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should be 'ad reparationem,' and not 'ad ruinam;' as who saith, that now was the time I should well perceive that that saying of hers should prove true. And farther she willed me to set down in writing all that passed that day." (a)

In a few days Bacon waited upon the Queen with the narrative, who, upon hearing him read Essex's answer, which was his principal care, " was exceedingly moved in kindness and relenting," and said, "How well you have expressed my lord's part: I perceive old love will not easily be forgotten." Availing himself of these favourable dispositions, Bacon ventured to say to the Queen, "he hoped she meant that of herself;" and in the conclusion suggested that it might be expedient not to let this matter go forth to the public, since by her own command no record had been kept, and that it was not well to do that popularly which she had not suffered to be done judicially. The Queen assented, and the narrative was suppressed, (b)

(a) See Bacon's Apology, vol. vi. 266.

(6) Bacon's account is as follows:—I obeyed her commandment, and within some few days after brought her again the narration, which I did read unto her in two several afternoons; and when I came to that part that set forth my lord's own answer, which was my principal care, I do well bear in mind, that she was extraordinarily moved with it, in kindness and relenting towards my lord: and told me afterwards, speaking how well I had expressed my lord's part, that she perceived old love would not easily be forgotten: whereunto I answered suddenly, that I hoped she meant that by herself. But in conclusion, I did advise her, that now she had taken a representation of the matter to herself, that she would let it go no farther: "For madam," said I, " the fire blazeth well already, what should you tumble it? And besides, it may please you to keep a convenience with yourself in this case; for since your express direction was, there should be no register nor clerk to take this sentence, nor no record or memorial made up of the proceeding, why should you now do that popularly, which you would not admit to be done judicially?" Whereupon she did agree that that writing should be suppressed; and 1 think there were not five persons that ever saw it.—Apology, vol. vi. 267.

Obloquy Amidst these exertions, known at that time only to the oi Bacon. Queen, j0 Essex, and to his confidential friends, Bacon was exposed to great obloquy, and, at the time when he was thinking only how he could most and best serve his friend, he was threatened by the populace with personal violence, as one who had deserted and betrayed him. Unmoved by such clamour, upon which he had calculated, (a) he went right onward in his course.

To Sir Robert Cecil, and to Lord Henry Howard, the confidential friend of Essex, and who had willingly shared his banishment from court, he indignantly complained of these slanders and threats. To Lord Howard he says: (b) "My Lord, There be very few besides yourself, to whom I would perform this respect. For I contemn mendacia fama, as it walks among inferiors, though I neglect it not, as it may have entrance into some ears. For your lordship's love, rooted upon good opinion, I esteem it highly, because I have tasted the fruits of it; and we both have tasted of the best waters, in my account, to knit minds together. There is shaped a tale in London's forge, that beateth apace at this time, that I should deliver

(a) I lis Apology to the Earl of Devonshire contains various observations to this effect:—I was not so unseen in the world, but I knew the condition was subject to envy and peril, 8cc. but I resolved to endure it, in expectation of better. Acording to the ordinary charities of court, it was given out, that I was one of them that incensed the Queen against my lord of Essex; and I must give this testimony to my lord Cecil, that one time in his house at the Savoy he dealt with me directly, and said to me, " Cousin, I hear it, but I believe it not, that you should do some ill office to my lord of Essex; for my part, I am merely passive, and not active in this action; and I follow the Queen, and that heavily, and I lead her not; my lord of Essex is one that in nature I could consent with as well as with any one living; the Queen indeed is my sovereign, and I am her creature, I may not lose her, and the same course I would wish you to take." Whereupon I satisfied him how far I was from any such mind.

(6) Birch, 459.

opinion to the Queen, in my lord of Essex' cause. First, that it was premunire, and now last, that it was high treason; and this opinion, to be in opposition and encounter of the Lord Chief Justice's opinion, and the Attorney General's. My lord, I thank God, my wit serveth me not to deliver any opinion to the Queen, which my stomach serveth me not to maintain: one and the same conscience of duty guiding me and fortifying me. But the untruth of this fable, God and my sovereign can witness, and there I leave it; knowing no more remedy against lies than others do against libels. The root, no question of it is, partly some light-headed envy at my accesses to her majesty; which being begun, and continued since my childhood, as long as her majesty shall think me worthy of them, I scorn those that shall think the contrary. And another reason is, the aspersion of this tale, and the envy thereof, upon some greater man, in regard of my nearness. And therefore, my lord, I pray you answer for me to any person that you think worthy your own reply and my defence. For my lord of Essex, I am not servile to him, . having regard to my superior's duty. I have been much bound unto him; and, on the other side, I have spent more time and more thoughts about his well doing: than ever I did about mine own. I pray God you his friends amongst you be in the right. Nulla remedia, tarn faciunt dolorem, quam qua sunt salutaria. For my part, I have deserved better than to have my name objected to envy, or my life to a ruffian's violence. But I have the privy coat of a good conscience. I am sure these courses and bruits hurt my lord more than all. So having written to your lordship, I desire exceedingly to be preferred in your good opinion and love. And so leave you to God's goodness." (x)

(x) The letter to Sir Rob. Cecil is to the same effect. See vol. xii. p. 168.

The answer of Lord Howard to this letter, the best answer that could be made to the slanderers of whom Bacon complains, is as follows: "I might be thought unworthy of that good conceit you hold of me, good Mr. Bacon, if I did not sympathize with so sensitive a mind in this smart of wrongful imputation of unthankfulness. You were the first that gave me notice, I protest, at Richmond of the rumour, though within two days after I heard more than I would of it; but as you suffer more than you deserve, so I cannot believe what the greedy malice of the world hath laid upon you. The travels of that worthy gentleman in your behalf, when you stood for a place of credit; the delight which he hath ever taken in your company; his grief that he could not seal up assurance of his love by fruits, effects, and offices proportionable to an infinite desire; his study, in my knowledge, to engage your love by the best means he could devise, are forcible persuasions and instances to make me judge that a gentleman so well born, a wise gentleman so well levelled, a gentleman so highly valued by a person of his virtue, worth, and quality, will rather hunt after all occasions of expressing thankfulness, so far as duty doth permit, than either omit opportunity or increase indignation. No man alive out of the thoughts of judgment, the ground of knowledge, and lesson of experience, is better able to distinguish betwixt public and private offices, and direct measure in keeping a measure in discharge of both, to which I will refer you for the finding out of the golden number. In my own particular opinion I esteem of you as I have ever done and your rare parts deserve; and so far as my voice hath credit, justify your credit according to the warrant of your profession, and the store of my best wishes in all degrees towards you, &c. My credit is so weak in working any strange effect of friendship where I would do most, as to speak of blossoms without giving tastes of fruits were idleness; but if you will give credit to my words, it is not long since I gave testimony of my good affection in the ear of one that neither wants desire nor means to do for you. Thus wishing to your credit that allowance of respect and reverence which your wise and honest letter doth deserve, and resting ever ready to relieve all minds (so far as my ability and means will stretch) that groan under the burthen of undeserved wrong, I commend you to God's protection and myself to the best use you will make of me. In haste from my lodging," &c.

The partizans of Essex again interfered, to raise the flames which Bacon had so judiciously suppressed, and again were the Queen's ministers compelled to check their imprudence.

On the 12th of June, the lord keeper, in his usual June 12, speech in the Star Chamber to the country gentlemen, 1600mentioned the late proceeding against the Earl of Essex, who, he observed, had acknowledged his errors, and expressed his sorrow for them; but that some wicked persons had intermeddled by libelling what her majesty had done in that point, which occasioned a proclamation to be published against such seditious practices, (a)

Notwithstanding this ill-advised conduct, the Queen was desirous to remove from Essex the restraint of a keeper, when her indignation was again excited by a rumour, that Essex had been duly authorized by her to create knights, though his having conferred that honour had been made a charge against him before the commissioners. In the first moment of her displeasure she determined to rescind the honours he had bestowed. Bacon advised her against this step, and recommended that a letter written

(a) Sydney Papers, vol. ii. 201.

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