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whether he had the liberality to sneer principles by which Toryism was. for in private at the honest prejudices of ever overthrown, and who of all men his people, to which he outwardly pro- upon earth, had the most powerful fessed a politic regard--or, whether he motives for abjuring it, was suspected could return from performing his so

of a fantastic bias in favour of this lemn mockery before the altars of his longextinguished political superstition

. country's religion, to revel in free and The choice of a minister, who was reconvivial blasphemies with his compa- commended to him by ties which it nions at the royal feast of reason. There can never be generous or noble to forhave been monarchs to the taste of the get, was the single point upon which class of philosophers to whom we allude this miserable charge was made to turn. --but happily not in England. It is the But, besides that the calumnies by highest praise of George III, that he which Lord Bute was overwhelmed, was truly a British Monarch in his whole have since been exposed, so as to force feelings, principles, and habits and the conviction, if not the contrition of while it may be justly affirmed of him, those who tried to blacken his methat, by example as well as by policy, mory, the whole course of the late he was the great patron of all that is Monarch's political career was a conmost generous, solid, and characterisa clusive comment upon the malignant tic of his people, his memory can lose slanders which sought to cloud the nothing by the reproaches of those dawn of his administration. The name whose applause it would be infamy to of Wilkes has perished-ror is rememdeserve. They may sneer at the tame- bered only for scorn and shame ; but ness of character superinduced by the the memory of his royal master, whom regular practice of the domestic vir- he dared, in a paroxysm of insolent tues at the mediocrity of understand. folly, to rate as an antagonist and a ing indicated to their depraved natures rival, stretches its mighty shadow over by the solemn submission of spirit to a scene of political magnificence, upon the duties of religion--they may smile which the intrepid demagogue, even in at the manly and vigorous rusticity the heightof his popularity, would have which it was the pride of the Monarch been but an imperceptible atom. We to restore by his example, and which rejoice in this for Wilkes, even conwas most valued in England's best and sidered as a minion of party, was not brightest days; but in all these traits of the true English breed, but preof the character of the departed Mo- sented an aspect of unblushing licennarch, every genuine Englishman re tiousness and profanity, which nothing cognises something which distinguish- but the more matured profligacy of our ed his Sovereign from a mere gaudy own days could have surpassed. ---The abstraction of regal power--which im- American war formed the test at once parted its peculiar quality to his sway of the Monarch’s principles and of his and proclaimed him to be truly a spirit. The universal" voice of his British King.

people resented,' in the first instance, It would require a volume to give the audacious pretensions, and the faceven a sketch of the great public events tipus machinations of the revolted coupon which the name of George III. lonies; and the late King, when lie will be imperishably superscribed by frowned upon the infant seditions of history. The general cast of his dis- his transatlantic subjects, appeared, but position and character, with regard to as the index of the mind and soul of political matters, may easily be ga- England. The chance of war declarthered, however, even from the most ed indeed in favour of rebellion ; but vague and hasty glance at the great the most renowned of our modern transactions of his reign. In its com statesmen---the man of the people mencement he was injuriously brand- the illustrious advocate of popular ed by the virulence of faction as a rights ; but the proud spirit also which Tory, in the stern and obsolete sense spurned from it popular license with of that foolish name. While the spe- disdain, was the foremost to declare, cies was no longer extant, bat had that the sovereignty of England over passed away with the barbarism and her rebel colonies ought never to be stupidity in which alone it could have abandoned, and that, in the glo breathed, that man who had just as rious struggle, it was her duty cended the mightiest throne in Chris- to nail the colours to the mast. It tendom in the vigour of the very is well enough to say now, that it

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was not a limb but an excrescence that for the future, the universal basis of
was lopped off, and that it was folly to human reasoning and policy-was the
attempt to retain it-and from what the French Revolution.
world has seen of the spirit and ten : In the great crisis, produced by this
dencies of American patriotism, it may event, his late Majesty was still worthy
be concluded that England has suffer- of himself and of his people. As a
ed little by being dissevered from the British Sovereign, reposing upon the
mighty mass of occidental pollution. deep and stable foundations of a con-
But such were not the sentiments na- stitution, adapted at once to the dig-
tural to the injured Monarch for they nity and the imperfections of our
were not the sentiments of what was common nature, and turning to scorn
great and high-spirited among his peo- all the illusions of theory, by the visi-
ple. He vindicated the dignity of his ble presence of various and unquestion-
crown by pushing, to the farthest ed good, he could not look with
verge, that .coercion which aimed at favour upon a system over which em-
upholding the integrity of its domi- piricism presided, and in which the
nions he deserved success, although dawning of frenzy was coeval -almost
he could not command it; and while with the first movements of reform.
the difficulties of a savage and remote As a Christian, he could not behold
warfare baffled all rational calculation with indifference the. march of the
when rebellion raised its triumphant most daring impiety, nor, as a mighty
crest over the disasters of legitimate prince, could he listen with equani-
power when fortune had decided con- mity to the crash of neighbouring
trary to every anticipation of reason, thrones, or view with composure the
and had established a new order of subversion of empire. But, above all,
things, which it was scarcely worth as the beloved chief of a generous and
while to lament, and 'vain to resist, noble people, deeply participating their
the sagacity as well as the magnani- genius, and attached to their proud
mity of the Sovereign were conspicu- habitudes of thought and of action, he
ously displayed in that memorable re could not but contemplate with hor-
mark to the first of his American ror the advance of an appalling spi-
subjects, whom he saw in the novel rit, which declared war against all
dignity of the ambassador of an inde- that had been consecrated by their ve-
pendent state,--that he, the King of neration for ages; which singled them
England, had been the last man in his out for experiment and for ven-
dominions to recognise the independ- geance, and which threatened to tear
ence of America, and would also be up by the roots whatever was most
the last to violate it. The man who ballowed to their remembrance. The
could speak thus, aye, and who could popular Monarch of England, in the
act up to the dignity of his royal pledge, highest and most generous sense of
was worthy to rule over a people, to that term, could not take part in this
whose legitimate pride the revolt of foul conspiracy, or refrain from ani-
America could not but be offensive, but mating, by his own resolute defiance,
to whose lofty political system the in- the staggering resolution of his sub-
dependence of nations must, when jects. And for this great work, it
once established, appear

r for

was the good fortune of the late King The

great and prominent event which to find a minister equal to the underdistinguished his Majesty's reign,- taking, which fate had summoned which, although it occurred in a fo- him to perform-a gigantic spirit, fitreign country, deeply coloured and ted to bear and to repel the terrors of affected the entire course of our do- mightiest revolutions. It was the mestic policy,—which shook the cie glory of the King that he could sevilized world with its volcanic agita- lect, appreciate, and confide in this tions, and rolled its burning lava over great Minister.

William Pitt's was the entire surface of Christendom, indeed a majestic mind, -nursed and which, although originating in the cherished to its palmy state of special profligacy and peculiar mis- moral and intellectual grandeur in fortunes of one great nation, has in- the rich mould of English freedom. sinuated itself into the very being and There was, in all things, a fine symhistory of all, and is destined to form pathy betwixt him and his royal mas,

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VOL. Vļ.

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ter a conspicuous unity of aim and a moment the solemnity of such conequal devotion of patriotism-a love of templations, by turning aside to notice England, and of all that is implied the vulgar herds of faction which suein that venerable name, which no cessively arrayed themselves in resistcaprice of fortune could abate or ex ance to the royal and illustrious tinguish. Together they walked in champions of their country's independnoble sincerity of purpose, and heroic ence and fame. It has now pleased energy of resolution, throughout the fate to round the course of our late darkest periods of our modern history monarch's earthly career, without hav-struggling to defend the ark of the ing permitted them to make any senBritish constitution, and the majesty sible breach upon its magnificent conof the British name, against the storms tinuity; and the sceptre which has by which they were assailed-main- dropped from his hand has been taining the native hue of courage and transferred to a successor, who will constancy amid the wreck of empire never bend it to their fantastic inand the desolation of the civilized solence and presumption. Be it world—and putting their humble but their bitter portion to remember, that assured trust in the immortal energy they struggled to embarrass the career of principle, of which it did not please of a prince who was justly revered as the Providence that they should witness idol of his people, and that they strugó the final triumph, but which, through gled in vain-and that his fame is now the prevailing power of their spirit and equally beyond the scope of their patheir example, was destined, at last, negyric and invective--for it is recordto hold its rejoicings over the honoured ed in the triumph of all generous printomb of the great minister, and around ciple, and the glory of a mighty people, the unconscious solitude of his royal whose regrets now gather round his and revered master.

tomb, while their affections shall beam We cannot think of disturbing for for ever upon his blessed memory.

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Connexiori of Moon and Weather than that so abound in the calcareous formaDr Olbers denies that any connexion be- tions of Lower Normandy. One stratum tween the changes of the moon and of the in the vicinity of Caen is almost entirely weather is ever observable in the north of composed of them. They are in perfect Germany; and he asserts that, in the course conservation; and, from the singular chaof an extensive medical practice, continued racters which they exhibit, M. Lamouroux for a number of years, with his attention gives figures of the natural size, with some constantly directed to the lunar periods, he essential parts magnified by the aid of ophas never been able to discover the slightest tical glasses. The work will be of use to connexion between those periods and the geologists, by making them acquainted with increase or decrease of diseases, or their antediluvian animals of a description not symptoms.

visible or known at present. Some constiGreenland. Gieske, the mineralogist, af. tute new genera, and others belong to known ter a residence of eight years, draws a som genera : among these latter are sponges, brous picture of the colony of East Green- and other animals of a similar kind. The land, which he visited and explored to the work will include a figure and description 620 degree of latitude. He is confident, of the fossile crocodile that has been disfrom the information given him by the na.

covered near Caen. tives, that at present that rigorous coast is State of German Literature in Sweden. hot inhabited, or even habitable, beyond German literature has been very much cul. the 64th degree at farthest ; and that it tivated of late years in Sweden. Exclu. would be difficult, if not impossible, to pe. sive of a collection of classical German au. netrate further. /

thors printed at Upsal, in the original lanSalt Mines of Meurthe. The researches guage (sixty-six volumes in the whole), the for the discovery of rock-salt, which com, best works of various authors have been menced in July last at Moyenire, in the translated into Swedish. department of La Meurthe, is carried on Lalande's Journcy to India.-M. de La. to advantage. After exploring to the lande, associate naturalist to the king's depth of 200 feet, and reaching the first garden, Paris, has just set out on his tralayer, which is eleven feet in thickness, yels to the Cape of Good Hope, where the workmen had to perforate a bed of he will pursue his researches in botany, gypsum and clay of 546 feet, when they zoology, and the various departments of came to a second stratum of salt, eight feet natural history. From thence he will proin thickness. It is intended to remove the ceed to India to prosecute the ulterior ob. researches to two other neighbouring points, jects of his mission in the Indian Seas. to ascertain the breadth and magnitude of Killing Animals by Carbonic Acid. the whole bed. The two points form a A new method of putting animals to triangle nearly equilateral, each side of death, without pain, has been proposed by which may be about or 700 toises in Dr Thornton ; in consequence of the em. length. One of these points is in the city ployment of which, it is said, the meat of Vic, and the other to the south of its would look better, last better, keep better, On this latter point, they have already and salt better. These desiderata are propierced to the depth of twenty-five feet of posed to be attained by means of fixed air. vegetable earth : the orifice of each bore is Crocodiles' Flesh an Article of Food 34 inches, which constantly fills up with At Sennaar crocodiles are often brought fresh water. The salt of the first bed is ex to market, and their flesh is publicly sold tremely white, and transparent as rock-crys, there. I once tasted some of the meat at tal. It is likewise very pure, and free from Esne, in Upper Egypt; it is of a dirty every noxious or terrene substance. The white colour, not unlike young veal, with a second appears to be intermixed with gyp. slight fishy smell ; the animal had been seous or argilaceous substances, but in a caught by some fishermen in a strong net, very small proportion. This salt is brown, and was above twelve feet in length. The not unlike a clouded fint ; both the kinds Governor of Esne ordered it to be brought are very compact, well crystallized, the frac. into his court-yard, where more than a huntures cubical, and the saline taste superior dred balls were fired against it without any to that of any salt obtained by evaporation. effect, till it was thrown upon its back, and It contains but very little of muriate of the contents of a small swivel discharged at magnesia, or of sulphate of fime.

its belly, the skin of which is much softer Work on Petrifactions.-M. Lamou. than that of the back. Burckhardt's roux, Professor of Natural History in the Travels. Royal Academy of Caen, is about pub

Remarkable Phenomena at Christiana. lishing a work (with 40 plates), contain- The following curious details have been ing some account of the marine polypi received froin Christiana, in Norway :

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On the 7th instant, the barometer rose to Some of our northern constellations, such as
the extraordinary height of 29 inches, 16 the Great and Little Bear, on account of
lines, which has not taken place here for a their depth in the horizon, appear of an' as-
great number of years. The sea was eight tonishing size.
feet lower on that day than it has been for Machine for crossing Rivers. The me-
the last twenty years. Professor Hansteen, chanist, Xavier Michel, residing at Offen-
who measured its height, made also some bach, has invented a very simple and com-'
experiments as to the intensity of the mag- pact machine, by the aid of which rivers
netic force, and found the needle in such may be crossed, and even the sea attempt
agitation that he could obtain no fixed re- ed, without any danger of sinking. It is
sult from his experiments.

These different nearly five feet in diameter when unfolded. phenomena appear to portend some extra An opening of about thirteen inches in the ordinary revolution in nature.

centre is destined to receive the traveller. Calcareous Formations, with enclosed Skelee When dismounted, this apparatus is easily tons and Bones of the Human Species. transported from place to place for its en The absence of calcareous mountains, and tire weight scarcely exceeds five pounds. even of considerable masses of that sub- The inventor has made a number of exstance, is one of the geological characă periments on the Rhine, all of which have teristics by which Trinidad, Tobago, and been crowned with entire success. He can the chain of Cumana, differ essentially make the machine move forward, or otherfrom the Antilles, or Caribbean Islands, wise, at pleasure, and without any great which have calcareous rocks, and even exertion. . In order more fully to prove the mountains in strata, in which are found va- utility of his invention, M. Michel has de rious kinds of agglomerated and petrified termined to embark at Khel, and descend shells.

the Rhine to its mouth. Of all these calcareous rocks, the most Pedes Scansorii of Birds.--" The toes of remarkable and worthy of fixing the atten- Woodpeckers,” says Ray,

* stand two fortion of naturalists, is a bank of carbonate wards, two backwards; which disposition of lime, rather hard, on the sea shore, in (as Aldrovandus well notes) Nature, or raw the district of Moule in Guadaloupe. ther the wisdom of the Creator, hath grant

This calcareous bank is on a level with ed them- because it is very convenient for the sea, and covered at high-water. General the climbing of trees." The attempt to Ernouf, having heard that it contained hu- prove this assertion, adopted by so many man skeletons, sent, towards the end of and able naturalists, to be altogether un1804, M. Gerard, a naturalist of Brussels, founded, must appear to savour of preto make excavations there. He extracted a sumption in one who has so little of the block from it, in which was found a human philosopher about him; nevertheless, I hope skeleton perfectly encrusted in the stone, to convince you, that such disposition of the and completely identified with it. I was in toes in the Woodpecker-tribe, was intended Guadaloupe at that period, and ordered by the Author of Nature for a very differworkmen to dig there on my own account., ent though equally wise purpose. I know I could not obtain an entire skeleton, but of but six genera, viz. Psittacus, Cuculus, heads, arms, legs, and fragments of the Picus, Ramphastos, Trogon, Bucco, that dorsal spine. With a sufficient number of are furnished pedibus scansoriis, i. e. with workmen, I might have obtained complete two toes before and two behind ; and of skeletons, and more accurately delineated this number I am acquainted with the manthan that of M. Gerard. There are several ners of the three first only. , parts of his skeleton of which the linea To begin with Cuculus--I speak only ments cannot be clearly distinguished with- of our common species---Here is a bird furout the assistance of a magnifying glassa I nished with two toes before and two behind, remarked, that all those anthopolites are and yet is actually never known to climb at placed east and west, according to the an alla convincing proof that such confirmacient custom of the Asiatics and Ameri- tion does not necessarily bring with it the cans. By the side of the skeletons were power of climbing ; more especially, when found pestles, mortars, hatchets, clubs of a we consider that the Nathatch (Sitta Erbasaltic or porphyritic stone, and instru- ropæa) and Tree-creeper (Certhia familiaris) ments similar to those which the savages have their toes placed in the usual manner, still use. Those instruments are petrified. and yet run up and down trees with as But I found no trace, nor the smallest ves , much facility as the Woodpeckers & The tige of organic bodies, though there are use of the Pedes scansorii, then, to the banks of madrepores quite near them. Cuckoo (as they evidently, in this case, con=-

The Fixed Stars. The most beautiful duce not to climbing), I judge to be this: part of the southern celestial hemisphere. It is well known that this bird will often* * * which comprehends, the Centaur, Argo, and times sit by the half hour together, on the v Cross, is always hidden from the inhabi bough of a tree, vociferating its loud and tants of Europe. It is only under the pleasing note. In doing this it sits remark Equator that the magnificent spectacle is to ably forward, and appears in constant agi. be enjoyed, of seeing, at the same time, all tation,

continually moving its body up and the stars of the two celestial hemispheres. down with great elegance. Now, as it sits **

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