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figure? To which I answer, that the thing signified is, in the plainest and most literal sense, -THE FIRST RESURRECTION.

I maintain that the words, “This is the first Resurrection,are expository, and intended to be literally understood; which, I think, may be clearly demonstrated.

In order to prove this I observe, that the Apocalypse is figurative throughout; with the exception, that there are incidental passages of a literal character, such as are necessarily interwoven with all prophecies, and without which they could have no definite meaning or application: and with the further exception also—that there is disposed throughout the Book a complete series of explanatory indices, which, like buoys and lighthouses at sea, are intended to afford us special intimation of our bearings. I will instance some, and terminate with the passage in question, marking what I consider to be literal expository matter in italic letters.

“The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches.—Chap. i. 20.

“There were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God.-iv. 5.

“In the midst of the elders stood a Lamb, as it had been slain, having seven horns, and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God.v. 8. See also Zechariah iii. 9, and iv. 16.

“The four and twenly elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odors, which are the prayers of saints.—v. 8.

“What are these which are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they?” -These are they which came out of THE great tribulation, &c."*-vii. 13-16.

“And I will give power unto my two witnesses, &c." These are the two olive trees and the two candlesticks, standing before the God of the earth.—xi. 3, 4. See also Zechariah iv. 2, 3, & 11-14.

“Their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiri!ually is called Sodom and Egypt, g-c."-xi. 8.

“I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the dragon, beast, and false prophet.--For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, fc."--xvii. 13, 14.

"The ten horns which thou sawest—are ten kings.-xvii. 12.

“The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, multitudes, and nations, and tongues.-xvii. 15.

* The article exists in the original, and is important to be noticed, seeing that some refer it to the great tribulation spoken of by Daniel and the other prophets.

“The woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.-xvii. 18.

«The fine linen is the righteousness of saints.—xix. 8. “The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.-xix. 10.

“The dragon, that old serpent, which is the devil and Salan." XX. 2.

“And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, &c.—This is the first resurrection.—xx. 4, 5.

Now, without going further, it is clear to me, that this last example is of the same nature with the former; and the expository clauses must necessarily have a reference to something plain and obvious to all, or to subjects which were, or ought to have been, familiar to believers, or they would not serve the purpose of explanatory marks. I conclude therefore by asking, what could the index This is the first Resurrectionpoint to? What notion could those to whom these things were revealed have had upon the subject, unless it was derived from those very texts of Scripture, to which I have appealed in defence of the doctrine of THE FIRST RESURRECTION?

Essay VII.

The Judgment.

As objection of some weight appears, at first view, to lie against the doctrine of the first resurrection, arising from the numerous Scriptures which set forth Christ, as coming to judge the world at his second advent; which circumstance is thought to be incompatible with the wicked not being raised and judged at the same time. The difficulty however consists in the circumstance of our having departed from the scriptural view of Judgment; which commentators have been gradually compelled to do, from the necessity of evading the obvious testimony of a host of texts to the personal reign of the Lord on earth: for there is perhaps no doctrine of Scripture which more directly supports this view, than the doctrine of the Judgment, if only it be rightly understood.

1. The single idea entertained by most persons on this point, is that of a great assizes, at which the Lord Jesus will preside, and at which all mankind will be put upon their trial. But God has revealed to us far more than this. The characteristics of a JUDGE, as given to us in Scripture, are as follow: to rule and govern as a king-to deliver and protect his peopleand to avenge them on their enemies: whence it follows, that judgment

must consist, not only in vengeance or punishment, but also in deliverance and government.

In proof of this I observe, that the Judges who were over Israel before the time of Saul, the first king, were all of them men raised up as deliverers and avengers;a as Gideon, Sampson, Jephtha, and others; in which character they were also types of the Lord Jesus. And when the Israelites demanded a king, it was not so much a change in the nature of the office which they desired, as a more complete and fixed state of it: for they would not be any longer dependent upon the Lord, either to fight their battles, or to raise them up Saviours; but they cried, “We will have a king over us, that we also may be like all the nations; and that our king may judge us, and go out before us, and fight our battles.”b Thus the king was still to be the judge: just as St. Paul, speaking of our all standing before the judgment seat of Christ, says—"that to this end Christ both died and rose and revived, that he might be LORD both of the dead and living"e—the same thing as "Judge both of quick and dead.”

The chief prophecies concerning Christ as Judge will further shew, that princely rule and government are connected with his judgment; and that it will be a continued office among or over the nations. Take the following passages in the Psalms; and let it be observed in them, that the judgment or righteous government spoken of therein is evidently to be upon the earth. “Give the King thy judgments, O. God, and thy righteousness unto the King's son. He shall judge thy people with righteousness, and thy poor with judgments.—For he shall judge the poor of the people, he shall save the children of the needy, and shall break in pieces the oppressor.d "Arise, O God, judge the earth; for thou shalt inherit all nations." "For He (the Lord) cometh, for he cometh to judge the earth: he shall judge the world with righteousness, and the people with his truth." “For the Lord cometh to judge the earth: with righteousness shall he judge the world, and the people with equity.”—“He shall judge the world in righteousness, he shall minister judgment to the people in uprightness.” O let the nations be glad and sing for joy! for thou shalt judge the people righteously, and govern the nations upon earth.i Other prophets afforda similar testimony. Thus Isaiah and Micah declare of him: “He shall judge among many people and rebuke strong nations afar off:”j and Jeremiah says, “Behold-a king shall reign and prosper; and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.k

Judges ii. 16–18. b 1 Sam. viii. 19, 20. c Rom. xiv. 9. d Ps. Ixxii. 1 and 4 elxxxii. 8. cxcvi. 13. sxcviii. 9. bix. 8. i lxvii, 4. ; Mic. iv. 3; Isa. ii. 4. * Jer. xxiii. 5.

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The same truth may be gathered also from that text in Corinthians, which speaks of the termination of his judgment: for the Apostle says, that he shall then lay down all rule, authority and power;' which shews, that rule, authority and the like are connected with his previous judgment: even as Christ himself says,-that the “Father hath given him authority to execute judgment." This testimony may be summed up in one passage of Scripture: “The Lord is our Judge—the Lord is our Lawgider-the Lord is our King—he will save us."n

And as we have seen, that though he declared he was a KING, being born to that end;o yet that he refused to let the people come and make him a king, and would not at that time exercise his royal prerogative: so also, though he declared that all judgment was committed to the Son, yet did he not then assume the character of judge. He tells Nicodemus, that God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world. He refused to judge in the case of the woman taken in adultery;" and he rebuked another, who would have anticipated his rule, with the words-Man, who made me a judge or a divider over you?”

It will be further evident, that what is most frequently called in Scripture "he judgment,” is no other than the kingdom and rule of Christ, when it is considered that the saints are to have part in it. For first Enoch prophesied, “Behold the Lord cometh with myriads of his saints, to execute judgment upon

David says, that to execute the judgment written is an honour, which all the saints are to have. Isaiah says, “Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgmeni." In the vision which Daniel had, judgment was given to the saints of the Most High, when the ancient of days came." And, finally, St. Paul declares most positively, “that the saints shall judge the world." And it should he observed in these passages, that the participation of the saints in the judgment is not confined merely to their receiving“power over the nations” to rule; but they are apparently to be made instrumental in inflicting the vengeance also. Such is the burden of the testimony in the 149th Psalm, which declares that they have "a two-edged sword in their hand, to execute vengeance upon the heathen and punishments upon the people; to bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron." Such is implied in Rev. ii. 26, just referred to, where in addition to "power over the nations" it is said, "they shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they

all."

1 Cor. xv, 24. m John v. 27. n Isa. xxxiii. 22. o John xviii, 37. 9 John v. 22. rii. 17. • viii. 3. Luke xii. 14. u Jude 14, 15. cxlix. 5-9. * Isa, xxxii. 1. y Dan. vii. 22. 21 Cor. vi. 2, 3.

p vi. 15. » Psalm

be broken to shivers." Again it is written, “Ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet;''a and “the righteous shall wash his feet in the blood of the wicked:' all which passages, though studded with metaphor, and in the Revelation veiled in symbols, do signify a coercive power and restraint, which shall be exercised at that time by the righteous.

Those who deny the future kingdom of our Lord and his saints are nevertheless compelled to admit, that the saints will in some way or other be joined with him in the judgment. But how?– If the judgment is only to be a kind of trial, in which rewards and punishments are to be determined by the Lord, the saints will themselves stand before the judgment seat of Christ, and give account of the deeds done in the body: and then, the secrets of all hearts shall be revealed, and every one shall be rewarded according to his works.. Besides which, it is evident that there is to be a difference in degree of rank and authority among the saints in this judgment; as when our Lord says of his apostles, that "they shall sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel;'d_which tribes I apprehend to be the redeemed Israel, and therefore themselves to partake in the judgment.

But if we understand by the judgment rule and authority, then these things are persectly reconcileable. I can only reconcile with this view of it the Lord's declaring, that one shall be ruler over five cities, and another shall have authority over ten cities, &c.

Having thus far, as I trust, cleared this matter, I would next notice, that the period of judgment must necessarily include the whole period of the saints' rule on earth; and likewise that tribulation or wrath upon the nations which ushers it in; together with that final visitation which closes it. This, whatever may be the events to be enacted of a judicial character—whether the wrath by plague, pestilence, famine, sword, revolution, or fire upon the wicked; or the authority, power and government given to the saints;-all this, I repeat, is in my apprehension of it intended by THE JUDGMENT.

Before however I enter more particularly upon the consideration of the events included in the judgment, I will first meet the objections which are made to this extension of its period.

First then it is argued, that the whole time of judgment is called “the day of the Lord,” “that great day;" which expressions are considered incompatible with its continuance through

. Mal. iv. 3. b Psalm lviii. 10. c Rom. xiv. 10-12; 2 Cor. v. 10. xix, 28; Luke xxii. 30. e Luke xix. 17-19.

d Matt.

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