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1437 Army— The Military {APRIL 23, 1869) Force of the Kingdom.

1438 cide on the amount and nature of the battalions. Last year there were 46 Estimates for Army Expenditure which battalions at home, 43 in the colonies, they should lay before the other House of and 52 in India; so that the number Parliament; so that they could hardly of battalions at home has been raised have been expected to produce such a from 46 to 61, and that of those abroad scheme as that, for example, which my diminished from 95 to 80. This is a noble Friend himself has sketched out, step which, as I have said before, appears entirely altering the whole system of to me to stand at the root of any sound the Army and Reserves of this country. principle of Army organization; because, None of your Lordships can feel more as my right hon. Friend the Secretary deeply than I do the great difficulty of for War has said, what we require in dealing with this question, both on this country is the complete cadres of account of the organization, and the regiments at a small strength, and to nature of the different forces with which be able to recruit those cadres in the we have to deal. I therefore think event of an emergency arising to the my noble Friend has only done justice full complement they should possess. to Her Majesty's Government when This leads me at once to the questionhe said that he could not expect from the real question at the bottom of my them such a comprehensive scheme as he noble Friend's speech-namely, how is would desire to see produced and sub- this to be done and what system of Remitted to Parliament and the country. serve should be instituted in this country But, although no such scheme was or for the purpose of augmenting the cadres could have been produced by them at of the Infantry battalions in case of that time, a decision was taken by the emergency? When my right hon. Friend Government immediately on their as- the Secretary for War assumed Office he suming Office which, as it appears to me, found in existence two classes of Reserve has laid the soundest foundation for any intended to effect this object. The first further measures which may have to be is called the first-class Army Reserve, introduced at a future time on this im- which was intended to consist of men who portant subject. I allude to the decision had fulfilled the first term of their enwhich was arrived at by the Cabinet to gagement and who afterwards enlisted concentrate in this country a very much for another five years for service in any larger force than has been at any pre- part of the world. Of these men there vious time concentrated in the United were, at the beginning of the year, Kingdom, by withdrawing several bat about 1,000. The other class of Reserve, talions of Infantry from the colonies. which is called the Militia Reserve, conThis seems to me to be at the root of any sists of 2,700 men. They are Militiaimprovement in military organization; men who, in addition to the extension of because the great difficulty which has their Militia engagement, have volunbeen experienced both in enlisting men teered to serve with the Army in any part and in the management of the whole of of the world for five years, the two enour military forces, has been the necessity gagements running on pari passú. Now, of providing reliefs for the Army in India, I must ask your Lordships to bear with and the difficulty which has been found me while I endeavour to draw a dison many occasions, by those responsible tinction between the value of those two for the administration of the Army, in classes of Reserve. There is no doubt giving a sufficient term of home service that' on many occasions, the Militia have to regiments which have had to serve been of the greatest service to the counfor a long period abroad. It is, there-try in providing recruits for the regular fore, I think, of very great consequence forces; but, upon the other hand, there that the number of battalions of In- are several serious objections to defantry of the Line at home should bear pending entirely on a Reserve connected a larger proportion to those engaged in with the Militia. An obvious objection service in the colonies and in India than is that while you replenish your cadres has hitherto been the case. Comparing of Infantry of the Line you for the this year with the last, I may state that time disorganize your Militia regiments there are, or will be, 61 battalions of by withdrawing men from the one force Infantry of the Line in this country this and putting them into the other. If year, 28 battalions in the colonies, and therefore you depend entirely upon the 52 in India; making a total of 141 Militia Reserve to recruit your cadres


and you have the misfortune to require spector General of Recruiting, has had a the whole forces of this country at home, very considerable number of letters adyou will be deficient of the number of dressed to him from different parts of men in the Militia regiments which you the country by men of some intelligence have added to your Line battalions. There and education, requesting to be inis also another objection. It is of advan- formed how they should proceed in order tage, if possible, to avoid the complicated to join the Army. As your Lordships arrangements which necessarily follow may be aware a change was lately made from having men enlisting in the Militia in regard to the sending of recruits about under two parallel enrolments. If the the country. They formerly used to be Militia in this country is to be recognized sent about the country as though they as a Reserve for the regiments of the were culprits; but they now go withLine, I should be inclined, for my own out any guard at all, and it has been part, to agree with the suggestion of my found that in no case, or, at least, in noble Friend, that all Militiamen should hardly any case, have they attempted to be enlisted subject to service in the Line, leave during their transit by railway or in time of war, rather than have any divi- otherwise. It is also notorious that men sion of the force under different engage- who enter the Army often desire to ments. With respect to the other pos- leave it before the expiration of the presible Reserve for the Line, it would be sent term of service-every year, indeed, secured by expanding what is termed the about 2,000 men are prepared to purfirst-class Army Reserve, as introduced by chase their discharge ; and this fact General Peel when he was Secretary for tends to show that if the period of serWar, and connecting the first-class Re- vice were abridged we should be likely serve with a system of shorter enlist- to obtain a larger number of recruits. ment in the Army—or, rather, by estab- My Lords, the great difficulty in the way lishing a system of enlisting men to serve, of adopting a system of short enlistsay for twelve years, in the Army and in ments is that which has been referred the Army Reserve combined, in whatever to by my noble Friend-namely the neproportion might be deemed desirable cessity of providing a large number of whether five years in the Army and men for service in India. My noble seven years in the Reserve, or vice versa. Friend, in the course of his remarks, I think that, provided we could be sure was obliged to admit that it would that, in a reasonable space of time, it be necessary to have a longer term of would be possible to carry out such a enlistment for India, and therefore he system as that, the Army Reserve so found there was a great difficulty in joinformed would be far superior in every ing any plan with respect to India with respect to any other Reserve on which the scheme which he has explained to we could rely in this country for re- your Lordships. With respect, howcruiting the cadres of the Line regi- ever, to one difficulty which was menments. The great difficulty with which tioned by my noble Friend, I am happy we have to contend in this matter arises to say that I can remove it altogether. out of the question whether we should My noble Friend stated that the greatest be likely to get men for an enlistment mortality in India occurred among the of that kind ; and that, of course, is a young soldiers who had just arrived. question which can be determined only Now that statement is totally contrary to by a trial of the system proposed. There the recent statistics of the Indian Army. are many reasons for believing that it So much, indeed, is it contrary to the would not be impossible to get the men. statistics, that they show the fact to be There is no doubt that since the addition diametrically the reverse. I have here an to the rate of pay in the Army no difficulty extract from the last annual Report of the has been experienced in obtaining re- Medical Director General of the Army, cruits for the service. Considerable alter- and it appears that the average annual ations have of late been made in conse- number of deaths per 1,000 of Her Maquence of the Report of the Recruiting jesty's troops in India is, among men Commission, and great improvements under 20 years of age, 7.11. Among men have been introduced in the mode of re- between 20 and 24 years of age the avecruiting for the Army. General Edwards, rage rises to 16:19 in the 1,000; among who has paid great attention to the subject men between 25 and 30 years old it is since he has occupied the position of In- 25.64 per 1,000; among men between 1441 Army-The Military {APRIL 23, 1869} Force of the Kingdom. 1442 30 and 34 years old it is 32:03 per Reserve as the only Reserve for the 1,000; among men between 35 and 39 Army, it should be ascertained whether years old it is 42:78 per 1,000; and some scheme cannot be devised whereby among men over 40 years of age it is a system of shorter enlistments may be 62.23 per 1,000. And the observation introduced, coupled with service in the made by the medical authority on this Army Reserve. My Lords, it is a satispoint is that

faction to find that the opinion of my right
“The rapid increase of mortality with the ad-hon. Friend on this subject has antici-
vance of age is a strong proof of the injurious in- pated the strong expression of opinion in
fluence of tropical service on the constitution.” a similar sense which has been since
It is found, therefore, that the longer a given by the very distinguished officer
man remains in India the greater chance to whose opinions my noble Friend has
there is of his death; and, putting aside all alluded, and whose opinions must be
questions of humanity, the greater is the ever regarded by your Lordships with
expense to the people of India who will respect Field-Marshal Sir John Bur-
have to pay for à recruit to replace goyne.

He uses the following expres-
him. Now, my Lords, the same obser- sion, which summarises the views which
vation is correct even with respect to my right hon. Friend has expressed on
men who remain long in the Army in this subject-
this country.

Sir Charles Trevelyan " If the service in the Line could be made more
has pointed out in one of his pamphlets palatable, so as to induce a more numerous and
on Army Administration, that, whereas somewhat superior class to enter as soldiers, it
in the case of men under thirty,

the ave- military capability throughout the community;

would tend to the greater diffusion of a general rage annual rate of mortality among sol- and this would be much increased if, instead of diers is less than the average rate of mor- lengthening the periods of service, they could be tality in civil life, yet, the moment you much reduced, and if the soldier of some few years' get beyond that age—between thirty and regular training were again absorbed among the forty and upwards—the average morta

civil population and available in whatever shape

might be thought best for the Reserve force.” lity of soldiers is greater than the average mortality of men in civil life. It I think the substantial reasons which would appear, therefore, that the Service can be urged in favour of the establishloses by death a larger proportion of ment of some such system as this render men who are above thirty or there- it worthy of consideration by your Lordabouts. In dealing with this question, ships and by the country. One other there is also a very important point word, my Lords, upon this subject. Sir to be considered-namely, the cost of John Burgoyne speaks of inducements the system of re-engaging men in the to a superior class of men to enter the Army at the expiration of their first en- Army as soldiers. Now I consider this gagement, which re-engagement entitles to be a subject of great interest and imthem to pensions. It has been pointed portance. .

The desirability of having out in an able Paper read before the our soldiers better instructed and emRoyal United Service Institution by ployed in trades of different kinds in the Major Leahy, of the Royal Engineers, course of their service, is a subject which, that, if you re-engage à man, it will I believe, is under the consideration of be found, on taking into consideration the illustrious Duke the Field-Marshal the value of the pension to which he Commanding-in-Chief at the present will be entitled, that he costs just twice time. There is also another quesas much as a recruit. That being the tion which excites considerable interest case, my Lords, and there being evi- among those who have paid attention dently very great advantages in having to Army administration. It is bea Reserve of trained men who have lieved that considerable inducements passed through the Army, instead of would be held out to respectable men to a Reserve of men who have only re- enlist in the Army if men who leave ceived the training of a Militia regi- the Army with good characters, and who ment, which training must, of course, be are intelligent, and good writers and of an inferior character to that of four or accountants, were more made use of in five years in a Line regiment

Line regiment - this the public offices than they are at the being the case, my right hon. Friend present time. We find that the Sappers the Secretary of State deemed it ad can readily obtain employment after visable that, before we adopt the Militia leaving the service; and it appears to VOL. CXCV. THIRD SERIES.]

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me quite possible that matters may be of Militia, of and above the rank of capso managed that we may hereafter have tain, during training, which had been by in the Line regiments men who, in like some accidental circumstance less than manner, on leaving the service, will the pay of officers of the Line, has been experience no difficulty in obtaining equalized with that of officers of the employment in civil capacities. My Line. The grant to Militia officers of noble Friend has alluded to the con- 18. a day is obviously too small to en

a dition of the Militia. As I before remarkable them to pay for the necessary exed, when my right hon. Friend came penses of their mess. That sum has into Office the attention of the Govern- been raised from 18. to 48. Officers of ment was first called to the concentration Militia also find it very expensive, when of the forces at home by means of re- put in quarters, to provide themselves ducing the battalions in the colonies. with that moderate amount of furniture My right hon. Friend's attention was which is necessary for their comfort in next directed to the condition of the addition to that which they find in Militia, which has been rightly charac- barracks; and a small allowance has terized by my noble Friend as the first been given to officers when so situated. Reserve in this country. My noble Friend Some other changes have also been called it“the first constitutional Reserve," made. In the first place, officers of and, indeed, the word “ constitutional ” Militia have been allowed, with the conis constantly used in connection with sent of the Lords Lieutenant of the difthe Militia. I believe, however, that ferent counties, to exchange from one in this country no one force is more regiment to another, which has been reconstitutional than another; that the presented to be a great advantage to Army is as constitutional a force as the themselves; and likewise, with the conMilitia, and the Volunteers are as con- currence of the illustrious Duke at the stitutional a force as either. With re- head of the Army, the arrangement has spect to the Militia, I think your Lord- been made that a step of honorary rank ships will be of the same opinion as my shall be granted to officers retiring from right hon. Friend the Secretary of State the Militia aftera certain number of years' in regretting that the novelty and popu- service; to field officers after twenty-five larity of that very valuable force the years' service, of which fifteen have been Volunteers should, for a time at least, in the Militia; to captains after twenty have apparently detracted from the pub- years' service, of which fifteen have been lic estimation in which the Militia was in the Militia ; and to lieutenants after formerly held. Because nobody can draw twenty years' service, of which ten have an invidious comparison between the two been in the Militia. In addition to these forces; they are totally distinct in their alterations, none of which require legischaracter each has its own functions; lative sanction, a Bill has been introand I am sure noble Lords who are duced, and will shortly come before connected with the Volunteers will not your Lordships, which provides for wish to detract from the merits of the two important matters connected with Militia, while those noble Lords who are the Militia, and for one minor matter. connected with the Militia will not wish The minor matter is, that it is proto detract from the merits of the Volun- posed to do away with the property teers. No doubt it was found at the qualification now required for some ranks beginning of this year that the Militia of officers. It appeared to my right hon. was exceedingly deficient in officers, and Friend that, after the property qualifiespecially in subaltern officers. Of the cation for Members of Parliament had establishment of 3,485 officers, which is been abolished, it was hardly necessary the Staff of the Militia, there had only to insist upon it in respect to Militia been appointed 2,138, and of these only officers; and it has been represented as a 1,859 were trained last year. My right bar, in some cases, to obtaining good hon. Friend paid immediate attention to officers to fill up vacancies in the Militia. that point, and he took in the Estimates The two important points are these of this year a sum of £20,000, which it In the first place it is proposed to give may be hoped will remedy some of the power to Her Majesty to put the matters with respect to which Militia Militia, when out for training, under the officers have had to complain. In the command of general officers of Her Mafirst place, the pay of regimental officers jesty's Army. By an accidental omission

in our legislation, while the Volunteers On the 15th of June, 1852, that was the can be placed under general officers, no opinion expressed by the late Duke of power exists to place the Militia under Wellington, when the Bill for the estasuch command unless they are actually blishment of the present system of Militia embodied. The third provision included was before your Lordships, and I may in the Bill is, that when there is a want add that they were nearly the last words of junior or subaltern officers in regi- spoken by that illustrious man in this ments of Militia called out for training, House. As to the instruction of the officers of the regular Army may be sent officers of the Militia, it is quite possible for a time to assist in training those re- that improvements may be introduced giments. There are several other ques- into the training and examination of tions relating to the Militia of very con- those officers. At the present time there siderable importance. Perhaps the most is a Royal Commission inquiring into important of all relates to the system of the system of education in the Army, of billeting ; because those who know the which my noble Friend the Chancellor of Militia are, I think, of opinion that so the Duchy of Lancaster (Lord Dufferin) long as that system is continued, it must is Chairman, and of which I myself have be with very great difficulty that com- the honour to be a Member. It is obvious manding officers of Militia regiments that no system of schools of instruction, are able to keep their men under proper such as, I believe, has been instituted in

Ι discipline during the time of training, Canada, could be introduced in this counand that it would be of the greatest pos- try with respect to Militia or Volunteer sible advantage to the Militia if any officers, until the question of the instrucmethod of getting rid of that system tion, the training and the examination of could be found. There is also, again— officers of the Line has been previously as has been pointed out by my noble decided. The key of the whole educaFriend — the system of instruction for tion of the Army must be the education officers of the Militia. I do not know of the Regular forces, and the Militia that the officers of the Militia have been and Reserve forces must follow their complained of as ignorant of their du- | lead in that respect. Therefore, until ties: on the contrary, the Reports of the the Commission reports, it would be preInspecting Officers, in the course of last mature to establish any system for year, in regard to the Militia regiments amending the instruction of Militia offihave been favourable; and I can fur- cers. The main point, I think, in the ther say, from personal communication speech of my noble Friend - and I enwith officers upon whom I can depend tirely agree in the observations that he to give an honest opinion on the made upon it—was that he wanted some subject, that the condition of the Militia organization in this country which will is not that which was shadowed forth bring together the military forces, of by my noble Friend. At the same time whatever class they may be, and will, in I am far from asserting that twenty- times of emergency, enable them to act eight days' training will produce a with promptness and with harmony. battalion of Militia perfectly organized, That is a subject to which my right hon. and capable of immediately taking its Friend the Secretary of State devoted place with the Infantry of the Line his attention immediately after assuming —that would be an exaggeration; but, the Seals of Office. The first thing which nevertheless, I think that, if called my right hon. Friend did with regard to out for service, the Militia would be it was to consult with the First Lord of the found able, as they have been hereto- Admiralty and with his Royal Highness fore, to perform any duty that might be the Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief required of them. With regard to the upon the general principles of our deefficiency of the Militia, I take the fence. And I must here venture to liberty of quoting the following words remind my noble Friend that in his of a very high authority :

admirable speech he made one most im“ If you begin with the formation of Militia portant and, I think, essential omission. corps under this Act of Parliament they will in The word “Navy,” I believe, did not time become what their predecessors in the Militia once fall from his lips. It seems to me were ; and if ever they do become what the for: that the whole of his argument — the mer Militia were, you may rely on it they will perform all the services they may be required to whole of his comparison in respect to perform."- (3 Hansard, cxxii. 731.]

the condition of our forces with those of

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