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p. 195). ” Lodge describes him as ambassador to BAPTIST MAY.-In the Memoirs of Count the Sophi ("Portraits,' ed. 1850, p. 117). Is any Grammont,' a new edition of which has just been account of his proceedings in the East, or of the published, allusion is made in a note respecting reasons for his mission thither, in print ?

Mr. Chiffinch to a Mr. Baptist May, who is there

C. H. FIRTH. spoken of as one of Charles II.'s supper com[ 33, Norham Road, Oxford.

panions. Can any of your readers give me any BETHAM.-Can any of your readers inform me

information respecting this gentleman ?

J. SAUMAREZ. in what parish in Staffordshire a place called

43, Grosvenor Place. Bethom or Betham was situate ? From about 1490 until 1600 I find it mentioned without an AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED.interval as the place of residence of different

The young-eyed Poesy Staffordshire families. After the last-mentioned

All deftly masked as hoar Antiquity. date I find no trace of it.

F. W. M.

'Twas strange that such a little thing

Should leave a blank so large. INSCRIPTIONS ON ALTARS.—Can you tell me of

And the name of the isle is the Long Ago, any instances of inscriptions on altars? I have

And we bury our treasures there, WINNIE. heard of one near Denbigh, inscribed in Greek

“God made man after his likeness, and man has recharacters “Non Incognito Deo." It is said to turned the compliment.” I think it is in Voltaire. have been on an old altar table in a church

R. F. C. formerly the old parish church of Denbigh, and is

We toil through pain and wrong, now about a mile from Denbigh. After the above

We fight, we fly,

We love, we lose, words come “I. R., 1617."

Can any of your And in a little time stone dead we liecorrespondents throw any light on the subject ?

Oh! Life, is all thy song “endure and die ? "
A. G.

THOMAS J. EWING. VERTUE.-There was a Vertue a bookseller at

Who with a lingering stay his course doth let the Royal Exchange, whose widow married the

Till every minute pays the hour his debt.

J. W. DONIGAN, famous Samuel Goatsby, and he carried on the business, dying at a great age in 1808. The widow's name was Hannah Vertue. Timperley

spells it Virtue, but he is wrong. Was her hus-
band a descendant of Geo. Vertue, the engraver ?


(7th S. vi. 308, 414.) Walthamstow.

Surely a more sarcastic commentary on the preMILL’s ‘Logic.'—At p. 228 of his Principles vailing mode of furnishing derivations of placeof Science, Prof. Jevons says: “But I shall feel names than that afforded on the page last quoted bound to state, in a separate publication, my very could hardly be met with. Three guesses at the deliberate opinion that many of Mill's innovations derivation of the one name Wetherby are backed in logical science, and especially his doctrine of by such names as those of SIR J. A. Picton and reasoning from particulars to particulars, are en- CANON TAYLOR, of which it is perfectly safe to say tirely groundless and false.” Has such a publica- that, while two of them must be wrong, it is most tion ever appeared; and, if so, who are the pub- likely all three of them are. Admitting the possilishers, and what is its price ? E. HOBSON. bility of the compound viðar-beer-though I greatly

doubt if it ever could bave been standard” or CAPT. MARRYAT.—This popular author, chiefly classical” Old Danish or Icelandic-still it is not of books relating to seafaring life, is said, in his clear how it ever could have meant "wooden house."

Life,' by his daughter, Mrs. Church, to have been The authority quoted by CANON TAYLOR gives to born in Westminster. No special locality is given the Icel. bær or býr, Dan. and Swed. by, the meanIs it known where he was born ?


ing of “a farm, a landed estate," and adds that Emanuel Hospital, S.W.

in Iceland it denotes “a farm, or farmyard and

buildings.” In other words, but for the “ dirty BEVERIDGE OR BELFRAGE.-I should be glad acres” there would be no bær or by. Nor do I see to know whether this is strictly a Scottish family how this consideration is to be excluded in the

Bishop Beveridge was born in Leicester. attempt to explain the formation and meaning of shire, and I am not aware that he came of a an English place-name ending in by. But besides, Scottish family. The name is very common in in such a settlement, over and above the owner's Fife. Belfrage is the older form of it. Its de- or settler's own domicile, the dwelling or dwellings rivation is unknown to me.

of his servants—thrall or free-the byres and A. W. CORNELIUS HALLEN. stables and cotes for his stock, the lathes for his Alloa,

corn, and the like, have all to be thought of as


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constitutiog the structural part of the composite Angles to the exclusion of the Saxons ; and it has by; and these are several buildings, not simply a been alleged, moreover, that it is not always easy to "house." On this ground, therefore, CANON distinguish between_Anglian and Scandinavian Taylor's explanation of “wooden house " seems names and words. But there is one thing abunto be inadmissible. But even sinking the farm dantly clear,—that no derivationist of English placepart of the idea altogether, and substituting." build names is in a very good position if he be desirous to ings” for “house" would not meet all the diffi- conduct his inquiries in the only legitimate and culties attending the importation of the word viðar, reasonable way, and that is on same lines as or the meaning "wooden.” For what were such the compilation of the New English Dictionary." buildings, and alike in the Scandinavian lands and He has not the materials. There are copious lists in England, actually and universally framed and of the place-names occurring in different north conmade of? There is but one answer to the ques- tinental districts or provinces. There are none such tion,-wood, and wood only. And if so, what in England, save, perhaps, the Domesday list, which becomes of the distinctiveness, the essence of the is not too accessible to the general reader. And meaning, of the name itself ? It would be some until such lists are made, and are made available to thing like calling a house in Old Whitby the “Red the general student, we can have nothing but what tiled House” by way of distinction. Neither do is, for the most part, made up of essentially guessI think either of Sir J. A. PICTON's suggestions work derivations. The foreign lists referred to are at all happier on the score of meaning. It seems not only useful in their way to the English inquirer, bat a very poor compliment to the common sense they are altogether indispensable. But without of the colonists who settled this district, and named the corresponding English lists they lack more their several settlemente, to assume that they could than half their possible utility. The lists of field, do no better in the way of name-giving than the and common field names alone would be of almost nonsensical platitude of “the farm-settlement of a unimagined utility. But there seems to be no wether," or that “ of the weather.” For my own one-no society even-to take the matter up. I part, and after thirty-five years of consideration know that it has been suggested once and again, and study of the place-names of this North York- and that in either case the response bas been, shire district, I am satisfied that in the strangely "Our hands are too full as it is." The work of preponderating majority of the place-names ending some of these societies, however, must now be in by-not to advert to others now-where the getting fast on. Can none of them be put on this prefix is not manifestly a qualifying word—as in -as yet new—quest ?

J. C. ATKINSON, Mickleby, Overby, Netherby, Kirkby, or Kirby, Danby in Cleveland, Newby, &c.—it is unquestionably a personal name. The simplest inspection of a carefully compiled list

EGYPTIAN HIEROGRAMS ON ENGLISH PICTURES of such names in their earliest known forms is (7th S. vi. 445). — Although the winged globe and sufficient to establish this point. Add to this that caduceus is not to be found in the great collection the same personal name is perpetually found in the of "Imprese Illustri' by Ruscelli (Venice, 1984), general class of like names, both with the in this evidently arises from its not having been flexional genitival form and the genitival s, and a

appropriated by any particular princely or noble suggestion is at once afforded as to the possible or house. It was, however, a convenient emblem for probable explanation of the prefix in Wetherby—a a painter or engraver to put on a portrait, as a flattersuggestion which loses no force from the circum. ing ippuendo that the exalted position of the perstance that the names which follow Wedrebi in the sonage portrayed was as much the result of merit ag Domesday list are Wedreslei and Wedresleie, and of the accident of high birth. With the substitution from the further circumstance that such Scan- of a winged cap of honour for the winged globe, it dinavian names as Ketell Vedur, Vedra-Grímr, will be found in Alciat. See page 146 of the and the like, are to be met with. It may also be French translation of his ‘Emblems' (Lyon, added that Sir J. A. Piction's collation of the 1549), illustrating the emblem “ A vertu, fortune Essex name Wethersfield (or Weathersfield, as it compaigne":used constantly to be spelt in the days of my

D'æles, Serpens, et Amalthées cornes boyhood, when I lived there), is not happy. Ton Caducée (O Mercure) tu ornes : I have a list of a dozen different forms of Monstrant les gens d'esprit, et d'eloquence, that name by me, and while these vary in the Auoir par tout des biens en uffluence. equally extravagant and extraordinary manner I do not find it in Paradin’s ‘Symbola Heroica'

own to students of such matters, the Domesday (Antwerp, 1563), but it turns up again, beautifully -and, I suppose, ultimate-form known is Westre- engraved' by Crispin de Pas, in the 'Nucleus felda.' SIR J. Á. Picton also speaks of the pre- Emblematum Selectissimorum quæ Itali vulgo dominance of “Saxon" names of places in the Impresas (sic) vocant,' by Gabriel Rollenbagen, of Wetherby district. Is that so? I had thought Magdeburg (Cologne, 1611). The cut by De Pas, the district was one that had been occupied by the afterwards used by Wither in England, illustrates



the motto “ Virtuti fortuna comes," and bears this the states of modern Europe probably originated epigram:

in the territory we now call France. However Virtuti fortuna comee, Sudore paratur

that may have been, they certainly reached us in Fructus honos oneris, fructus honoris onus. a French dress. When, therefore, we speak of the When the symbol is found on a royal person's por- romance hero, not of the trait, the globe takes the place of the cap, and

magnus imperator, means that personal merit has made him or her

Boni fructus bonus sator, worthy of the right to rule. Simply this, and no

Et prudens agricola deep mystery of " Egyptian hierograms" such as it is better to say Charlemagne. The distinction it would seem is surmised by your correspondent is not a vain one. There is but a very shadowy J. E. J. is the real solution of the query.

likeness between the “ Christi miles fortis," in

FREDK. HENDRIKS. whose honour the priests of Aachen sang, and the DR. GUILLOTIN (56 S. i. 426, 497; 75 S. vi. Kirkwall to Palermo and from Breslau to Cadiz.

hero whose deeds were chanted by minstrels from 230, 292).- In the “Scelta d'alcuni Miracoli e

ASTARTE. Grazie della Santissima Nunziata di Firenze descritti dal P. F. Gio. Angiolo Lottini, in Firenze,

"TAKE(7th S. vi. 225, 313, 1619," small 4to., there is a plate, at p. 208, to 454). - It is a noticeable fact that those who havé illustrate cap. lxvii., in which an instrument spoken Gaelic in their youth almost invariably use exactly like the modern guillotine is represented. bring where others would say take. A typical inThe chapter is headed, “Dovendosi tagliar il collo stance occurs to me. Once, in a strange place, a Francesco, è miracolosamente impedito il taglio and in somewhat peculiar and trying circumdella Mannaia"; and on p. 210 the miracle is stances, I was along with a friend whose Gaelic described :

idiom still troubled him. We sadly needed a “ Posciachè tagliata dal Giustiziere la corda, a cui place of refuge and entertainment, and when at legata la grave mannaia attiensi, e questa con grâ ruina the end of our own resources, my friend suddenly e prestezza sopra dell'esposto collo cadendo: non pur la stopped in front of a stalwart policeman, and in pelle non gl

' intacco o recise : ma all'opposto di quanto theatrical tones observed, “You 'll require to bring fare quel taglio solea, si rattenne, in piente la carne offese, nè in parte alcuna fe nocumento."

us to a place of refreshment, sir !” Being thus Though more than a century later than the nearly threatened, the official

, with a docile be

partly entreated, partly commanded, and very drawings referred to by MR. Gibbs, this passage wilderment of expression, dis as requested, and is valuable as showing the general use of the our troubles were over. Compare, however, with instrument in Italy.


this, the appeal of the dainty Rosalind to the shepVery good representations of the guillotine, herd in As You Like It,' II. iv. 69, and it will "standing in no need of being further perfected,' appear that the idiom is not necessarily an Irishare in Holinsbed's Chronicle, 1577, vol. ii. p. 654, ism after all : &c., which, although a valuable book, is not I pr’ythee, shepherd, if that love, or gold, rare, as it is to be found in almost every library Can in this desert place buy entertainment, of any pretension.

R. R. Bring us where we may rest ourselves, and feed. Boston, Lincolnshire.

THOMAS BAYNE. The whole bistory of the guillotine, with its

Helensburgh, N.B. anticipations and results, may be seen in J. W. Friar's LANTHORN (7th S. vi. 168, 257, 338, Croker's 'History of the Guillotine,' from the 473). —The ignis fatuus or Will-o'-the-wisp is Quarterly Review, 1844, Lond., J. Murray, 1853. supposed in popular superstition to be generally a

ED. MARSHALL. soul which has broken out of purgatory, and not CHARLEMAGNE (76 S. vi. 426).—There cannot particularly the soul of a priest." I refer to Brand's be any doubt that the name of the great Frank edition. I think that the explanation to which

Popular Antiquities,' vol. iii. p. 398 of Bohn's should be written " Charles” by Englishmen. MR. GRIFFINHOOFE alludes can hardly be correct, That is the best English equivalent for his although ingenious enough.

E. YARDLEY. name; and so he was almost always written and spoken of until recent days, when it became BELGIAN CUSTOM (76 S. vi. 249, 336, 456). — a fashion to imitate French ways. If your Is not this so-called Belgian custom of hanging out correspondent will take the trouble to look up a bundle of straw suspended by a long string from the references given in the index to the pub a window, as a sign of repairs going on above, also lications of the Parker Society, he will find many ! an English practice? If my memory serves me examples of the way his name was written in the rightly, I have noticed more than once, when sixteenth century. It would be easy to give seven- travelling on the river steamers on the Thames, a teenth century examples almost without limit. similar bundle of straw suspended by a cord over

The romances concerning the great founder of one of the archways of Waterloo Bridge (which at

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the time was undergoing repair), and I took it that Borrow's note-books, MSS., and correspondthat it was intended as a friendly warning that if ence went to America, to the possession of Prof. we chose to steer directly underneath it we might W. J. Knapp, Yale University, New Haven, who snffer for our temerity by a brick or a stone falling is an enthusiastic student of Borrow. Prof. Knapp upon our heads.

J. S. UDAL. intends to publish a full biography of Borrow, and Inner Temple.

will correct many errors that have been made in Sir Michael LIVESEY (7th S. vi. 408).—Sir the inadequate notices of him that have appeared M. Livesey was one of the Commissioners and in this country. An interesting article on Borrow Council of War appointed for the county of Kent, from his pen appeared in an American magazine,

, by ordinance of Parliament, April 23, 1645. He

the Chautauquan, November, 1887. Borrow was is frequently mentioned in The Declaration of Col. born July 5, 1803, and so was more than “twentyAnthony Weldon,' 4to., 1649. Weldon was major

one when 'Romantic Ballads' was published.” in Livesey's regiment of horse, and quarrelled with


Norwich, his colonel, whom he accused of misconduct as a soldier (pp. 13-26). See also Weldon's petitions “Faustus : his Life, Death...... Translated from in the

Record Office. Livesey was present at Crop- the German of F. M. von Klinger by G. B.,” 1825, redy Bridge and Alresford. He took part in the 8vo., beads the list of Borrow's works appended to defeat of the Earl of Holland's rising in July, the sketch of his life in the ‘Dict. of Nat. Biog.,' 1648 (Rushworth, iv. 2, 1182). After the Re- vol. v. p. 408.

G. F. R. B. storation he fled to Holland. In September, 1663, he is said to have been living at Arnheim By far the best book on American bank-note issues

Book ON BANK-NOTE Issue (7th S. vi. 359). — ('Cal. State Papers, Dom.,' 1663-4, p. 266).


is J. J. Knox's' United States Notes,' New York,

Scribnerg. Mr. Knox is a man of the highest CHARTISTS (7th S. vi. 187, 273, 432). —William order. For remarks on note issues in general see Lovett, cabinet maker, who died at 137, Euston the Annual Report of the U.S. Director of the Mint, Road, London, August 8, 1877, drew up, in 1837, and, secondarily, the U.S. Comptroller of the Carthe address and rules of the Working Men's rency.

C. W. ERNST. Association, and for some time acted as the secre- Boston, Mass., U.S. tary. A volume in the British Museum, marked 8138a, contains thirty-two pamphlets relating to

"New ENGLISH DICTIONARY,' VOL. III. (7th S. the proceedings of the association. For an account vi. 347). —The following instances of the employof William Lovett (who suffered imprisonment for ment of elect may be of use to MR. BRADLEY:his political and social opinions) and his writings "Poet (laughing). Ha, ha, ha, ha...... if he should, and the consult the ‘Bibliotheca Cornubiensis,' pp. 324, elect had but wit enough to stand out.”—Aaron Hill, 1269.


• The Snake in the Grass,' ed. 1760, p. 97. 36, James Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W.

“Young Apollo, Laureat supreme, but conferring Bays

of a new Model, on a Laureat elect, to encourage him.” THE FIRST PUBLISHED WORK OF GEORGE

Ibid., p. 88. Borrow (7th S. vi. 428).—The' Romantic Ballads' put up for Poet-elect, to the Opera.”—Ibid., p. 99.

Poet. Who? I! If ever I make songs, in a fright, I 'll was not the first published work, but it was the

F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. first that bears his name. He had published in 1825 · Faustus : his Life, Death, and Descent into

TAE SCENES OF John CONSTABLE'S PICTURES Hell, translated from the German, London, Simp. (7th S. vi. 426).—MR. COBBOLD, in writing to you kin & Marshall, 1825. It was a translation of Von respecting this matter, has perhaps followed the Klinger's 'Faustes Leben,' &c. There are two course which appeared best to him, but I regret that issues of the 'Romantic 'Ballads.' It was first he did not previously communicate to me his intenissued in May, 1826, as 'Romantic Ballads, trans- tion of so doing. That he has been treated with dislated from the Danish, and Miscellaneous Pieces, courtesy I at once admit, but this has been through by George Borrow, Norwich, S. Wilkin, 1826, 8vo., a misunderstanding. Upon receiving his letter I pp. xi, 187. Then part of the edition was handed at once sent it to the writer of the article, and to a London publisher, and issued with a new title - asked him to reply to it. I now for the first time page, ending, “ London : John Taylor, Waterloo learn that he thought it better to do nothing in Place, 1826." I think copies of this issue are more

the matter.” I had been waiting to hear the result common. Probably something of the same kind from him, which accounts for no correction having was done in the matter of the Faustus,' for I have appeared in the Art Journal. It is now, unfortuseen a copy with a preface dated" Norwich, April, nately, too late to insert it in last year's volume. 1826.” There is no doubt that he also wrote 'Cele

MARCUS B. Huish, Editor. brated Trials, &c., to the Year 1825,' which Sir PITSHANGER, EALING (7th S. v. 448 ; vi. 33, Richard Phillips published in six volumes on 317, 414).- I am concerned only with the alleged March 19, 1825. I am not sure if it is known equation of y=%, which I regard as a misapprehen


sion. We are referred to the Scottish Dalziel, also no reply; but, aided by his comrades, builds the written Dalyell ; the name is topographical. Dal. cruel stones higher and higher until they reach her ziel, in Lanarkshire, was written Dalgheal, i.e., white- breast. Again she appeals in vain, and implores mead or fair meadow, our Shenley. Here dal is him, for the sake of their unborn babe, to set her the Celtic "part, share, or section,” equating the free. Steadily, remorselessly, her murderers close Teutonic dale, deal, dole. Now gheal may well pair the walls around her till the living tomb is finished, off with the Teutonic "yellow," cf. gelt

, gilt; but and her dying voice is heard reproachfully whisperthe suggested z is, I think, a misreading. Speak-ing :ing genealogically, Dalziel reads "I dare." Well,

Treat me not thus cruelly, Manolli, oh! Manolli, I dare not define my thoughts anent this legend. The dreadful wall has now closed o'er me, Zell is common on the Continent; it is, I under- Naught but darkness is before me, stand, a form of cell, celle, celles, common in France;

Manolli, my Manolli-husband, master, Manolli ! Celtic kil.

A. HALL. After the victim has been thus immured the build

ing goes on without interruption, and is soon comKIRK-GRIMS (7th S. vi. 265, 349).— I am not pleted to the satisfaction of Prince Negru. Shortly aware of any church in England' of which the story afterwards, when the ten masons are employed mentioned by your correspondent is told, but there putting the finishing touch to their work, Negru is a similar legend in Transylvanian folk-lore, which asks them if they would be able to build a still more

a is as follows. The Hospodar Negru, who reigned glorious templo. Exulting in their skill, they boastfrom 1513 to 1521, was taken by the Turks as a fully call from their lofty position that they would hostage to Constantinople, where, by the assist- be able to do so. On receiving this reply the Hosance of a Greek architect, a superb mosque was podar, who had no desire that ħis church should be built by him for the Sultan Selim I., which so eclipsed, has the ladders removed, so that his unpleased that potentate that he dismissed him to fortunate servants should be left to perish. With his own country with rich presents, so as to enable much ingenuity Manoel and his fellow craftsmen bim to build a church in his principality. Accom- make artificial wings of pieces of scantling, and, panied by the Greek, whose name was Manoel, and trusting to these frail supports, launch themselves nine master-masons, Negru left Constantinople, and into the air. They are killed by the fall, and, with on arriving in his own territories selected a site on the exception of Manoel, are turned into stones. the river Argisch, where the ruins of an ancient He as he is dying imagines he hears his wife's temple stood, for the erection of his new church. voice calling her last sad refrain, “Manolli, my The builders set to work, but, wonderful to relate, Manolli," and, as tears rise to his glazing eyes at the walls which were constructed in the daytime the mournful sound, he is transformed into a founwere thrown down at night. Manoel at last had a taip, which to the present time is known as Manoel's dream, in which he heard a voice, which said that Well. Madame Gerard, in her recently published all their labour would be in vain unless they built work 'Beyond the Forest,' gives extracts from the up in the masonry the first woman who should doina, or folk-song, entitled 'Temple Argisch,' appear in the morning. He informed his nine which contains the foregoing story. comrades of this, and they bound themselves with a

R. STEWART PATTERSON. solemn oath to do as the voice had directed.

Cork. The following morning Manoel, to his horror, There seems to have been a general superstition beholds his own wife Aonika approaching the fatal that the stability of a building could be ensured by building, and, falling on his knees, he implores the the sacrifice of a human being, and we have many heavens to send rain, so that a raging flood would legends that charch towers and other constructions impede her progress. His prayers are heard, but are assured of lasting by the fact that some one it is all in vain, for the faithful wife, who is carry- (usually the wife or child of the master-builder or ing her husband's breakfast, struggles through the architect) is built up into the wall or buried alive rising waters and howling tempest, till at last, beneath the foundation. This may account for smiling and triumphant, she reaches where he some of the ghosts that, on the best authority, are stood, and is greeted by him with the accustomed accused of haunting this or that church. Of course kiss. With a breaking heart—remembering his in great buildings it is too often a deplorable incipow, but disguising his anguish as best he could— dent that life is lost by some untoward accident, he carries her up the scaffolding, and then pro- and this may have given rise to the popular belief. poses to her, as if in a merry mood, that she would It holds to this day. I was asked if it was not true place herself in a niche and see them build around that a man had been thus buried beneath one of her. The poor young wife claps her hands in glee the towers of the great Brooklyn bridge, and I had at the idea. The wall gradually rises around her some difficulty in convincing the inquirer that it feet, then the masonry reaches her knees. Fear was pure fable. has now taken the place of merriment in her heart, Closely connected with this story of life-tribute and she begs to be released. Her husband makes is the saying that blood makes a durable mortar,

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