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THE FRIEND consists of a methodical series of essays, cipal purpose of which is to assist the mind in the formation for itself of sound, and therefore permanent and universal, principles in regard to the investigation, perception, and retention of truth, in what direction soever it may be pursued; but pre-eminently with reference to the three great relations in which we are placed in this world, -as citizens to the state, as men to our neighbors, rand as creatures to our Creator,-in other words, to politics, to morals, and to religion. The author does not exhibit any perfect scheme of action or system of belief in any one of these relations; and that he has not done so, nor meant to do so, are points which must be borne in mind by every reader who would understand and fairly appreciate the work. For its


and discipline the student's moral and intellectual being,—not to propound dogmas or theories for his adoption. The book is not the plan of a palace, but a manual of the rules of architecture. It is a rponaidevua,-something to set the mind in a state of pure recipiency for the specific truths of philosophy, and to arm its faculties with power to recognize and endure their presence.

In pursuing, however, this main design, the author has examined with more or less minuteness many particular systems and codes of opinion lying in his way; and in stating the grounds of his rejection of some, and entire or partial admission of others of them, he has in effect expressed his own convictions upon several of the most important questions, yet disputed in moral and political philosophy. But it is not so much to any given conclusion so expressed that the reader's attention seems to be invited, as to



the reasoning founded on principles of universal application, by which such conclusion has been evolved ;--the primary and prevailing aim throughout the work being, as well under the forms of criticism, biography, local description, or personal anecdote, as of direct moral, political, or metaphysical disquisition, to lay down and illustrate certain fundamental distinctions and rules of intellectual action, which, if well grounded and thoroughly taken up and appropriated, will give to every one the power of working out, under any circumstances, the conclusions of truth for himself. The game from time to time started and run down may be rich and curious; but still at the end of the day it is the chase itself, the quickened eye, the lengthened breath, the firmer nerve, that must ever be the huntsman's best reward.

The Friend is divided into two main sections; the first comprising a discussion of the principles of political knowledge; the second treating of the grounds of morals and religion, and revealing the systematic discipline of mind requisite for a true understanding of the same. To these is prefixed a general introduction, for the greater part devoted to a statement of the duty of communicating the truth, and of the conditions under which it may be communicated safely ; and three several collections of essays, in some degree miscellaneous and called Landing-Placesinterposed in different places for amusement, retrospect, and preparation--complete the work.

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THE following synoptical view of the plan and contents of “ The
Friend” may prove useful to those who read the work for the
first time in the present edition.


ESSAYS I—XVI. pp. 19–118.

Duty of the
of truth, and
the conditions
under which it
may be safely

Essays V-XIII.

I. Design of the work.

II. Ditto continued : necessity of attention and

thought, and distinction between them.

III. Style: author's hopes and expectations.

IV. Defence against charges of arrogance and presump-


V. Inexpediency of pious frauds : indifference of

truth and falsehood denied : objection from the

impossibility of conveying an adequate notion


VI. Conditions, under which right, though inadequate,

notions may be taught.
VII. Application of those conditions to publications
VIII. by the press :-1. as between an individual
IX. and his own conscience.

X. Ditto.—2. As between the publisher and the state:
XI. Law of libel: its anomalies and peculiar difficul-


XIL Despotism and insecurity without a free press ;

Charlemagne and Bonaparte.

XIII. Only solution of the difficulties of the law of libel

compatible with a free press : toleration and

free press.


Necessity of

founded in the
reason as the

basis of all
genuine expe-




Pp. 95-118.

XIV. Clearness of conceptions in the understanding

essential to purity in the will: duty of commu-

nicating knowledge.
XV. Right use of metaphysic reasoning: principles

founded in reason the sole root of prudence: dis-

tinctive powers of the human mind.
XVI. Supremacy of the reason: power given by acting

on principle: falsehood and unworthiness of

modern principles in taste, morals, and religion.


J I. System of Hobbes : fear and the force of custom:


II. Do. continued: spirit of law: use of the phrase,
Three systems

“original contract.”
of political III. System of expedience and prudence-adopted :
justice, or

system of the pure reason: motives for exposing

Three theories

its falsehood.

on the origin of IV. Statement of the system : Rousseau's “Social Con-


tract,” and Paine's “Rights of Man:" French

Essays I–V.

physiocratic philosophers: Cartwright: confu-

pp. 153–202.


V. Cartwright; party-spirit: Jacobins and Anti-Jac-

obins : injudicious treatment of the former by

the latter.



Essays VII-IX.
pp. 208–238.

principles : national debt.
VIII. Classes of political reformers: elective franchise.
IX. Catechism preparatory to examination of the prin-

ciples of the English Government: letter of

Decatur's, and anecdotes illustrative of principles.

X. Review of circumstances which led to the peace

of Amiens, and recommencement of the war,

especially with regard to the occupation of Malta,

-introductory to, and as commentary on, the

subject of international law.


Interposed in vindication of freedom of thought,

and of the duty of searching out, and abiding by,


the truth: reason and faith: extracts from

Taylor and Bedell.

XIII. Law of nations : cosmopolitism and nationality.

XIV. Law of nations continued : modern political econ-

omy : balance of European power: allegoric fable

on the seizure of the Danish fleet: defence of the


XV. Doctrine of general consequences as the best

criterion of the right or wrong of particular ac-

tions not tenable in reason, or safe in practice.



Essays X-XIV.

pp. 239-284.

Principles of

political con-


Essay XV.

pp. 285–296.

True love of


XVI. Address delivered at Bristol in 1795.

Essay XVI.

pp. 296-307.


ESSAYS I-IV. pp. 311-343.

I. Tale of Maria Eleonora Schöning.

Miseries of


in a country

nominally free.

Essay I.

pp. 311-326.

Principles of

true biography.

Essay II.

pp. 326–332.



III. and IV.

pp. 333-343.

II. Spirit of anecdote-mongering condemned: extract

from R. North’s Life of Lord Keeper Guilford.

III, Fable of Irus (Bonaparte) and Toxaris : Christ-

mas within, and out of doors in North Germany:

extract from Mr. Wordsworth's MS. poem.
IV. Rabbinical Tales.

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