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as the purpose required to be elated what is not expected, confess someor extenuated with qualifying meta- thing that can do us no harm, yield to phors, and accompanied with apostro- one of the members that the other may phes, and lastly, with allegories of all be removed, mix praise with dispraise, sorts, whether apologal, affabulatory, and so look through all manner of parabolary, enigmatick, or parcmial

. illustration and decorement of purpoAnd on the other part, sehematologe- ses, by contrariety and repugnance. tically adorning the purposed theory From the preceding extracts, my readwith the most especial and chief flowers ers will perceive that good Sir Thomas of the garden of rhetorick, and omit was the prince of pedants; yet certainly ting no figure either of diction or sen never was pedant so amusing. Always tence, that might contribute to the whimsical, often ingenious and acute, ear's inchantment or persuasion of the sometimes sensible, yet ever entertainhearer. I could have introduced in ing, his productious combine more atcase of obscurity, synominal, exargas- tractions than those of many others tick, and palilogetick elucidations; for far his superiors in wisdom, ingenuity, sweetness of phrase, antimetathetic and wit: Though fanciful, prevented commutations of epithets; for the ve- from disgusting by his occasional sahement excitation of a matter, excla- gacity; though pedantic, yet never mations in the front, and epiphone- tiresome; from the sound sense which mas in the rear. I could have used frequently leaves his observations, he for the promtleyer stirring up of pase has the address to give even to his sion, apostrophal, and prosopopæial di- greatest faults the power to please. In visions; and for the appeasing and set whatever he writes or says, there is a tling of them, some epanorthotick revo- martial air, and something military alcations, and aposiopetick restrains. I ways appears to mix itself with his could have inserted dialogisms, dis- remarks; if he assaults an argument or playing their interrogatory part, with propounds a syllogism, it is as if he communicatetively pysmatic and sus were storming a trench, or spreading tentative flourishes; or proleptical- around some besieged city his lines of ly, with the refutative schemes of an- circumvallation. And let me here reticipation and subjection ; and that mark, how much the phraseology of part which concerns the responsory, that worthy personage, Captain Duwith the figures of permission and con- gald Dalgetty of Drumthwaket is incession. Speeches, extending a matter debted to Sir Thomas Urquhart and beyond what is auxetically digressive his Jewell.

ly transitously by ratiocination, etio Another singularity which distin-
logy, circumlocution, and otherways, guished him, was his propensity to
I could have made use of; as likewise, extravagant humour; and this it is
with words diminishing the worth of which has rendered his translation of
a thing tapinotically periphrastically, Rabelais the most perfect transfu.
by rejection, translation, and other sion of an author from one language
means, I could have served myself. into another, that ever man accom-
There is neither definition, distribu- plished. In short, the characters of
tion, epitrợchism, increment, charac- the humourist, the bragadochio, the
terism, hypotyposis, or any scheme, schemer, the latinist, the wit, the peo
figurating a speech, by reason of what dant, the patriot, the soldier, and the
is in the thing to our purpose thereby courtier, were all intermingled in his,
signified, that I needed to have omit- and together formed a character which
ted; nor had I been so pleased, would can hardly ever be equalled, for excess
I have past by the figurative expres- of singularity or excess of humour,
sions of what is without any thing of for ingenious wisdom or entertaining
the matter in hand, whether para- folly.
digmatical, ironical, symbolical by Heartily, therefore, do I wish to
comparison, or any other kind of si see published the life of him who has
mile, or yet paradoxical, paramolegi- so inimitably written the life of the
tick, paradiastolary, antipophoretick, admirable Crichton, and who deserves
cromatic, or any other way of figura- no less than the admirable Crichton
ting a speech by opposition, being for- to be remembered.--I am, &c. your
mules of oratory, whereby we subjoin obedient servant,

J. C.

Transactions of the Dilettanti Society of Edinburgh.

No III.

THE PROGRESS OF ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND.

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MR EDITOR,

in other parts of the Roman empire, It is a curious circumstance, that was the awakening of a spirit in the although the Romans held for several public, adverse alike to the belief, riages possession of the greatest part ofthis tual, and pageantry, of idolatry ; that island, there is not among all the Bri- it tended to bring the amusements of tish antiquities a single monument of the theatre into disrepute, and to bathe fine arts which can be regarded as nish from the stage all dramatic perthe work of that magnificent people. * formances in honour of the mytholoWe have many traces of their military gic deities, without substituting any stations; a few fragments of Mosaic other exhibitions ; so that the theatres pavements belonging to Baths; but became deserted, and in the end totemple + or portico, idol or altar, not tally ruined. one has ever been found; and yet Ta About the time that the preaching citus says, that during the administra- of the gospel began to affect the pubtion of Agricola, that distinguished lic mind throughout the eastern procommander excited among the Bri- vinces of the empire, the Romans actons a taste for the Roman arts and quired their first firm footing on the customs: their towns were adorned shores of this island. When they had with stately temples and porticoes, established themselves in the interior, and their youth imitated the fashions Christianity was so generally diffused, of Rome.' What renders the circum- that it is not probable they attempted stance the more wonderful, is, that to introduce dramatic representations there are several British remains, which among the Britons, in any such way are considered of an anterior date to as to require the use of large buildings. the invasion of the Romans. The Arx This will account for the total extinc. diaboli at Castleton in Derbyshire, was tion, if the term may be applied a ruin in their time, and its origin what I conceive never had any existunknown.

ance, of all theatric monuments of the Nor should it be forgotten, that Romans in the list of our national Adrian, who adorned so many remote antiquities. Mr Curwen, in his letters parts of the empire wich the most from Ireland, describes the models of sumptuous edifices, resided some time two ancient theatres in the museum of in this island; but no relic of his visit, Dublin, said to have been recently or of the architecture of his age, re- discovered, still existing in that island; mains. In a word, the historian of but nothing of the kind, nothing in the arts, who undertakes to relate their reality, which indicates any effectual rise and progress in this country, must civil domiciliation of the Romans in commence his narrative at a period Britain, has yet been found. subsequent to the recall of the Roman

With regard to temples and idols, legions.

the question is susceptible of a satisIn reflecting on this matter, it has factory explanation, if we admit the sometimes occurred to me, that what authority of the chroniclers; and I our old chronicles say respecting the know not why, in many things, and very early establishment of Christian- this among others, they are not deemity in Britain, is deserving of more ed as deserving of credit as the Rodeference than is commonly paid to man historians, or those of any other it, and that it helps to throw some ancient people. It appears, by them, light on a question in itself extremely that Lucius, who succeeded his father curious. You are aware, sir, that in the British throne in the year 165, among the first effects which flowed was with his courtiers and nobles confrom the establishment of Christianity verted to Christianity, and that he not

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The small bridge in Dumbartonshire, lately repaired at the expense of Lord Blan. tyre, is too rude a work to be placed in the class of refined art,

of Arthur's Oven was in all probability a bath.

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only abolished paganism, but in the now existing in this island, especially,
stead of three arch-flamins, and twen when we reflect that the temples erecta
ty-eight famins, as they are called, ed by them probably were never nu-
procured from Cleutherius, then bishop merous.
of Rome, the appointment of as many

But still there is something very
Christian archbishops and bishops to unaccountable in this matter; for in a
instruct his people in the divine re- period comparatively short, - we find
ligion ; thus becoming the first mo the art of architecture, and of course
narch who gave a national establish- the art of drawing, necessary to forma
ment to Christianity. It is also related architectural designs so far advanced,
of Lucius, that he converted the pa- that in less than five hundred years
gan temples into churches, and built from the accession of Ethelbert the
several new ones; among others, one cathedral of Durham was built, and
where St Peter's Cornhill London now it is still one of the greatest and noblest
stands. Now, sir, if we admit that piles in the island. Within the last
the establishing of Christianity was five hundred years, with the single
followed in Britain by the same im exception of St Pauls, no temple of
mediate effects that subsequently took equal magnitude of design and gran-
place elsewhere, namely, the casting deur of architecture has been attempt-
down of the idols, and breaking them ed in England.
and their altars to pieces, we need not But to consider the subject more
be perplexed to account for the extinc- generally, I would ask if it ever has
tion of all Roman remains of this been investigated, whether any of
kind.

those churches which are esteemed the I am not satisfied that much light has earliest specimens of Saxon architectyet been thrown on the origin of what ure, do not contain within them poris called the Saxon style of architect- tions and fragments of Roman temples ? ure ; but it is matter of historical fact, The sacred architecture of the Greeks that with the Saxons a new species of and Romans was exterior in its object idolatry was introduced, and perhaps, and composition. Their religious cesome of the old aboriginal paganism remonies consisted of processions and revived, in so much, that a second of rites, which their climate permitted public conversion to Christianity sub- them to perform in the open air ; sequently took place in the person and their temples were in consequence courtiers of Ethelbert king of Kent, small, and the ornaments arranged on at which epoch the bishop of Rome the outside of the building. In this was grown into the Pope. The Chris island, we are obliged to adopt another tianity of this latter period was accor method ; our ritual is constrained by dingly infected with the corruptions of the uncertainty of the weather to be the church. Instead of the simple performed under cover ; our temples preaching of that meek and lowly re- have accordingly been erected of vast ligion, which won the affections of properties to accommodate a great numLucius from the gods of his fathers, ber of worshippers, and our chief the gorgeous harlot came with her ornaments have been displayed in the blandishments, arrayed in the abomi- interior of the pile. The distinction, nations of crimson and fine linen, at- although important, requires no partended by a train of friars, “ black, ticular elucidation. white, and grey, with all their trum Upon the supposition, then, that pery."

some of the temples built in the RoBy the conversion of Ethelbert, man taste introduced by Agricola (alChristianity, as the Roman Catholic lowing what Tacitus has said to be religion is still called, was esta- true), have been, in the course, of blished, and idolatry finally abolished time, enlarged to cathedrals, or other in Britain.

It is

therefore not distinguished churches, the process of assuming too much, to say, that if we their conversion would be simple and consider the first suppression of paga- obvious. The parallelogrand of that nism by Lucius, the restoration of taste would easily admit of being idolatry in the time of the Saxons, and changed into such a building, for exthe reconversion during the heptarchy, ample, as that of Durham-minster.it is not difficult to conceive how it has by removing the roof, and, flinging happened that there are no remains of arches from column to column, and the sacred architecture of the Romans raising on those arches a superstruc

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ture with windows in it, to support From the reign of Henry VIII. arthe new roof, the middle aisle of the chitecture, for many years, declined. church, with its lateral insulated colon. A barbarous attempt to ingraft the nades would be formed, and by mere classic orders upon edifices in the Goly building round the original edifice thic taste commenced ; nor was it cona wall with windows-in it, and carry- fined to this country, but extended ing a roof from the top of that wall to over all Europe. It probably orithe base of the superstructure raised ginated in the revival of the ancient on the arches, a perfect specimen of a Roman style of building, which took church in the Saxon style would be place in the pontificates of Julius II. obtained. For the cell of the classic and Leo X., and perhaps derived entemple would stand for the choir. It couragement from the views of classic is not however probable, that such edifices with which it was common at an alteration as I have described would that period to ornament books. We be effected at once. I have only ad- find the earliest indications of it in a verted to the likelihood of the thing, multitude of pillars and pillasters on in converting a temple into a church; tombs, constructed somewhat in the and would only infer from it, that if style of the triumphal arches of the Agricola and the Romans did intro- Romans. But, although the taste deduce into this island the taste and arts serves condemnation, yet it was not of Rome, it is probable, that what is incompatible with beauty of effect, a called the Saxon architecture took its very imposing example of which we rise from endeavours on the part of have in Burleigh-house, near Staminhabitants to adapt the exterior style ford. of the Romans to those interior pur This mixture of the Classic and poses, which were rendered necessary Gothic styles, with a gradual tendency by the uncertainty of the weather in to more simplicity, prevailed during the climate of Britain.

the reign of Queen Elizabeth and To the Saxon succeeded the Gothic, James I. of Great Britain. In Charles or pointed-arch style. It is the dot- I.'s time the Classic architecture was age of antiquarianism to effect to trace decidedly in fashion; and the fragthe origin of this style to any particu- ment of the palace intended for him lar era or country; and it is, at best, by Inigo Jones, although far from ben but an amusing ingenuity which en- ing fine, cannot be contemplated withdeavours to discover in it the imita- out pleasure. tion of a grove of trees. The history The change in the public taste was of it, as connected with that of the still more generally expressed when arts in this country, admits of being Sir Christopher Wren came forward divided into two epochs. The first as an architect. In his buildings there terminates in the reign of Edward III., are some fine instances of the proper when the style of the acute-pointed adaptations of the style of the buildarch was brought to the greatest per- ing to its uses, but the greatest of all fection, and of which the relics about his works, and, indeed, the greatest the House of Commons are the finest pile of the fine arts, in some respects, specimens extant. The second, dating ever raised by one man, St Paul's Cafrom the same reign, is closed in that thedral, is in its details lamentably of Henry VIII., when the obtuse- defective. The main body of the pointed arch was brought to the great- building is, in its principle, taken est perfection, and of which the finest from the design of Inigo Jones' for specimen is the mausoleum completed Whitehall, and the dome, the best by that monarch for his father, and part of the whole, is not in unison known as Henry VII.'s Chapel, at- with the rest of the building. It is a tached to Westminster-Abbey. The superb edifice of itself, set on the top Chapel of King's College, at Cam- of another; taken as a whole, the bridge, is also a very noble example of Cathedral of St Paul's does not certhis style, but, owing to the founda- tainly harmonize in its parts, and it tion having been laid by Henry VI., possesses the radical defect of being it is commonly ascribed to his time. unadapted to the climate; the exterior It was not however finished till late being covered with ornament, while in the reign of Henry VIII., and the interior is mean, and unworthy of ought properly to be classed among the grandeur without. the great edifices of that age,

of Sir John Vanburgh's style it is

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impossible to speak too contemptuous- and ponderous porticos, which give to ly or too highly. He was a man of the houses of the nobility the air of magnificent ideas, and the picturesque capitols rather than of habitations. forms, in which the outlines of his Our architects still seem to think, that buildings cut against the sky, are so there are not only beauties in architece extremely beautiful, that they may be ture, independent of fitness, but even said to be full of poetry, so singular that ornaments may be stuck on, withand superb are the associations which out any apparent utility either to the they awaken in the minds of those plan or in illustration of the purposes who see them for the first time.- of the building. One of the most re-, Blenheim is considered his greatest markable examples of this is in the work ; but, for myself, I prefer Castle- mansion of the late Sir Francis BarHoward.

ing, near Southampton; and it is the The next great pile erected in this more deserving of notice, as some of country, after Blenheim, was Someryour correspondents have been urging set-House ; but, although in the gram that the Parthenon of Athens ought to mar of the art, it is more correct be taken as the model of the proposed than either St Paul's or the great National Monument of Scotland. It work of Sir John Vanbrugh, a little is no less than an exact copy, inch for ness of conception pervades it through- inch, of one of the porticos of that ceout, that must ever prevent it from lebrated structure. Nothing can be being highly esteemed as a work of finer of its kind, or more absurd than art, and the architect, Sir William its application. Chambers, from being considered as a It was my intention to have taken great artist.

some notice of the architectural taste It is impossible to notice the num which prevails in Scotland at this ber of fine buildings in the Classic time; but I have already occupied too style raised in the long course of his much of your paper, and the subject, late Majesty's reign. For the most in itself, deserves to be treated more part, however, they have not been con in detail than the matter which forms ceived in a good taste, and consist of the substance of the cursory observas abortive attempts to unite the grandeur tions of this letter. of the temple with the elegance of the

D. B. villa. Hence the origin of those vast

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My Cameronian friend pondered for Th but again, and the furthermore
some time ere he ventured to come The henceforth and the heretofore
mence the history of his own adven- and it would scarcely fill the forpit.”
tures. He was not one of those of I shall not however adopt this rustic
whom the poet complains-“ Fond to mode of abridgement, it is not always
to begin, but for to finish loath.” He agreeable to fy as an arrow to the
was as tardy to commence as he was mark-there be pleasant lingerings and
tedious in continuing his narratives. sojournings by the way. I shall fol- '
Were I a lover of brevity, I would low my friend's conversation with a
have to make the same abatement in faithful hand and a sure pen, and
Mark's memoir which the peasant though I may not set down a cough
made in the sermon of John Rowat . at full length-a promise I most un-
the Cameronian professor" Take willingly make I can make no omis-
the whole as it came," said he," and sions-I shall give it with the rough
it would heap the bushel, deduct the mint stamp of nature, and my con-
coughs—the drawls--the intrusive fiding Cameronian full and legibly

well thens"--and above all

upon it.

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