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did not advise a resurrection of the blance between the Acropolis and the
Parthenon +nor accurate copies of tri. Calton-hill--they are both rocky ele-
umphant columns-he had a prouder, vations--verlook two ancient cities
a nobler aim-and he attained it. “ they are both rivers, look you,” says
Your correspondent calls the poverty Fluellen, “and there be salmons in
of England in superb structures an both." And this unfortunate resem-
“ extraordinary problema," and seeks blance must be punished by the in-
to solve it, by saying it is from the fliction of a corresponding edifice; and
absence of works of art and so it is. something of the same kind of threat
How does he suppose Greece obtained is held darkly forth against the rock of
her buildings? There was a time, I Stirling. Can you tell me where Phi-
dare say, when she was poor in these dias sought for a precedent in choosing
ornaments—but Greece created them his site and what temple he plun-
for herself-she was no importer of dered to ornament it? But it seems
the architecture of other nations; her we have quarries capable of being la-
footsteps can only be traced in Egypt, boured into any forms which archi-
and that faintly. In Greece and Italy tects may be driven to borrow, and be
the public money was lavished on pub- cause our native rocks have submitted
lic edifices--the noblest modern works to every species of imitation which the
in Britain are the result of private carver's chisel can accomplish-because
subscription a demand for grandeur Waterloo-place possesses capitals deli-
would soon command the attention of cately carved, exactly resembling some
genius_but no demand is made the Athenian antiques, we must have an
public offices of the most powerful imitation on a grander scale; we have
nation on earth are like brick-stacks, been but puny thieves of porticos and
and our proudest palaces are like barns capitals hitherto-despise these petty
and barracks.

larcenies--make a bold grasp, and be
But it seems this is the golden mo come the greatest and most unlimited
-ment to introduce this piece of bor- architectural thieves of the age. But

rowed dignity--the only period when then, this will enable Edinburgh to
an edifice of precisely the same de- have a school of architecture-to be-
-scription, and destined to exactly the come the centre of taste, and the mis.
same purpose, as the Parthenon of tress of chaste design and you can-
Athens,” can be obtained ; public en not imagine what wonderful things
couragement calls loudly for some Scottish genius may accomplish, by
thing, and must, it seems, be gratified placing a Parthenon before it. It

-must have a stolen morsel put into may teach us to be honest, but we be-
its mouth till something better can gin basely-it may instruct architects
be made ready. Your correspondent in the honourable feeling of the genius
calls out, like the cook at Camacho's of one land to another---to abandon
wedding, to the impatient Sancho- their predatory inroads on broken down
Here friend, comfort thyself with nations—but it sets a bad example; and
this scum till the pot boils ;" but a instead of holding up a wise and salu-
temple in honour of Minerva is one tary lesson, it will be hailed as a pre-
thing, and a monument in honour of cedent, not as a warning; and there
Christian glory another. Why not ad- will be no end to the importation of
vise at once a triumphal arch? a struc- ancient temples, while folly has a
ture quite in point-ready made-no pound in her pocket, or Scotland an
cost for invention-can, like the Par acre of rock for a foundation.
thenon, be taken, “cut and dry,” from Your correspondent, however, con-
the architect's portfolio, and will form fesses a kind of lurking suspicion,
a grand entrance through which the that, inasmuch as a poem equal in
titled men of the south can approach beauty to the Æneid, a statue as peer-
“old Lady Edinburgh on her throne less as the Apollo, and a work as sub
of rock.” These were erections which lime as the Principia, might be pro-
ages and great names have consecrated; duced in a few years, so might an edi-
but their time has passed away—they fice be imagined, rivalling the wonders
stand memorials of ancient usage and of the Parthenon; but he has far less
a Christian people have found out a faith in the genius of architects than
better way of acknowledging the prom in the imagination of poets and sculp
tection of providence. But a traveller, tors--and lest some lucky creation of
it seems, has discovered some resem- the kind should occur- some gifted
VOL. VI.

3 A

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architect arise-ke calls loudly to slay great names without being wholly orithe vile clutch of restoration on the ginal. I think there is a French criParthenon," and occupy this classical tic, who proves the Æneid to be a rock--this Caledonian Acropolis, before mere cento from Homer and others, native and original genius can come and yet who denies the charm which modestly forward with her proposal of the great Roman has diffused over that a rival edifice. But Marcus Aurelius tender and beautiful poem? His poem and Trajan repaired to Athens, to the is not an Iliad in a less lofty language, foot of the Acropolis, to do what mil- as ..your Caledonian Parthenon would lions did, and what millions do, ad only be a Greek Parthenoni, dégraded mire the grandeur of the Parthenon, in a baser material. Eminence in arand to borrow--not the whole edifice, chitecture, according to your correslike our Caledonian admirer-- but con- pondent, can easily be obtained ; there ceptions worthy of the imperial digni- is no need of study to create~no waste ty. This was rational and wise-just of thought wanted ; “ he thinks best to the majesty of Rome and the digni- who never thinks at all.” You have ty of Greece; these illustrious men only to put forth your hand and steal did not distrust national taste like only steal what is valuable, and steal your correspondent, and though ages extensively. Why then, if to be orihad passed away, and universal ad- ginal is a hopeless matter, seek you miration was warm and unabated, establish a school for architecture, and though the worshippers of Minerva purchase a model for forty thousand still thronged her porch, this admi- pounds ? Acts of depredation may be ration was not seized on as a pre- committed without the extravagance text for transferring the building to of such an establishment. But then, one of the seven hills. But Dante, it' the power of choosing well among seems, and Petrarch, admired the an- the remains of ancient art seems, to cients so much, that they rather sought your correspondent, almost as rare a to restore their works to their original gift as the faculty of original concepsplendour and purity, than publish tion. But a structure decidedly origitheir own productions. Had they li- nal in its conception and detail is not mited their genius to this generous la- desired, perhaps ought not to be exbour, their names would have been si- pected; yet I should suspect that the lent to-day-they would not have fi- Doric order is capable of assuming gured in your correspondent's list of many beautiful arrangements equally eminent men. And pray, what works sublime and simple as the Parthenon. did they restore ? That they studied No one is called on to invent new orthe ancient poets, there is evidence in ders-much merit lies in making use their works, but they reared perman- of created things in a new and beautient structures of their own; and the ful manner. As an order of architecture Inferno, as far as I can judge from an may be degraded by applying it to 8 imperfect translation, is one of the mean purpose or injudiciously, so may most original works that ever issued it be elevated and honoured in being from the mind of man. All that can dedicated to a noble purpose, and ap, be quoted from tale or history which plied in a masterly and unborrowed poetry can give, or tradition supply manner. This principle of tasteful seand all the illustrious names that can lection and judicious admiration of be ranked together, and the example other people's productions I never of eminent nations added to the whole, heard questioned or contradicted till I go only to prove, that one man of

ge saw it in your Miscellany. That an nius admired another, and sought to architect wishes for edifices that cost rival not to plunder him. The want no study, may be natural enough to of variety in the forms and combina- those who are more alive to money tions of architecture is complained of, than fame-who have no noble ambiand the reproach of copyism endea- tion within them- and who think that voured to be mitigated by the assur the glories of a nation are transferable ance, that originality is a most diffi- things, mere matters to let--and the cult thing--a bearty of rare emergence plunderer can inherit, with honour and among architects. All that is very renown, the spoils he has snatched. I true, and nothing to the purpose-oric should as soon think of monopolizing ginality of any kind is a great rarity, the glory of Marathon or Salamisand thousands of men have acquired laying claim at once to the retreat of

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the ten thousand, as I would to the band half the platform just reflects the
fame of the Parthenon ; and I am sure
the world would concede me the first

other,"
as soon as the last. That many build has been felt by every admirer of
ings in Edinburgh are copies from the Edinburgh. I certainly think that
Greeks shall not serve your correspon- the want of originality in some of the
dent's turn, though he is willing buildings which your correspondent
enough to forget that, when he is callo mentions, is a great drawback on their
ing out for an example--one grand ex- fame. But he forgets the fame of
ample, to instruct and elevate the gro- Scotland whenever he thinks of the
velling intellects of the Caledonian Greeks-he loves a Doric portico beto
architects. That the county-hall of ter than he loves his country, and the
Edinburgh is copied from the Eryc dust of Athens, or the cinders of Her-
theum of Athens--that something else culaneum have more of his reverence
has been stolen from the Temple of than the dust of all the Douglasses.
Neptune, and another building, on He considers that the keystone in the
which admiration has been lavished, arch of Scottish renown is not in its
is a fac simile of the Temple of Ce place till a successful inroad has been
res, proves nothing but the unblushing made on the Doric-he contemplates
servility of the whole race of architects, former thefts with a rapture he seeks
and which nothing can equal but the not to suppress-still his joy is not
imprudent fortitude with which the perfect-nobody, has stolen an entire
restoration of the Parthenon has been Doric temple--how blind we have
proposed and pressed. What copy has been to our own greatness ! To select
ever equalled the original ? or what with taste, to single out an object
copy is and has any pretension to share worthy of being stolen, is the greatest
in the fame of the first maker. Take proof, in his eyes, of good taste and
one example among ten thousand—a genius, and as no person has ventured
Christ in the Garden, supposed by so fearlessly and far as himself, he
many, and asserted by some, to be the hopes to outstrip all former achieve-
divine work of that name by Corregio, ments, and eclipse all other renown.
was sold in London for a prodigious I come now to an important matter,
sum ; but when Lord Wellington cap a view of the Parthenon, which your
tured the real_Corregio among the correspondent has not taken, or rather
baggage of the French at Vittoria, the carefully avoided. Perhaps he prefers
false Corregio lost all his lustre, and it plundered of its brightest jewels, and
all his value. This glorious achieve- robbed by time and the hand of man of
ment of an uninstructed man, who its chief attractions, to what it was in
studied in no school save that of na. its proudest hour, when its pediments
ture, and who was indebted to his own and friezes spoke audibly in sculpture
hand and head alone for his fame, is as with a tongue, and the divine-sta-
now in Apsley-house, and is worth tue of Minerva seemed by its awful
going an hundred miles to see. I am majesty to justify the superstition of
sorry, for the sake of your correspon- the Athenians. He has been silent
dent, that I cannot name the lucky about the sculpture, without which
holder of the copy. In walking through his Parthenon would be a crown de-
Edinburgh, a person, acquainted with prived of its gems, or a nocturnal
other architecture, has his recollection firmament without stars. He exult-
continually exercised, and there is little ingly tells us of the crowds which its
time for admiration, in apportioning fame collected, but it never entered
to each nation the bits of borrowed his head that the half of their delight
lustre which arise before him in all arose from contemplating the match-
shapes-from a simple portico to an less sculptures which filled the pedi-
entire edifice. Like Constantine, your ments and the tops, and the exterior
correspondent, in the haste to make and interior friezes. All their admi.
his city great, consents to plunder what ration is set down to the stately Dom
he has not leisure to create; the same- ric-but had the friezes been emp-
ness of the buildings of Constantinople tied of their historical processions, and
has been often censured, and the mo the pediments of their majestic figures,
notony of Prince's-street and George's which represented great and momen-
street, where

tous events

the crowds of gazers

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would have been lessened, and it would A reluctance is expressed at removhave looked as blank as a huge frame ing that tall round-I cannot find a out of which one of Raphael's divinest a name for it-called Nelson's Monu. productions had been cut. Your cor. ment. Who, in the name of taste, respondent may however turn round considers that inelegant and unmeanon me with the assurance that he in- ing mass an ornament? yet it exprestended not to present this empty ses the national admiration of our Doric cup to the thirsty lips of his naval hero as visibly and sensibly 'countrymen-that he wished to fill it as the column of Antonine without brimful, not with a heathen but a Chris sculpture, can ever be compelled to tian spring, or to drop metaphor, that do. I cannot help wondering at the he felt his Doric temple was imperfect sweeping wholesale manner of your without the powerful and necessary aid correspondent; he casts down Admiral of sculpture; but even should he feel Nelson's windmill, but he atones for and express all this, the unblushing disturbing this laboured quarry above adoption of the Athenian temple will ground, by proposing to impress 'a avail him little. Certainly he does soldier into the sea service-to seize not mean to press Theseus, and Illi. the column of the divine Antonine, sus, and Minerva, and the Centaurs; and compel it to acknowledge, in and the naked youths of Attica, into the streets of Edinburgh, the glory the service of the Kirk of Scotland. of Alexandria and Trafalgar. How Still should he push them from their will he accomplish this stools, he must select some other umn, though it reaches the clouds, beings to succeed them--some designs means nothing of itself-the columns must be sought for in which British of Trajan and Antonine were the mere glory, and Christianity has a share vehicles of sculpture; the pegs on and here he embarks in an ocean of which history hung her achievements. expense, and what will alarm him as Deprive them of their sculpture, and much, a call will be made for original they are columns to any one's fame. designs, unless with the same love of Here, again, your correspondent forimitation as in the building, he advises gets the principle and exalts the auxius to transfer the cartoons of Raphael liary-tells the value of the picture to our walls, cut out in good gray frame, and forgets that of the picture, stone, and as these will by no means Now he has filled the Calton Hill go round them, caļl in Reubens and and St Andrew's Square with the Michael Angelo as auxiliaries. Should cumbrous splendour of two unadornhe, however, have the weakness to ed edifices--two Samsons shorn of wish for sculptural designs-illustrate their locks of strength-this he calls ing Scottish glory-expressing the o- rivalling Athens and Rome. Having acriginal character of the nation—and complished this, what does he propose commemorating us in every point of to do—to consecrate the temple of our fame as warriors, patriots, poets, Minerva, and turn her niche into a divines, philosophers, and so on, hé pulpit ? And here he seems sensible must not hope to conjure them up by that the genius of the age must have an article in your Magazine, or ex. something conceded to appease it ; and tract them like a new made Parthe- the compliment he pays Messrs Elliot non from the portfolio of good master and Playfair is a dexterous one-a stab what's-his-name. They must be the under the fifth rib.“ Here (says he) fruit of much meditation, the une here is a square, two hundred feet long wearied labour of years, and what is and sixty feet high, for your genius to more, they will devour all your cor- revel in there is nothing to prevent respondent's original sum of £40,000. your fancy and taste from running The simple stateliness of the Doric east, and west, and north, and south, was enriched by the sculpture--the but stone walls, and nothing to curb massive plainness of the "pediments you over head but a stone arch. (At and extensive friezes was adorned, what period did the Greeks arch their while concealed by the splendour of temples ?) And there is an ample historical enrichment without sculp- field for 'exerting yourselves ; I have ture it will be inferior to its proto. given the smoky and dirty exterior to type, and will no more have the effect Phidias ; but the interior, the glorious of the Parthenon than a prentices cap interior, I have reserved for you-let will look like a bonnet of gold sparke your genius be measured with the ling with precious stones,

genius of antiquity, and let the victor

annot fit

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Fet it er

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cine wiki compelled æring at ner of

bear off the prize." Really I would est of all architectural critics. When
givé tenpence, for I am miserably a fish learns to swim with fins of lead,
poor, to know the name of the man an eagle to soar with shorn wings, and
who wrote this. He crowns Phidias à man to outstrip the deer in fleetness,
king of infinite space, and confines with two half hundred weight, or a
Elliot and Playfair in an augre’s bore Number of Constable's Magazine at
and this he calls rivalry a fair each heel, then may you hope that
free field for rivalry ; by this he pro- genius will most curiously adapt its
poses to arouse the free spirit of ge- original feelings to the line and the
nius and truly it deserves never to level of other men-seize on their un-
rise, unless, like the strong man in finished works with all the fervour of
scripture, it starts

up
and

snaps the new and unabated thought-warm it-
bonds with which it is now proposed self up to the same temper with which
to constrain it. " And if (saith the the original design was conceived
same inspired authority) by thus give and, conjured into the magic circle of
ing you the interior, we secure to you Phidias, drudge at his behests with a
the victory, and you outrival the ex visible and impassable limit before it,
terior by Phidias, we will rejoice at and rest amid the terrors of the sore

the triumph of modern 'over ancient cerer's wand.
art.” And so thou mayest, thou fair.

A JOURNEYMAN MASON.

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1

ON THE ANALOGY BETWEEN THE GROWTH OF INDIVIDUAL AND NATIONAL

GENIUS.

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THERE is a natural inclination in men's exerted--a sympathy of no ordinary
minds to wish that the impulses under moment. If we consider what the
which the genius of a people acts, high exertion of those faculties must
should be derived essentially from their be, we shall perceive that the subject
own mind; and many may have ex of our regard is nothing less than a
perienced the feeling who scarcely re- spiritual agent in freedom of its power,
cognise it in formal enunciation ; for satisfying its own native desires out of
undoubtedly there is a very general the means which its union with life
and deep-felt admiration of those works may yield it; for life is different to
of genius in every kind, which bear every mind, according to its own con-
impressed on them the character of stitution to that of the bodily frame
the people among whom they have in which it breathes and feels, and to
arisen, and which seem native, as it the thousand-fold contingencies which
were, to their soil. There is felt, make up to it the circumstances and
in like manner, a certain repulsive course of the individual being. But
chillness investing those works of art, whatever is thus brought into the soul
which, though elaborate and fair, are of pleasure and of pain ;-whatever
imitated merely from the art of another the affections of the mind, modified, as
nation. They want natural interest; they thus are, into peculiar character;
and they always give back the imprese --whatever the sense and the intelli-
sion of a timid genius, which will ra gence, thus moulded or endowed for
ther forego the pleasure and pride of peculiar discernment, may gather up
its inherent power, than risk the peril from the world of life, for joy or sor-
of relying upon it.

There is a re row-for delight and awe-for know-
proach that lies even on the imitator's ledge infinitely diversified-for self-
name, in which all sympathize, though springing conceptions of unsleeping
they may have taken no account with thought ;-whatever life itself, by its
themselves of the feeling in which they beauty, powers, destinies its passions,
participate.

hopes, privileges--its multiplied relaThis natural impression, which al- tions and ceaseless change--can yield lows so much virtue to the workings to the intellectual and sensitive soul for of a native spirit in the breast of ge- feeling and thought,--these are the nius, may be itself of more virtue than materials, the means, which its union we are apt to conceive. It is a just with being brings before it for the exerand true sympathy in common men, cise of its faculties, according to the with that condition of the mind in tendencies, the impulses, the desires which its highest faculties are best of its own' peculiar nature, If that

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