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right sceptre ; thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity; wherefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows; even Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

In the ritual of James I., the following prayer is inserted before the delivery of the second sceptre.

O Lord, the fountain of all good things, and the author of all good proceedings, grant, we beseech thee, to this thy servant James, that he may order aright the dignity he hath obtained. Vouchsafe to confirm the honour which thou hast given him, honour him before all kings, and enrich him with a rich benediction; establish him in the throne of this realm, visit him with increase of children, let justice spring up in his days, and with joy of gladness let him reign in thy everlasting kingdom. Amen.

In the ritual for the coronation of George III., it is ordered, that, after the delivery of the rod, the dean of Westminster shall take the Bible, which was carried in the procession, and deliver it to the archbishop, who, accompanied by the other bishops, shall present it to the sovereign.

The sovereign then kneels down, holding both sceptres, and the archbishop pronounces the following benediction.

The Lord bless and keep thee; and as he hath made thee monarch over his people, so may he still prosper thee in this world, and make thee partaker of eternal felicity in the world to come. Amen.

Grant, O Lord, that the clergy and people gathered together by thy ordinance for this service of the sovereign, may by the gracious assistance of thy goodness, and the vigilant care of thy servant, our ruler, be continually governed and preserved in all happiness. Amen.

Grant that they, obeying thy holy will, may be freed from all adversities, and enjoying the riches of thy grace, may with fervent love walk in the ways of thy commandments, that in this life, being made partakers of thy peace, they may be citizens of thy kingdom in the life that is to come, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The sovereign then gives the kiss of peace to the archbishop, and all the bishops present; but in the case of a queen regnant, the kiss is only given in seeming, Te Deum is sung at the same time by the choir.

INTHRONING, HOMAGE, AND FEALTY. When Te Deum is concluded, the sovereign, con ducted by the archbishop and the bishops, and attended by all the great officers of state, ascends the throne. The archbishop, as soon as the sovereign is seated, pronounces the exhortation, as follows, save that the words within brackets are usually omitted in the modern forms.

Stand and hold fast henceforth that place [whereof hitherto thou hast been heir by the succession of thy forefathers, being, now delivered unto thee by the authority of Almighty God, and by the hands of us the bishops and servants of God, and as thou seest the clergy approach nearer unto the altar, so remember, that in suitable places thou give them greater honour, that the mediation of God and man may establish thee in this kingly throne to be the mediator betwixt the clergy and the laity, and that thou mayest reign for ever with Jesus Christ, the King of kings, and the Lord of lords, who with the Father and the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth for ever. Amen.

The ceremony anciently ended here, the homage and fealty being usually performed on the following day. Homage is the acknowledgment of vassalage in the phrase, “I become your man;" but this form of words is not cited by any ecclesiastic, because he is already 6 the man of God.” The archbishop and bishops therefore only tender fealty, or the oath of fidelity, at the coronation, in these words.

I archbishop of Canterbury, will be faithful and true, and true faith will bear unto you our sovereign lord (or lady) and your heirs, monarchs of Great Britain ; and I will do and truly acknowledge the service of the lands which I claim to hold of you in right of the church. So help me God!

The archbishop then rises and kisses the sovereign's left cheek, (or, in the case of a queen regnant, seems to kiss it,) and the rest of the bishops do the like.

The premier duke then performs homage, or rather, as we shall subsequently see, homage and fealty united, for himself, and all other peers of the same order, kneeling, and pronouncing these words aloud :

I, duke of do become your liege man of life and limb, and of earthly worship; and faith and troth shall bear unto you, to live and die with you against all manner of folk. So help me God!

The same ceremony is performed by the premier peer of each rank for the peers of the same order; then each, in succession, taking off his coronet, ascends the throne, kisses, or seems to kiss, the sovereign on the left cheek, and touches the crown, to signify that he is one of its supporters. While homage is performed, the coronation medals are thrown among the people from the three sides of the theatre by the treasurer of the household, attended by Garter king of arms, and the usher of the black rod. If there is a general pardon, it is read in the same places by the lord chancellor, attended by the same officers.

The proper form of homage is thus described by Lord Coke, the words enclosed in brackets not being used when it was offered to a sovereign.—“When the tenant shall make homage to his lord, he shall be ungirt, and his head uncovered; and his lord shall sit, and the tenant shall kneel before him on both his knees, and hold his hands jointly together between the hands of his lord, and shall say thus:-'I become your man from this day forward, of life and limb, and of earthly worship, and unto you shall be true and faithful, and bear you faith for the tenements I claim to hold of you, [saving the faith that I owe to our sovereign lord the king;]' and then the lord shall kiss him.”

When lands were held by a woman, she was not required to say, “I become your woman;" for this Lord Coke thus gravely accounts,

66 because a woman should be nobody's woman but her husband's.”

The oldest form of homage in the English coronation service is in these words;

I become your man liege of life and limb, and troth and hearty honour to you shall bear, against all men that now live and die. So help me God!

: When Charles I. was crowned in Scotland, an oath of fealty was administered before the homage. Every peer, at the summons of the Lord Lyon king at arms, touched the crown, and then facing the king, raised up his right hand and said, “So God not help me as I shall support thee.” The following oath was at the same time taken by the people.

We swear, and by the holding up of our hands, do promise all subjection and loyalty to King Charles, our dread sovereign, and as we wish God to be merciful unto us, shall be to his Majesty true and faithful, and be ever ready to bestow our lives, lands, and whatever else God hath given us for the defence of his sacred person and crown.

This rather extravagant profession of loyalty was introduced by Archbishop Laud, under whose superintendence the Scottish ceremonial was prepared.

After the homage an anthem is sung by the choir.

CORONATION OF A QUEEN CONSORT. When the anthem is concluded, the queen consort, if there be one, rises from her chair; and, supported by two bishops, goes to the altar attended by her ladies. The archbishop then recites the following prayer, the queen kneeling.

Almighty and everlasting God, the fountain of all goodness, give ear we beseech thee to our prayers, and multiply thy blessings upon this thy servant, whom in thy name, with all humble devotion, we consecrate our queen. Defend her always with thy mighty hand, protect her on every side, that she may be able to overcome all her enemies, and that with Sarah and Rebecca, Leah and Rachel, and all other blessed and honourable women, she may multiply and rejoice in the fruit of her womb, to the honour of the kingdom and the good government of thy church, through Christ our Lord, who vouchsafed to be born of a virgin, that he might redeem the world, who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, world without end. Amen.

The queen then rises from the altar and goes to kneel upon a faldstool near St. Edward's chair ;

her coronet is taken off by the groom of the stole, and the front of her dress opened by the ladies of the bed

chamber; the archbishop then anoints her head and breast, saying,

In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, let the anointing of this oil increase thine honour, and establish thee for ever and ever.

After the anointing, the following prayer is read: O Almighty and everlasting God, we beseech thee of thine infinite goodness, pour out the spirit of thy grace and blessing upon this thy servant, queen ; that as by the imposition of our hands she is this day crowned queen, so she may, by thy sanctification, continue always thy chosen servant, through Christ our Lord. Amen.

The oil being dried with cotton wool, the robes closed, and a linen coif placed upon the queen's head, the archbishop proceeds to invest her with the ring, which he receives from the master of the jewel-house, saying,

Receive this ring, the seal of a sincere faith, that you may avoid all infection of heresy, and by the power of God compel barbarous nations, and bring them to the knowledge of the truth.

In King James I.'s ritual, a prayer follows, which is omitted in the modern ceremonials:

God, to whom belongeth all power and dignity, grant, we beseech thee, to this thy servant, by the sign of Christian faith, prosperous success in this her honour, and that she may continue firm in the same, and endeavour always to please Thee, through Christ our Lord. Amen.

The following benediction of the crown in the same ritual, is also omitted in the modern forms:

O God, the crown of the faithful, which dost crown their heads with stones; bless and sanctify this crown, that as the same is adorned with many precious stones, so thy servant that weareth the same, may of thy grace, be replenished with the manifold gifts of all precious virtues, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The archbishop then puts the crown reverently on the queen's head, saying,

Receive the crown of glory, honour, and joy; and God the crown of the faithful, who by our episcopal hands, though most unworthy, hath this day, set a crown of pure gold upon your

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