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in the early part of the last century used had announced to their Lordships, Sir to follow the Highland chiefs to battle-John Burgoyne's statement being that such troops, as history informed us, they would require embodiment for, at were never found capable of bearing the least, a year or two before it would be strain of a protracted war, and were never wise to trust them in collision with an efficient when brought into collision with enemy. This being the character of the regular troops. Another reason against article we bought, he now turned to the treating the Volunteers in this manner price we paid for it compared with that was that their services would never be paid by other nations. In France the required except in the case of actual in- military expenditure for last year was vasion. Now in such an emergency it £14,953,431, being an average for each was of the utmost importance to keep, in soldier of the standing Army with the the highest degree of working order, all colours of £37. Including the Reserves, the public Departments—especially the the average cost was less than £20 per locomotive, the intelligence, and the man; and including the National Guard supply services of the country; and he Mobile, £11 per man. In North Gerbelieved a large portion of the Volun- many the military expenditure was teers belonged to that class of society £10,175,444, giving an average for the who could not be spared under such cir- standing Army of £33 per man; while, cumstances from their ordinary voca- including the Reserves, it was £13 per tions, and who would really be perform- man; and including the Landwehr £10 ing more efficient service against an per man. In this country the estimated invader by discharging their civil func- net charge, deducting all probable or tions than if called out for military contemplated receipts by the War Deservice. By all means let us, if we partment for the current year, would, encourage volunteering as a £12,795,400, giving an average for the means of developing the martial spirit regular Army of £100 per man; includof the country, and of creating a very ing the Reserves, £80 per man; and, if useful auxiliary force in time of war; all forces were included, of £30 per man. but we should not reckon them as part Thus against £37 in France and £33 in of our standing force or as a distinct North Germany, there was £100 in military organization in substitution for England ; against £20 in France and more regular troops. This was the last £13 in North Germany, £80 in Engbranch of the military force of the coun- land; and against £11 in France and try enumerated by my right hon. Friend. £10 in North Germany, £30 in EngNow, the general estimate he (Lord land. These figures spoke for themMonck) had formed of our defensive selves, and needed no commentary. Of forces was this — We had a highly effi- course, the power of conscription gave cient but small regular Army, and all great advantages in reducing the pecu our supplementary forces were in such a niary cost of an Army; but, instead of state, from imperfoct organization, train- sittting down contented with this excuse ing, and armament, that it would be for so enormous a disparity, ought we simply madness to expose them to col- not to consider whether the principles lision with the highly organized, highly on which our system was based were trained, and well armed troops which such as to insure economy; and should might be brought against them by we not try, by increasing in every way foreign nations in large numbers. It the moral attractions of the Service, to was some satisfaction—though he must diminish to the utmost extent the price admit it was not a pleasing one under we had to pay? That pecuniary cost, the circumstances—that one of the most moreover, was not the only price the distinguished and experienced officers country paid for the maintenance of its in the British Army, Sir John Burgoyne, Army; for there was the pressure on its had, within the last few days, published resources produced by the withdrawal, a pamphlet on our defensive force, which during a portion of their lives, of a large he had only seen within the last forty- portion of its able-bodied population eight hours; and the conclusion to which from productive industry; and we had that distinguished officer came with re- also to consider the effects on the Soldier gard to the condition of what he (Lord himself and, through him, on society at Monck) had called the supplementary large, of withdrawing him from his force, was precisely the same as that he home and relatives for so long a period

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as was imposed by the conditions of our becoming practically a Militiaman. This, Service. These influences evidently like the long - service system, drew a varied in their intensity according to the hard and fast” line beyond which it system adopted for recruiting and ma- could not reach, the numbers being connagement; and this brought him to a fined to the men in the ranks; but it comparison of the different methods pur- was more likely to produce efficient solsued in the three Armies which he had diers, and it certainly pressed less sebeen reviewing. The English might be verely on the industry of the country called the long-enlistment system ; for, and on the habits of individual men. though, of late years, ten years' enlist- Whatever their merits or demerits in ment had been sanctioned, our policy other respects, these were essentially had always been to encourage re-enlist- systems of large standing Armies—for ment; and it had been shown by the the absence of any principle of elasticity, illustrious Duke who commanded the and the impossibility of expanding the Army, in his evidence before Lord force in times of emergency necessitated Hotham's Commission of 1861, that the the keeping up, if efficiency was desired, period of ten years, while too long to of a large body of men constantly with secure to the soldier the moral advan- the colours. The third system was one tages resulting from restoration to civil of long engagement and short actual life at an early age, was too short to service. It was best exemplified in the maintain the strength and efficiency of Prussian military system. A soldier the Army without large annual draughts served three years in the Army, four of recruits. In fact, the English system years in the Reserve, nine years in combined the evils both of the long and the Landwehr, with liability to be called short-enlistment system, without securing out for service in the regular Army in the advantages supposed to be derived time of war, and then, up to fifty years from either. The effect of this system on of age, was enrolled in the Landsturm, numbers was that it could not give being only called upon for service in case

the command of a large force. of invasion. Practically, he was disWith regard to efficiency, he thought missed to civil life at the end of three the prevailing opinion was that the effi- years' service in the regular Army. ciency of an Army was not promoted by This system, when it had been some keeping men in time of peace for long time in operation, obviously gave the periods of service. The system was ne- disposal of large numbers of trained cessarily expensive, for a man being kept men, and by making the Army in time in the Army during the best portion of of peace a military school for the popuhis life, he had not only to be paid for lation, as also by its expansive powers, that period, but to be provided with enabled the country to keep its standing some maintenance when he left it; and Army in time of peace at a much lower it pressed heavily on the industry of the strength than either England or France. country by withdrawing for the best por- It pressed lightly on industry, for it tion of their lives the whole of the men withdrew men for only a short time from devoted to military service. Its effect, industrial occupations; and, so far from too, on the individual soldier was demo- being injurious to the individual, it was ralizing in the extreme by its practice calculated to be beneficial, taking men of enforced celibacy, bythe monotony and at an early period of life, when they weariness of a soldier's life, and by with were capable of receiving impressions, drawing him during the best portion of and keeping them just long enough to his life from the influences of home and inculcate habits of order, discipline, and of the family. The greatest contrast to regularity, without retaining them so this was the system of short enlistments, long as to destroy their capacity or taste which sought to diminish the pressure of for civil life. In a country like Prussia, military service by diffusing it over a which in time of peace required no foreign large mass, and thus equalizing the service, this system combined all the eleburden over the whole community. The ments of efficiency and economy, and nearest approach to this system was though not applicable in its entirety to that of France, where a soldier serves England, it furnished hints for materially for five years in the regular Army and improving the condition of our military four

years in the Reserve, after which he force. The obstacles to the complete passes into the National Guard Mobile, adoption of the Prussian system into our



service were principally under three generally were opposed to the abolition heads — first, colonial service ; of the purchase system. Now, he had secondly, the purchase system ; and, taken the trouble to read the evidence thirdly, the necessity of maintaining á taken before the Commission to which he European garrison in India. He hoped, had referred, and he found that such however, that the first obstacle would be soldiers as Lord Clyde, Sir Duncan very soon swept out of our path, and M‘Dougall, Sir De Lacy Evans, Lord that detached military stations and posts West, Sir James Scarlett, Sir John, might be provided for without drawing Franks, and General Spencer, and other on the ranks of our regular Army. In distinguished officers, all gave

their evijustice to the colonies, and in order that dence before the Commission against the they might be able to place themselves continuance of the purchase system ; and in a condition of self-defence, they should he was sure that the experience of their be explicitly informed that the with Lordships would suggest to them the drawal of troops now going on resulted names of numerous intelligent officers of from no spasmodic effort at economy, their acquaintance who were opposed to but from deliberate policy; and that in the continuance of the system. It used to time of peace they must, under no cir- be a stock argument against the abolicumstances, expect to see an Imperial tion of purchase that no scheme had ever soldier within their limits; while in time been proposed to carry it into effect. of war Imperial troops will be handled That argument, however, was no longer and distributed solely with reference to open, because there was laid before the Imperial strategical considerations, and Commission a most able scheme for the will be sent to a colony in the event abolition of purchase in connection with only of its becoming the theatre of the the general re-organization of the Army. decisive contest of a war. All local dis- That scheme was elaborated by an hon. turbances in time of peace, and desul- Friend of his, whom he thought it was tory attacks in the nature of a diversion no flattery to call the greatest master of in time of war, must be met, they should the principles of administrative orgabe given to understand, by colonial mization that England possessed — he forces. With respect to the second ob- meant Sir Charles Trevelyan. That stacle—the purchase system—he was not scheme was based on the same prinabout to argue the question, but merely ciples which, chiefly through the instrumentioned it because he believed it to be mentality of his hon. Friend, had then intimately connected with the difficulty been lately applied to the Civil Service of of obtaining recruits. There were but the country. The experience we then had two ways of obtaining recruits—compul- of that system in regard to the Civil sion and attraction; the former being Service was not sufficiently long to renthe system which had always prevailed der the argument very strong in favour on the Continent, while the latter was of the scheme of his hon. Friend; but that which we had hitherto adopted. that system had ever since been in opeHe should be sorry to see the introduc- ration in respect to the Civil Service, tion in this country of a compulsory and if he did not know that it was system ; and no one had a right to argue working satisfactorily and efficiently for its necessity, until he showed that all from other sources, he should derive means of rendering the service attractive that impression from the fact that the had been exhausted. Now it was absurd annual attacks upon that system in the to say that those means had been ex- House of Commons, which characterized hausted, when we maintained a system its infancy, had of late years entirely which practically debarred from all the ceased. As he said before, he did not prizes of the service the great body of mean to argue this question now; but men who entered it. The partial dis- he might express his opinion that, if continuance of the system was recom- service in the ranks were recognized is mended more than ten years ago in the one of the ordinary modes of obtainings Report of a Commission bearing the commissions, you would attract to the signatures of Somerset, Stanley, Sydney ranks a class of educated men who were Herbert, De Lacy Evans, Harry D. now in vain looking out for a career, Jones, and George Carr Glyn. In who would compose the working officers arguing this question it was always of the Army and whose presence in the assumed that the officers of the Army ranks, while they remained there, would


tend to raise the character of the entire -unless he were prepared to undertake force. The third obstacle to the intro- the responsibility of suggesting a mode duction of what he conceived to be sound of amending it. With their Lordships' principles in our military organization permission he would now conclude by was the necessity for maintaining our stating the mode in which he thought force in India ; and he might as well that a modification of the Prussian sysat once admit that he did not think any tem might be applied to our own military application of the short-service system forces. He took for the basis our Army, could be made to our Indian service; that portion which would be required because no period of service longer for foreign service in time of peace, and than one of from three to five years which would consist principally, if not would secure to the State the economic, entirely, of our Indian garrison, and or to the individual the social, benefit those of the Mediterranean stations on arising from the short-engagement sys- the road to India. He meant to illustem ; and when you considered the great trate his plan by a reference to the Inexpense of constant reliefs, and the fantry of the Line alone, because, though difficulty of obtaining the number of he thought the Cavalry and scientific men for the Indian service, which would corps might be dealt with on the same be involved in that short system, he principle, their peculiarities might refeared it would be found impracticable. quire some variations of detail. We Another consideration was also worth have now, exclusive of the Guards, 110 mentioning. It was notorious that the regiments of infantry of the Line, inlarge mortality among our Indian troops cluding the Rifle Brigade. At 700 men occurred chiefly among the soldiers just each, these would give 77,000 men. The arrived from Europe. This mortality Infantry garrison of India now absorbed arose, not so much from the want of 45,416 men. Sixty-five battalions of 700 acclimatization as from ignorance, and men each would give 45,500 men, leavthe consequent neglect of those precau- ing 45 battalions for the home turn of tions in respect of exposure and diet, duty and for the Mediterranean stations. which were found to be so necessary in He took the latter service at 9 battalions, tropical climates. A system of frequent or 6,300 men. This would leave 36 reliefs would, of course, increase the battalions for home service, which might, risk of this mortality, and, therefore, if it were thought right, be reduced a long period of service, much as he during their time in England to 500 disliked the principle, must be retained men each. This portion of the Army in India. From what he had said, then, would take its turn of home and foreign the following principles might be de- duty on the same plan that now preduced as those which should regulate vailed ; and its numbers would admit of our military system :-Any system which seven years of European to twelve years laid claim to the character of efficiency of Indian service. To each of these regiought to give us the command of large ments would be attached a second batbodies of well-trained troops, together talion, bearing, so far as the officers with an organization which would con- were concerned, the same relations to solidate into one body, and animate with the first as were now borne by second one spirit, the whole body of the military battalions—that was to say, the officers forces of Her Majesty. Economy ought would receive their promotion interto mean the sparing use, not only of the changeably from one to the other, and money, but of the time of our popula- would all be liable to their turn of fotion; and the conditions of service reign service. Each regiment of the should be such as would interfere in the regular Army should be connected with slightest possible degree with the ordi- a territorial regimental district of the nary social and domestic habits of the country, and its second battalion should people. He had detained their Lord be permanently quartered in that disships an unreasonable time, but he had trict. All recruiting should be transacted been acting the not very agreeable part by the second battalions; all recruits of censor, and he did not think that any should be enlisted for twenty-one years. man had a right in public to attack a At the end of his second year of training, system — particularly a system of this each recruit should be allowed to elect whekind, which was of such immense im- ther he would join the first battalion for portance to the welfare of the country the remainder of his period of engage


ment, or serve it out in the Militia. In be a real reduction of the men required the former case he would serve for for foreign service in time of peace;

but another year with the second battalion, it would not operate to the full extent unless required for immediate service as a reduction of the charge for the in the first. In the latter case, he would Army, because it would be almost exbe released from further active service, actly balanced by the numbers which being, however, still borne on the would be kept in training at the second strength of the second battalion until battalions. A real saving, however, to his place should be supplied by the the extent of about £1,000,000 a year succession of recruits. After this he would be produced by the abolition of would fall back into the Militia of the the whole depôt system and recruiting district, receiving a small annual retain- establishments. He had begun his obing fee, and being liable to be called servations by saying that he would offer out for a short period of training in no apology for bringing the subject beeach year. In the event of war, all fore their Lordships; but he felt that a Militiamen to be liable to be called large apology was due for the length of out for general service, the liability time he had occupied, and he begged being deferred as the men advanced in heartily to thank their Lordships for age. The actual strength of the second the kindness with which they had lisbattalions should be maintained at 400 tened to his remarks. He would only men, with full cadres of officers and non- add that he should feel that he was commissioned officers, and with trained amply repaid for any labour which he men borne on their books sufficient to had bestowed on the subject which he raise them immediately to a strength of had brought under their notice, if he 1,000 men. In this way a machinery should succeed, in the slightest degree, would be created by means of which, in in contributing to the solution of a quesa few years, we should pass through a tion which he believed intimately affectcourse of regular military training a ed the honour of the Crown, the secursufficient number of men to give us a ity of the country, and the efficiencylarge and efficient Militia ; the number and economy of one of the great branches of men required for foreign service in of our public administration. time of peace would be largely dimin- LORD NORTHBROOK: My Lords, I ished, and the difficulty of obtaining feel that my noble Friend who has just them proportionately decreased ; and the addressed your Lordships (Lord Monck) system would have the effect of consoli- did not require in any degree to use those dating into one compact body the whole expressions with which he has concluded military strength of the country. It his speech, because I am sure none of would give, in addition, in each regi- your Lordships will differ from me when mental district, a permanent military I say that that speech shows that he has school, to which might be attached for considered this subject with very great training the officers of the Militia and care, and that in bringing forward the Volunteers, and by means of which the plan which he has laid before the House, annual training of the Militia might be and making the criticisms which he has made easy to the men. In addition to made on the military system of the the regimental divisions the whole United country, he has been actuated solely by Kingdom should be mapped out into a wish to throw all the light which the district commands, the officer in charge information at his command, and the of which should have the control of all thought which he has bestowed upon it, military forces within his district, sub- enables him to do, on a question which ject to the central command of the Com- / at the present moment excites great mander-in-Chief. The effect of the pro- public interest. I quite concur with my posed alteration on numbers would be noble Friend in the remarks he has made as follows : — Infantry of the Line.- respecting the manner in which Her Present strength: India, 45,416 ;

45,416; at Majesty's Government have dealt with home and colonies, 68,023 - 113,439. the subject he has discussed. He has Proposed strength : India, 65 battalions, stated with perfect truth that Her Ma700 men, or 45,500; Mediterranean, 9 jesty's Government, on assuming Office, battalions, 700 men, or 6,300; at home, as they did at the beginning of the month 36 battalions, 500 men, or 18,000 of December last, had, in point of fact, 69,800. Reduction, 43,639. This would within a very few days afterwards to de

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