The Student's Lyell: The Principles and Methods of Geology, as Applied to the Investigation of the Past History of the Earth and Its Inhabitants

J. Murray, 1911 - 701 Seiten

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Seite 46 - The upper valve is almost invariably wanting, though occasionally found in a perfect state of preservation in the white chalk at some distance. In this case, we see clearly that the sea-urchin first lived from youth to age, then died and lost its spines, which were carried away. Then the young Crania adhered to the bared shell, grew and perished in its turn ; after which, the upper valve was separated from the lower, before the Echinus became enveloped in chalky mud.
Seite 4 - This class of memorials yields to no other in authenticity, but it constitutes a small part only of the resources on which the historian relies, whereas in geology it forms the only kind of evidence which is at our command. For this reason we must not expect to obtain a full and connected account of any series of events beyond the reach of history. But the testimony of geological monuments, if frequently imperfect, possesses at least the advantage of being free from all intentional misrepresentation.
Seite 62 - The lecturer thinks this enigma may be solved, by attending to what is now taking place in deltas. The dense growth of reeds and herbage which encompasses the margins of forestcovered swamps in the valley and delta of the Mississippi, is such that the fluviatile waters in passing through them are filtered and made to clear themselves entirely before they reach the areas in which vegetable matter may accumulate for centuries, forming coal if the climate be favourable. There is no possibility of the...
Seite 565 - These last 1 have never had opportunity to visit. Marshes of less extent occur at Erie, Pa., and at other places along the south shore. It must not be supposed from what has been said that the carp are by any means limited to the places mentioned in Lake Erie and Lake St.
Seite 599 - I look at the geological record as a history of the world imperfectly kept, and written in a changing dialect; of this history we possess the last volume alone, relating only to two or three countries. Of this volume, only here and there a short chapter has been preserved ; and of each page, only here and there a few lines.
Seite 32 - ... carburetted hydrogen, or the gas by which we illuminate our streets and houses. According to Bischoff, the inflammable gases which are always escaping from mineral coal, and are so often the cause of fatal accidents in mines, always contain carbonic acid, carburetted hydrogen, nitrogen, and olifiant gas. The disengagement of all these gradually transforms ordinary or bituminous coal into anthracite, to which the various names of splint coal, glance coal, culm, and many others, have been given.
Seite 1 - ... concerning the laws now governing its animate and inanimate productions. When we study history, we obtain a more profound insight into human nature, by instituting a comparison between the present and former states of society.
Seite 595 - The astronomer may find good reasons for ascribing the earth's form to the original fluidity of the mass, in times long antecedent to the first introduction of living beings into the planet ; but the geologist must be content to regard the earliest monuments which it is his task to interpret, as belonging to a period when the crust had already acquired great solidity and thickness, probably as great as it now possesses, and when volcanic rocks, not essentially differing from those now produced, were...
Seite 202 - Such a vigorous growth of trees within 12° of the pole, where now a dwarf willow and a few herbaceous plants form the only vegetation, and where the ground is covered with almost perpetual snow and ice, is truly remarkable.
Seite 598 - The disposition of the seas, continents and islands, and the climates, have varied; the species likewise have been changed; and yet they have all been so modelled, on types analogous to those of existing plants and animals, as to indicate throughout a perfect harmony of design and unity of purpose.

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