

Artificial Stone . . 482 8. Glazing . . . . 700

2. Granite . . . . 484 9. Plastering . . . . 704

3. Marble . . . . 488 Cements . . . . 710

4. Timber . - - . 494 10. Smithery and Ironmongery. 713

Preservation of Timber . 504 ornamental Metal work. 718

Decay and Dry Rot. , 505 Gas Fitter . . . . 723

5. Iron . - • * * . 508 Electric Appliances. . 726
Steel - . 512 11. Foundery . - - . 728
Corrosion of Iron . . 513 Testing and Machinery . 730
6. Lead . • - • . 515 12. Painting, Gilding, Paper-
7. Copper . - . 517 hanging • - - . 732
8. Zinc . • - • . 518 13. Wentilation of Buildings . 740
9. Slate . • • • . 520 14. Warming of Buildings . 746
10. Brick . - • • . 522 15. Specifications . - . 751
Tile • - • . 528 16. Measuring and Estimating 780
Terra-cotta . . . 530
11. Lime, Sand, Water, Mortar, CHAPTER IV.
Concrete, Cement . . 532
12. Glass . - - • . 545 MEDIUM of EXPRESSION.
SECT. 1. Drawing in general . . 804
CHAPTER III. 2. Perspective - • ... 811
3. Shadows . - • . 824
USE OF MATERIALS, OR PRACTICAL 4. General Principles of Com-
BUILDING, position . . . 833
Sect. 1. Foundations and Drains .. 548 5. Drawings necessary in Com-
Sewerage * - . 551 position . - - . 835
Drainage - . 553 6. Working Drawings . . 836

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xiv CONTENTS.

BOOK IV.

VALUATION OF PROPERTY.
CIIAPTER I. | Table 3. Amount of One Pound per PAGE .

VALUATION OF PROPERTY . . £ in any Number * 11 1 -

CIVIL AND ECCLESIASTICAL

DILAPIDATIONS . - ... 1093 Pound will Purchase for
any Number of Years
CHAPTER III. LIFE ANNUITY TABLEs.

CALCULATION OF INTEREST . 1101 , 6. Showing the Value of an

Observations . - - - . 1104
Table 1. Amount of One Pound in

Annuity on One Life ac-
cording to the Probabili-

Continuance of Two
Lives, according to the

any Number of Years . 1106 Probabilities of Life in

. 1122

CHAPTER IV. ties of Life in London . 1126
COMPOUND INTEREST AND £"
ANNUITY TABLES. , 7, showing -
Annuity on the Joint

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA

*
- OF
&
A R C H IT E C T U R E.
t BOOK I.
8: HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE.
- CHAP. I.

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1. Paotection from the inclemency of the seasons was the ancestor of architecture. Of ttle account at its birth, it rose into light and life with the civilisation of mankind; and. proportionately as security, peace, and good order were established, it became, not less than its sisters, painting and sculpture, one method of transmitting to posterity the degree of importance to which a nation had attained, and the moral value of that nation amongst the kingdoms of the earth. If the art, however, be considered strictly in respect of its actual utility, its principles are restricted within very narrow limits; for the mere art, or rather science, of construction, has no title to a place among the fine arts. Such is in various degrees to be found among people of savage and uncivilised habits; and until it is brought into a system founded upon certain laws of proportion, and upon rules based on a refined analysis of what is suitable in the highest degree to the end proposed, it can pretend to no rank of a high class. It is only when a nation has arrived at a certain degree of opulence and luxury that architecture can be said to exist in it. Hence it is that architecture, in its origin, took the varied forms which have impressed it with such singular differences in different countries; differences which, though modified as each country advanced in civilisation, were, in each, so stamped, that the type was permanent, being refined only in a higher degree in their most important examples.

2. The ages that have elapsed, and the distance by which we are separated from the nations among whom the art was first practised, deprive us of the means of examining the shades of difference resulting from climate, productions of the soil, the precise spots upon which the earliest societies of man were fixed, with their origin, number, mode of life, and social institutions; all of which influenced them in the selection of one form in preference to another. We may, however, easily trace in the architecture of nations, the types of three distinct states of life, which are clearly discoverable at the present time; though in some cases the types may be thought doubtful.

B

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