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24 I'll join mine eldest daughter, and my joy,

To him forthwith--) Surely this is a mistake of the copyist's. Hall, in the ninth year of king Edward IV. says,

“ Edward prince of Wales wedded Anne second daughter to the earl of Warwick." And the duke of Clarence was in love with the elder, the lady Isabel ; and in reality was married to her five years

before prince Edward took the lady Anne to wife, And, in King Richard the Third, Gloster, who married this lady Anne when a widow, says: “ For then I'll marry Warwick's youngest daughter. What though I kill'd her husband and her father?" i. e. prince Edward, and king Henry VI. her fatherin-law. See likewise Holinshed, in his Chronicle, p. 671 and 674.

25 and with the seas,] This has been the advice of every man who in any age understood and favoured the interest of England.

JOISSON. 26 bestowed the heir-] Before the Restoration, the heiresses of great estates were in the wardship of the king, who, as Dr. Johnson justly observes, gave them up, in their minority, to plunder, and afterwards matched them to his favourites.

27 Ay, in despite of all that shall withstand you.] The
quartos continue the speech thus :
Ay, my lord, in despight of all that shall withstand

For why hath nature made me halt downright
But that I should be valiant, and stand to it?
For if I would, I cannot run away. STEEVENS.


29 This pretty lad-] He was afterwards Henry VII. a man who put an end to the civil war of the two houses, but no otherwise remarkable for virtue. Shake speare knew his trade. Henry VII. was grandfather to queen Elizabeth, and the king from whom James inherited.

JOHNSON. Assuredly Johnson is unjust, in this note, to the memory of Henry. No monarch that has swayed the British sceptre ever promoted more the real interests of his people. It was in his reign that commerce and the arts of peace began to be studied, and to receive encouragement in England. Edward, indeed, planned what the troubles of his times prevented him from executing. The glorious business of operation was reserved for Henry.

29 The good old man would fain that all were well,] The mayor is willing we should enter, so he may not be blamed.

my meed hath got me fume:] Mced signifies reward. We should read-my deed, i. e. my manners, conduct in the administration, WARBİT.

This word signifies merit, both as a verb and a sub. stantive : that it is used as a verb, is clear from the following foolish couplet which I remember to have read :

« Deem if I meed,

“ Dear madam, read." A Specimen of verses that read the same way back

ward and forward. 3 Shout within. A Lancaster!] Surely the shouts




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that ushered king Edward should be, A York! A York! I suppose the author did not write the marginal directions, and the players confounded the characters.

JOHNSON. 32 the deck!) A pack of cards was formerly called a deck of cards.

a bug that fear'd us all.] i.e. a bugbear that frightened us all.

34 Which sounded like a cannon in a rault,] The old quarto reads clamour, which is indoubtedly right, i, e. a clamour of tongues, which, as he says, could not be distinguished. This was a pertinent similitude: the other absurd, and neither agrees with what is predicated of it, nor with what it is intended to illustrate.

55 Methinks, a woman, &c.] In this speech there is
much and important variation in the quarto :
Prince. And if there be (as God forbid there

'Mongst us a timorous or fearful man,
Let him depart before the battles join;
Lest he in time of need entice another,
And so withdraw the soldiers' hearts irom us.
I will not stand aloof, and bid you fight,
But with my sword press in the thickest throngs,
And single Edward from his strongest guard,
And hand to hand enforce him for to yield,
Or leave my body, as witness of my thoughts.



-you have rid this sweet young prince.] The



condition of this warlike queen would move compassion, could it be forgotten that she gave York, to wipe his eyes in his captivity, a handkerchief stained with his young child's blood.

37 [That scene of death hath Roscius now to act ?] Roscius was certainly put for Richard by some simple conceited player, who had heard of Roscius and of Rome; but did not know that he was an actor in comedy, not in tragedy.

WARBURTON. Shakspeare had occasion to compare Richard to some player about to represent a scene of murder, and took the first or only name of antiquity that occurred to him, without being very scrupulous about its propriety.

38 -peevish fool-) For silly fool.

39 The raven rook'd her-] To rook or ruck is a word that formerly signified to squat down. It is still in use both in Devonshire and in the north of England. 40 And if the rest be true which I have heard, Thou cam'st

-] Had our editors had but a grain of sagacity, or due diligence, there could have been no room for this absurd break, since they might have ventured to fill it up with certainty too. The old quarto would have led them part of the way :

Thou cam'st into the world And that the verse is to be completed in the manner I have given it, is incontestible ; for unless we suppose king Henry actually reproaches him with this his preposterous birth, how can Richard in his very next soliloquy say,

“ Indeed, 'tis true, that Henry told me of;
“ For I have often heard my mother say,
“I came into the world with my legs for-

ward." I can easily see, that this blank was eaused by the nicety of the players, to suppress an indecent idea. But, with submission, this was making but half a cure, unless they had expunged the repetition of it out of Richard's speech too.

THEO BALD. 41 Work thou the way, -and thou shalt erecute.] I believe we should read :

- and this shall erecute. Richard laying his hand on his forehead says:

Il'urk thou the wall then bringing down his hand, and beholding it,

-and this shall exrcute, Though that may stand, the arm being included in the shoulder,



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