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The Art of RHETORIC.

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The Four proper. TROPES..
A Metaphor, in place of proper words,
Resemblance puts; and dress to speech affords.
A Metonymy does new names impofe,
And things by things by near relation shows.
Synecdoche the whole for part doth take;
Or, of a part for whole, exchange doth make.
An Irony, difsembling with an air,
Thinks otherwise than what the words declare..

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EX A M P L E-S.. 1: A Tide (Excess) of Passion. Breath on favour) my Enterprizes. The golden (pure, untainted) Age. 2. The Iuvenier is taken for the Invented; as, Mars (War) rages. . The Author, for his Works; as, read Horace, i e. his Writings. Thre Inftrument, for the Caule; as, his Tongue (Eloquence) defends him. The Matter, for the Thing made; as, the Steel (Sword) conquers. 'The Effect, for the Cause; as, cold Death, i. e. Death, which makes cold: The Subject containing, for the Thing contained; as, the Mace (Magistrate) comes. 3. Ten Summers, i. e. Years, have I lived under this Roof, i. e. House. Now the Year, j. e. Spring, is the most beautiful. 4. Fairly done, i. ei scandalouffy done. Good Boy, i.e. Bad Boy:

TERMS Englished. 1. Translation. 2. Changing of Names.- 3. Comprehen-fion. 4. Dissimulation.

Affections of Tropes. A Catachresis words too far doth strain 5 Rather from fuch abuse of fpeech refrain. Hyperbole foars high, or creeps too low; 6 Exceeds the truth, things wonderful to show. By Metalepsis, in one word combin'd

7 More Tropes than one you easily may find. An Allegory Tropes continues still,

8 Which with new graces every sentence fill.

Tropes improperly accounted fo. Antonomasia proper names imparts,

9 From kindred, country, epithets, or artsa Litotes doth more sense than words include, ю And often by two negatives hath stood.

romatopeia coins a word from sound, 11 By which alone the meaning may be found.

E X A M P L E S. 5, The Man, i.e. Chief, of the Flock. He threatens, i.e. promises, a Favour. 6, He runs swifter than the Wind, i. e. very swiftly. 7. Euphrates, (i, e. Mesopotamia, i. c. its Inhabitants) moves War. 8. Venus grows cold without Ceres and Bacchus, i. e. Love grows cold without Bread and Wine. 9. There gocs Irus, is e. a poor Man, pacides, i. e. Achilles, conquered. The Carthaginian, i. c. Hannibal, won the field. Cytherea, i. e, Venus, worshipped in the island so called. The Philofopher, i. e. Ariftotle, afferted fo. The Poet, i.e. Virgil, fings Æneas. 10. I neither praise your Gifts, nor despise them; i. e. I dispraise your Gifts, yet I accept them.' u. Flies buzz, i. e. make a humming Noise. Tantaras, i, e. Noife of Trumpets, fill the Round.

TERMS Englished. S: Abuse. 6. Excess. 7. Participacion. $. Speaking otherwise. 9. For a Name. 10. Leffening. 11. Feigning a Name.



Antiphrafis makes words to disagree
From sense ; if rightly they derived be.
Charientismus, when it speaks, doth choose 13
The fofter for the harsher words to use.
Apeifmus loves to jest with strokes of wit, 14
And slily with the point of satyr hit.
A Diafyrmus must ill-nature show,

And ne'er omit t’infult a living foe.
Sarcasmus with a bitter jeer doth kill, 16
And ev'ry word with strongest venom fill.
Paræmia by a proverb tries to teach

17 A short, instructing, and a nervous speech. Ænigma in dark words the fenfe conceals ; 18 But that, once known, a riddling speech reveals.

Figures of words of the same found. Antanaclasis in one sound contains

19 More meanings ; which the various sense explains. By Ploce we a proper name repeat ;

20 Yet as a common noun the latter treat.

EXAMPLES, 12. Lucus, from Lux Light, fignifies a dark thady Grove. 13

Be so'angty; Heaven send better News. 14. Who hates not Bavius Verses, let him love Mævius's; and he *that loves either, let him milk He-goats. 15. You gaggle like a Goofe among the tuneful Swans. 16. Now, Cyrus, glut yourfelf with Blood. 17. You wash the Black-moor white, i, e. you labour in vain. 18. Niletis's Quill brought forth the Daughters of Cadmus; i. e. a Pen, made of a Reed growing by the side of the River Nile, wrote the Latin and Greek Letters invented by Cadmus, 19. Care for those Things, which may discharge you of Care. 20. In that Vidory Cæfar was Cæfar, i.e. a most ferene Conqueror.

Terus Englithed. 12. Contrary Word: 13. Softening. 14. Civility: 15. Detraction. 16. Bitter Taunt. 17. A Proverb. 18. A Riddle. 19. A Reciprocation. 20. Continuation.



Anaphora gives more sentences one head; 21
As readily appears to those that read.
Epistrophe more sentences doth close

22 With the same words, whether in verse or prose. Symploce joins these figures both together, 23 And from both join'd makes up itself another. . Epanalephis words doth recommend,

24 The same at the beginning and the end. Anadiplosis ends the former line,

25 With what the next does for its first design. By Epanados a sentence shifts its place; 26 Takes first, and last, and also middle space. An Epizeuxis twice a word repeats,


27 Whate'er the subject be, whereon it treats. A Climax by gradation still ascends,

28 Until the sense with finish'd period ends. A Polyptoton still the same word places, 29 If sense require it, in two diff'rent cafes.

EXAMPLES 21. Peace crowns our Life; Peace does our Plenty breed. 22. We are born in Sorrow, pass our time in Sorrow, end our Days in Sorrow. 23. Juftice came down from Heaven to view the Earth; Juftice climbed back to Heaven, and left the Earth. 24. Sins ftain thy beautioris Soul; forsake thy Sins. 25. Prize Wisdom; Wildom is a precious Jewel. 26. Whether the worst? the Child accurf, or elte the cruel Mother? The Mother worst, the Child accurft; as bad the one as the other. 27. Ah! poor, poor Swain! 28. Folly breeds Laughter ; Laughter, Dildain; Dildain make's Shame her Daughter. 29. Foot to Foot; Hand to Hand; Face to Face.

Terms Englished. 21. Rehearsal. 22. A turning to. 23. A complication. 24. Repetition. 25. Reduplication. 26. A Regression. 27. Ajoin. ing together. 28. A Ladder, Stair, 29. Variation of Cale.

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Figures of words of like found. Paregmenon deriv'd from one recites

SO More words, and in one sentence them unites. Paronomasia to the sense alludes,

31 When words but little vary'd it includes. Homoioteleuton makes the measure chime, 32 With like sounds, in the end of fetter'd thyme. A Parachefis fyllables sets twice;

33 But this, except to poets, is a vice. Hypotyposis to the eye contracts

34 Things, places, persons, times, affections, acts. Paradiastole explains aright

35 Things in an opposite and diff'rent light. Antimetabole puts chang'd words again

36 By contraries ; some beauty to explain. Enantiosis poiseth diff'rent things,

37 And words and sense as into balance brings. Synæceiofis to one subject ties

38 Two contraries, and fuller sense supplies.

E X A M P L E S. 30. I write friendly of friend thip to a Friend. 31. Friends are turned Friends. 32. Chime and Rhime; as above. 33. Liberty begets Mischief chiefly. 34. The Head is fick the Heart is faint; from the Scle of the Foot, even unto the Head, there is no Soundness; but Wounds, Bruises, a nd putrifying Sores. 35. Virtue may be overthadowed, but not overwhelmed. 36. A Poem is a speaking Picture ; a Picture is a nute Pren.. 37. Truih brings Foes, Flat, tery brings Friends. 38. He is dead, even while he liveth.

TXRMs Englished. 30. Derived from the same. 31. Likeness of Words. 32. A like Endirg. 33. Allusion. 34, A Representation. 35. Discrimination. 35. Changing by Contraries. 37. A Contrariely. 38. A Reconciling.


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