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with roses and marjoram, in his right hand a torch." while the wit of Rosalind bubbles up and sparkles like STEVENS.
living fountains, refreshing all around. Her volubility “Atone together"-i. e. Agree together, or are recon
is like the bird's song; it is the outpouring of a heart ciled: from at one. The use of this word is very fre
filled to overflowing with life, love, and joy, and all sweet quent by the contemporaries of Shakespeare, who also
and affectionate impulses. She has as much tenderness use it actively, as he too does elsewhere.
as mirth, and in her most petulant raillery there is a
touch of softness-By this hand, it will not hurt a fly.' “ Enter Second Brother"--So called in the old copies, “As her vivacity never lessens our impression of her to avoid confusion with the "melancholy Jaques.” The sensibility, so she wears her masculine attire without the name of this "second brother” must have been also slightest impugnment of her delicacy. Shakespeare did Jaques, and he is mentioned in the first scene as then not make the modesty of his women depend on their "at school." He is in fact the third brother introduced dress. Rosalind has in truth no doublet and hose in in the play: but what is meant is, that he is second in her disposition.' How her heart seems to throb and point of age-younger than Oliver, and older than Or flutter under her page's vest. What depth of love in lando. Collier objects that this supposition would seem her passion for Orlando; whether disguised beneath a to make Orlando too much of a stripling. But one so saucy playfulness, or breaking forth with a fond impawell read in Old-English literature should have remem tience, or half betrayed in that beautiful scene where bered that school was used with great latitude by Shake she faints at the sight of the kerchief stained with his speare and his contemporaries, so as to include even the blood! Here, the recovery of her self-possession-her highest academic instruction-as we still say, “ the School fears lest she should have revealed her sex-her presence of Medicine" at Paris, etc. Thus, Hamlet writes, “ Go of mind and quick-witted excuse, “I pray you tell your back to school at Wittenberg"—i. e. to the University brother how well I counterfeited,' and the characteristic there. In Lodge's novel, (which ends very differently,) playfulness which seems to return so naturally with her Fernandine, the second of the three brothers, is repre. recovered senses, are all as amusing as consistent. sented as “ a scholar in Paris." He, like Jaques de “Then how beautiful is the dialogue managed between Bois, arrives quite at the end of the story.
herself and Orlando; how well she assumes the airs of " — meeting with an old religious man"-In Lodge's
a saucy page, without throwing off her feminine sweetnovel, the usurping Duke is not diverted from his purject! with what a careless grace, yet with what exqui
ness ! How her wit flutters free as air over every subpose by the pious counsels of a hermit, but is subdued and killed by the twelve peers of France, who under
site propriety :take the cause of Rosader-the Orlando of this play.
For innocence hath a privilege in her
dignify arch jests and laughing eyes. “ – the measure of their states"—Not 'states, for
And if the freedom of some of the expressions used by estates, as in Collier's edition, which is a useless change
Rosalind or Beatrice be objected to, let it be rememof the old reading—"All shall receive such a share of
bered that this was not the fault of Shakespeare or his my own returning property as may suit their several
women, but generally of the age. Portia, Beatrice, Ro. stations."
salind, and the rest, lived in times when more impor“ To see no pastime"-"Amid this general festivity, tance was attached to things than to words: now we the reader may be sorry to take his leave of Jaques, who think more of words than of things. And happy are appears to have no share in it, and remains behind un we, in these days of super-refinement, if we are to be reconciled to society. He has, however, filled, with a saved by our verbal morality.”—Mrs. JAMESON. gloomy sensibility, the space allotted to him in the play, and to the last preserves that respect which is due to
“ The plot of this delicious comedy was taken by our him as a consistent character, and an able, though soli
Poet from Lodge's · Rosalynde, or Euphues' Golden tary moralist. • It may be observed, with scarce less concern, that
Legacye. Some of Lodge's incidents are judiciously
omitted, but the greater part are preserved--the wrestShakespeare has, on this occasion, forgot old Adam, the
ling scene, the flight of the two ladies into the forest of servant of Orlando, whose fidelity should have entitled him to notice at the end of the piece, as well as to that
Arden, the meeting there of Rosalind with her father
and mother, and the whole happy termination of the happiness which he would naturally have found, in the
plot, are found in the prose romance. Even the names return of fortune to his master."-STEVENS.
of the personages are but slightly changed; for Lodge's “It is the more remarkable that old Adam is forgot
Rosalind, in her male attire, calls herself Ganymede, and ten, since, at the end of the novel, Lodge makes him
her cousin, as a shepherdess, is named Aliena. But captain of the king's guard.”-FARMER.
never was the prolixity and pedantry of a prosaic nar“ As we do trust they'll end in true delights”—“The
rative transmuted by genius into such magical poetry. * universal modern stage-direction here is ‘a dance,' In the days of James I., George Heriot, the Edinburgh which probably followed the Duke's speech. The an merchant, who built a hospital still bearing his name, cient direction, however, is exit; but there seems no
is said to have made his fortune by purchasing for a sufficient reason why the Duke should go out before the trifle a quantity of sand that had been brought as ballast conclusion of the Epilogue. Nevertheless, according to by a ship from Africa. As it was dry, he suspected the custom of our old stage, he may have done so. from its weight that it contained gold, and he succeeded Malone, Stevens, and all the modern editors, (Capell ex in filtering a treasure from it. Shakespeare, like Heriot, cepted,) read And instead of “As,' in this line, without took the dry and heavy sand of Lodge, and made gold any reason for change, and without attempting to assign out of it. any."-COLLIER.
“ Before I say more of this dramatic treasure, I must
absolve myself by a confession as to some of its improb- If I were a woman”—The female characters in
abilities. Rosalind asks her cousin Celia, “Whither plays, it is hardly necessary to observe, were at this ime, and until after the Restoration, performed by boys,
shall we go?' and Celia answers, ' To seek my uncle in
the forest of Arden.' But, arrived there, and having puror young men.
chased a cottage and sheep-farm, neither the daughter
nor niece of the banished Duke seem to trouble them“ Every thing about Rosalind breathes of youth's sweet selves much to inquire about either father or uncle. prime. She is fresh as the morning, sweet as the dew The lively and natural-hearted Rosalind discovers no awakened blossoms, and light as the breeze that plays | impatience to embrace her sire until she has finished among them. She is as witty, as voluble, as sprightly her masked courtship with Orlando. But Rosalind was as Beatrice, but in a style altogether distinct. In both, in love, as I have been with the comedy these forty the wit is equally unconscious; but in Beatrice it plays years; and love is blind—for until a late period my eyes about us like the lightning, dazzling, but also alarming; were never couched so as to see this objection. The
truth, however, is, that love is wilfully blind; and now terest is preserved by characters more than incidents. that my eyes are opened, I shut them against the fault. But what a tablet of characters! the witty and impasAway with your best-proved improbabilities, when the sioned Rosalind, the love-devoted Orlando, the friendheart has been touched and the fancy fascinated! When ship-devoted Celia, the duty-devoted old Adam, the huI think of the lovely Mrs. Jordan in this part, I have mourous Clown, and the melancholy Jaques : all these, no more desire for proofs of probability on this subject, together with the dignified and banished Duke, make (though proofs pellucid as the morning dews,') than for the forest of Arden an Elysium to our imagination; and the cogent logic of a bailiff's writ.'
our hearts are so stricken by those benevolent beings, " In fact, though there is no rule without exceptions, that we easily forgive the other once culpable but at and no general truth without limitation, it may be pro- last repentant characters.”—CAMPBELL. nounced, that if you delight us in fiction, you may make our sense of probability slumber as deeply as you please.
“But it may be asked whether nature and truth are “For pure comedy, rich in variety, interest, poetry, to be sacrificed at the altar of fiction ? No! in the main and a happy view of human life, As You Like It is the effect of fiction on the fancy, they never are nor can be
world's master-piece. It has been termed a pastoral sacrificed. The improbabilities of fiction are only its comedy, but that implies an unreal description of shepexceptions, while the truth of nature is its general law;
herds and shepherdesses; here we have persons of and unless the truth of nature were in the main observed, every degree, true to nature as the trees under which the fictionist could not lull our vigilance as to particular they walk and talk. There is a frankness and freedom improbabilities.
in the dialogue, belonging equally to the various characApply this maxim to Shakespeare's As You Like It, ters, that seem to partake of the open air in which they and our Poet will be found to make us forget what is breathe. Never is the scene within doors, except when eccentric from nature in a limited view, by showing it something discordant is introduced to heighten, as it more beautifully probable in a larger contemplation. were, the harmony-when the usurper banishes RosaIn this drama he snatches us out of the busy world into lind, and twice more, for a short while, just to give him a woodland solitude; he makes us breathe its fresh air, time to threaten. These changes serve, without dispartake its pastoral peace, feast on its venison, admire turbing our calmer feelings, to increase our happiness its bounding wild-deer, and sympathize with its ban among the pleasant exiles in the forest. ished men and simple rustics. But he contrives to “At one time I thought a lioness was out of her break its monotony by the intrusion of courtly manners sphere in the forest of Arden, notwithstanding the and characters. He has a fool and a philosopher, who authority of the original novel for her appearance there. might have hated each other at court, but who like each
But the forest of Arden is a privileged place, once faother in the forest. He has a shepherdess and her woo mous for Merlin's magic fountains, Angelica, and the ing shepherd, as natural as Arcadians; yet when the knights of Charlemagne, surrounded by enchantments, banished court come to the country and beats it in wit, according to Boiardo and Ariosto. Shakespeare avoids the courtiers seem as much naturalized to the forest as following the novel in specifying a certain king of France ; its natives, and the general truth of nature is equally he mentions no country, and therefore he has a right preserved.
to bring a lioness into this poetical forest, placed we “The events of the play are not numerous, and its in
know not where."-CH. A. BROWN.