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here see, that the nature and source of the word have been properly explained, though our Author has not understood the original sense of it.
The German corresponding word ART unequivocally directs us to the Spot, which is supposed in my Hypothesis. ART is explained by my Lexicographer to be "The Nature, Property, Quality, Temper, &c.-The Kind, Species, Sort, Race, Gender, Origin," &c. In a French and German Lexicon now before me, ART is explained by "La Sorte, Espéce, l'Origine, le Genre, "la Nature, le Naturel, Temperament, la Complexion, Pro"prieté, Qualité," &c. If we should endeavour, by a train of reasoning à priori, to discover from what source a term conveying this train of ideas would be derived, we should concur, I think, in referring it to the Nature, Property, Quality, or Temper of the EARTH. The Adjective ARTig denotes "Quaint, Curious, Pretty, Spruce, Agreeable, Handsome, Fine, Genteel, Polite, Comely, Neat, "Apposite, Proper, Cleverly," as my Author explains it. These senses, though apparently remote from the original sense, all concur in the general idea of A Good Nature or Quality. We know, that duris and Euquns have a similar meaning. Puris denotes a Good Nature or Quality, Understanding, Cleverness-Genius, &c. The ordinary Lexicographers explain Euquns by "Bene ac læte crescens, ut Arbor, &c.—
Ingeniosus; Bene à Natura constitutus et factus.-Facetus, "Jocosus, Dicax." Aquos means likewise of a Bad NatureDull. Menage, on a passage of Diogenes Laërtius, where this word is used, observes thus: "Aquomos, id est, minime ingeniosus. "Quis pro Ingenio usurpatur priscis scriptoribus. Ita apud Thu
cydidem, teste H. Stephano, Urews Oxus Vis ingenii. Ita Plato "in Phædro. Δοκεί μοι αμείνων η κατα τους περι Λυσιαν ειναι λογους τα της σε φύσεως. Id est, Cicerone interprete, Majore mihi Ingenio videtur esse quam ut cum orationibus Lysiæ comparetur. Sic verna"cule dicimus, Il n'a point de Naturel, et contra, Il a un bon na
"turel," (Diog. Laërt. Lib. vii. Seg. 170.) The German verb ARTen brings us again to the original idea. It is applied to Natural productions, and means, " To thrive, bear the climate; or, as my French Lexicographer explains it, "Ressembler, conserver le Naturel, la qualité, ne pas degenerer.-Er ARTET "seinem Vater nach, Il ressemble à son pere, il imite son pere."Der fremde Weinstock ARTET hier nicht, La vigne etrangere "ne profite pas, ne conserve pas sa qualité dans notre pays.” There are some German terms, derived from ART, in which the EARTH directly appears; as ART-Acker, ART-Feld, "le labour, "le Champ, qui porte; ARTbar, ARThaft, Fertile, qui porte—ART"Land, La Terre labourable." ARD, a frequent termination in English words, as Stink-ARD, &c., is acknowledged to belong to the German ART, and the Belgic AERD.
We shall now understand the origin of our word BastARD, which means of a Base Nature or Kind. Though the Etymologists have given us various derivations of this word, they have not failed to record the present. The term occurs in the French Bastard or Batard, the Italian and Spanish Bastardo, the Belgic Bastaerd, and the Welsh Bastardd. Some derive these terms from Base, or its parallel word, and the Saxon Steort, Ortus, or the Welsh Tarddu, Oriri. Others derive these words from Best and Aerd, “quia tales plerumque optimâ indole præditi sunt.” It is curious, that in deducing these words from the idea of Base, the Etymologists have recorded its parallel terms, in other Languages, as Bóse, (Germ.) Bas, (Fr.) Busta, (Isl.) Bas, (Welsh,) &c. &c. Base and Bad are only different forms of each other, and of Bóse, &c. BASTARD-Wine is not from Passum, as Skinner conjectures; but it means, "Vinum spurium, quia sc. non ut fieri solet, "ex uvis recentibus, sed ex resiccatis fit," as this Etymologist likewise conjectures. In French, Abat-ARDir, To degenerate, is used in its original sense, as applied to the productions of Nature. In the French and German Dictionary, which has supplied me
with the above quotations, I find "Aus der ART schlagen De"generer, s'AbatARDir.” The French BatARDiere, "A Place in "a garden prepared for the placing of Fruit trees, as they come "out of the nursery," as Deletanville explains it, is properly, I believe, the Nursery itself, "La Pepiniere," as Duchat explains it; and in this word, Bat or Bas is taken in the other sense of Base, as the Fundamental-Original, EARTH or Ground, in which the plants are brought forward. Duchat derives this word from the "petits Batons ou arbrisseaux sauvages ou autres dont il est planté."
The French Bat AR Deau, a Dam, or, as some write it, Bat ARD-eau, means a Base or Foundation of EARTH, to support any thing. Duchat explains this word by "Une cloison de Bastons repliés en "forme de claye sur des pieux fichés dans l'eau ; et c'est de la
que vient le nom de Bastardeau, diminutif de Bastard, produit "de Bast, fait de Bastum, d'ou nous avons fait Baston." Menage explains it by "Une closon d'ais, de terre glaise, ou d'autre chose, qu'on fait dans l'eau pour y batir quand elle est épuisée. Voyez Baston." Bastion, Baton, Batir, all belong to the Base, or Foundation, the Support; and are derived from the Element BD, denoting the Ground, Boden, (Germ.) &c. &c. Some seem to think, that Eau, the final portion of Bastardeau, is expressive of Water; but this I do not imagine. The Germans have precisely the same composition as BastARD, with a different turn of meaning, as Bos-ARTig, A person of a bad disposition. In English, and in other Languages, Bastard, &c. is applied to the productions of Nature, and it is then used in its original sense, though it has often happened, that the writer, in adopting it, has conceived the expression to be metaphorical and allusive to the illegitimate offspring*.
* The word ART, though taken, as we have shewn, from the great storehouse of Nature, is now applied as a term in direct opposition to it; and our books abound with
ARTist, ARTisan, with their parallel terms Artiste, Artisan, (Fr.) Artegiano, (Ital.) &c., are acknowledged to belong to Ars,
enquiries on the different operations of Nature and of ART, not only in the productions of moral excellence, but even of those perfections, which the natural world itself exhibits to the view. The terms Culture Cultivation, &c. have experienced the same fate; which, we know, are at once applied to moral and mental improvements in opposition to the effects of Nature; and likewise to the labours, which belong to Natural objects. The Culture, or the amelioration of the Qualities or Nature of the Soil by the industry of man, supplies the first exertions of Human ART; and from this humble source, as may well be imagined, is derived the greater portion of those terms relating to the progress of man in refinements and in ARTS, which are totally dissimilar to the original object of his cares and attention.-The great question about ART and Nature may be considered, like most of our enquiries, as a confusion of ideas arising from the use of similar terms, apparently differing from each other; and even the facts of Etymology will serve to furnish us with an important truth, that in Life, as in Language, ART and Nature are inseparably connected in the same object, and differ only by the variety of modifications, which are appropriate to the same materials.
Our great Bard, whom no topics of Human reasoning have escaped, has thus decided on the question; and he has supplied, moreover, a vein of illustration so peculiarly connected with the train of ideas, which I have just unfolded, that I cannot refrain from transcribing the whole of this exquisite discussion.
"Perd. Sir, the year growing ancient,
"Not yet on summer's death, nor on the birth
"Of trembling winter,-the fairest flowers o' the season
"Which some call, Nature's Bastards: of that kind
"Our rustic garden's barren, and I care not
"To get slips of them.
"Pol. Wherefore, gentle maiden,
"Do you neglect them?
"Perd. For I have heard it said,
"There is an ART, which, in their piedness, shares
"With great creating Nature.
"Pol. Say, there be;
"Yet Nature is made better by no mean,
"But Nature makes that mean: so, o'er that ART,
"Which, you say, adds to Nature, is an ART
"That Nature makes. You see, sweet maid, we marry
"A gentler cyon to the wildest stock,
"And make conceive a bark of baser kind
"By bud of nobler race: This is an ART
"Which does mend Nature,-change it rather; but
though some refer us to Agw, Apto. The preceding terms to these in Skinner are Artillery and Artichoke. Some derive Artillery, Artillerie, (Fr.) from Ars; others from Articulare, Arcualia, Attillare, (Ital.) &c. &c. The word is French; and Menage has, I think, justly derived it from the ancient word ARTILLER, which, as he says, properly signified, "Rendre fort par ART, et garnir "d'outils et d'instrumens de guerre." The following quotation from an ancient Romance is produced by Menage.
"Près de la marche de la mer
"Avoit fait son Castel fermer,
"Si fors et si bièn ARTILLIEZ,
"Qu'il ne creinoit ne Roy ne Conte."
The word here signifies Provided with-Furnished with, as by ART; and perhaps it would be too minute a distinction to enquire, whether the idea annexed to ARTiller, Garnir-par ART, if I may so say, was that of Garnir or of ART; as it would in fact be only to enquire, whether the word ARTiller belonged to ART, as a substantive, or ARTer, as a verb, if such a verb had existed. We see, that the sense of ARTiller, To Prepare, Furnish, &c., conveys the sense of ARTUO, (AgTuw, Apparo, adorno, Instruo.)
In Dr. Jamieson's Scotch Dictionary, the succeeding word to Artailye, Artillery, is ARTation, "Excitement, Instigation," which seems to belong to the sense of the Element, when it signifies 'To Stir up.' Dr. Jamieson, however, properly produces the Latin "Artatio from Arto, used for Arcto, are, To constrain." I have supposed, on a former occasion, that Arto is derived from the idea of the certain EARTH, as the Enclosed Spot, which is probably right. I must observe, however, that the idea of Painful or Sharp Constriction is often connected with that of Stirring up or Vellicating