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massive and solid-matters of prime respondent forgot this, else he might importance. The exterior of a Gothic have advised you to build your monubuilding seems, at a distance, like a ment in the North Loch. huge barn; the Grecian, even in ruins, In conclusion, I may name a few has a noble outside. But I cannot ex- matters I should have lamented, and tend this praise to the Parthenon, which which would have happened had all presents an unvaried roof, and seems been arranged according to the style not to equal the beauty of some other and taste of your correspondent-I ancient temples. I feel afraid the Cal- should have lamented, had Shakspeare ton Hill, (if it is the Calton now that clipped and squared his romantic it once was, for I cannot look out at Saxon drama by the straight line of any window and see the tricks which Euripides--I should have lamented, improvement has been playing with had Milton chosen some potent and this admired rock), would be too large well booted Greek for his hero raa base for this building, the mountain ther than the Great Fiend-and sung would devour the monument--you of Hercules and “ Lacedemons hollow must have a building of colossal mag- glen profound,” rather than of Belzenitude to associate with this mighty bub and the bottomless pit~ I should pedestal. I am surprised that your have lamented, had Walter Scott listcorrespondent did not feel some classi- ened to the voice of the critics-had cal scruples about recommending a not remonstrated in verse, hill, even of solid rock, for the scite of “ Nay, Erskine, nay, on the wild hill his Parthenon; he knows the Athe. Let the wild heath-flower flourish still ;" nians were a curious and scrupulous but thrown his immortal lays of chipeople about the foundations for their valry into the Ettrick or the Tweed, national works—they looked forward and squandered his powers on the and contemplated defiance to the re- demigods or the antediluvians. All volutions of nature, as well as the this I would have lamented, and though machinations of man, and built one of my sorrow might be less, I would consitheir fairest temples in a morass, where der a Scottish Parthenon something in it was less liable to earthquakes than the same taste.--Your humble servant, on the summit of a hill. Your cor
A JOURNEYMAN MASON.
EMIGRATION TO THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
When the public mind is directed to Barrow had compressed, in the comany interesting and important subject, pass of a cheap pamphlet, all the valuinnumerable scribblers are ever on the able information to be gleaned from alert with placards and pamphlets to his excellent “ travels to the interior amuse, if not to satisfy the popular of Southern Africa.” Instead of this, curiosity. Temporary and taking title however, there have appeared “ a pages serve to get off edition upon e- Guide to the Cape of Good Hope, &c. dition of the veriest trash, while books &c.” abounding in every variety of of the most solid information, if not blunder and error, and also, “ the Cape wholly unknown, are very partially of Good Hope Calendar,” a mere reconsulted. It may be, that men of print, with a flimsy preface, of the anreal talent and knowledge feel some nual almanack, printed in the colony. reluctance in appending their names to These, nevertheless, have been puffed such undignified and ephemeral tracts and placarded with most audacious as are calculated in a short and hum- quackery in every corner of the town. ble form to give information to the We have been at some pains to proignorant. Certain, however, it is, that cure every necessary information, and upon questions of importance, seldom although in a former Number we endo those address the public who have deavoured to afford a general view of the already gained its respect by more ela- Cape and its facilities, we are induced borate treatises, and who therefore are to dwell upon some points which we best qualified and entitled to write in had not leisure just then to discuss ; detail. On the subject before us, and moreover, as the subject itself is Emigration to the Cape of Good Hope, becoming hourly more extensively we could indeed have wished that Mr popular and seriously important,
the Colonial Office in Downing Street landing, when the victualling at the exhas issued the two following circulars, pense of government shall cease. A furwhich at once explain the encourage ther proportion of one-third shall be repaid mentand conditions held out by govern
as soon as it shall be certified to the gover
nor of the colony that the settlers under the ment on the subject of emigration to
direction of the person taking them out, are the Cape :
actually located upon the land assigned to No I.
them, and the remainder at the expiration of
three months from the date of their location. " Downing Strcet, London, 1819. “ I have to acquaint you in reply to your
“ If any parishes in which there may be letter of the
a redundancy of population, shall unite in
that the following are the conditions under which it selecting an intelligent individual to proceed
to the Cape, with settlers under his direcis proposed to give encouragement to emi.
tion, not less in number, and of the descripgration to the Cape of Good Hope. “ The sufferings to which many indivi.
tion abovementioned, and shall advance moduals have been exposed, who have emi ney in the proportion abovementioned, the grated to his Majesty's foreign possessions, vidual at the rate of 100 acres for
government will grant land to such an indi. unconnected and unprovided with any capi- of a family, leaving the parish at liberty to
every tal, or even the means of support, having make such conditions with the individual, or been very afflicting to themselves, and the settlers, as may be calculated to prevent equally burthensome to the colonies to which they have proceeded, the government the maintenance of such settlers in the event
the parish becoming again chargeable with have determined to confine the application of their return to this country. of the money recently voted by address in the House of Commons, to those persons cepted, unless it shall be clear that the per
“ But no offers of this kind will be acwho possessing the means will engage to carry out, at the least, ten able-bodied indi. sons proposing to become settlers shall have viduals above eighteen years of age, with or
distinctly given their consent, and the head without families, the government always of each family is not infirm or incapable of
work. reserving to itself the right of selecting from the several offers made to them, those which 6s It is further proposed, that in any case may prove upon examination to be most in which one hundred families proceed toeligible.
gether, and apply for leave to carry out * In order to give some security to the with them a minister of their own persuagovernment, that the persons undertaking sion, government will, upon their being acto make these establishments have the tually located, assign a salary to the mi. means of doing so, every person engaging nister whom they may have selected to acto take out the abovementioned number company them, if he shall be approved by of persons or families shall deposite at the Secretary of State. the rate of ten pounds (to be repaid as “ The lands will be granted at a quit rent hereafter mentioned) for every family so to be fixed, which rent, however, will be retaken out, provided that the family does not mitted for the first ten years, and at the consist of more than one man, one woman, expiration of three years (during which the and two children under fourteen years of party and a number of families, in the proage. All children above the number of two portion of one for every hundred acres must will be to be paid for, in addition to the de- have resided on the estate,) the land shall posite abovementioned, in the proportion of be measured at the expense of government, five pounds for every two children under and the holder shall obtain, without fee, his fourteen years of age, and five pounds for title thereto, on a perpetual quit rent, not every person between the ages of fourteen exceeding in any case two pounds sterling, and eighteen.
for every hundred acres; subject, however, " In consideration of this deposite, a pas- to this clause beyond the usual reservasage shall be provided at the expense of tions* ; that the land shall become forfeited government for the settlers, who shall also to 'government, in case the party shall abe victualled from the time of their em- bandon the estate, or not bring it into culti. barkation until the time of their landing in vation within a given number of years. the colony.
“ I am, your most obedient humble ser. “ A grant of land, under the conditions vant. hereafter specified, shall be made to him at “ P. S. In order to ensure the arrival of the rate of one hundred acres for every such the settlers at the Cape, at the beginning of person or family whom he so takes out ; the planting season, the transports will not one-third of the sum advanced to govern- leave this country until the month of Noment on the outset, shall be repaid on vember."
The usual reservations are the right of the crown to mines of precious stones, of gold and silver, and to make such roads as may be necessary for the convenience of the tolony.
dent from the multiplicity of applicae Downing Street, London, tions that have been made, both by “ SIR,In reply to your letter of the letter and in person, at Lord Bathurst's
, I am directed by Earl office. We understand, from pretty Bathurst to acquaint you, that as the circu. good authority, that these have alar letter distinctly specifies the nature and mounted to upwards of ten thousand. extent of the assistance which will be grant- of the advantages and capabilities of ed to individuals who may be allowed to this settlement we have given already proceed as settlers to the Cape of Good Hope, together with the conditions under our most decided conviction. And if which alone that assistance can be given to any fresh argument or further evithem, it is only necessary to refer you to dence were needed, we would confithat document, and to add, that no proposal dently derive it from the great success can be accepted which is not framed in con- that has attended the meritorious exformity with the offer of his Majesty's go. ertions of the Moravian brethren in vernment. “ With reference to your particular en.
South Africa. They have, indeed,
made a wilderness into a fruitful land, quiries respecting the mode in which the views of the settlers may best be attained, and, a yet more arduous and grate I have to acquaint you, that it is not in ful conquest, they have converted the Earl Bathurst's power to communicate to indolent degraded Hottentot into an you that species of information, which can active moral member of society. The most properly be afforded by the practical spot chosen for their chief settlement, agriculturist, or obtained upon the spot. Gnadenthall, was, a few years ago, a
*** The settlers will be located in the in- perfect waste; at present this mission. terior of the colony, not far from the coast ; and in allotting to them the lands which tiful and thriving villages in the co
ary settlement is one of the most beaugovernment have agreed to grant to them, their interests and their wishes will be con
lony. We cannot resist transcribing sulted and attended to as far as may be Mr Barrow's account of this delightful consistent with the public interests of the spot. colony. “ The settlers will be enabled to purchase
“ These people,” the Moravians, “ have a limited quantity of agricultural imple- been several years in the colony, for the'exments in the colony, at prime cost ; al. press purpose of instructing the Hottentots though they are not debarred from taking with little success, in the object of their
in the doctrines of christianity, but met with them a moderate supply of these arti. cles, as well as necessaries; and they will mission, under the Dutch government.find no difficulty in purchasing seed corn in Early in the morning, I was awakened by the colony.
some of the finest voices I ever heard ; and, “ The settlers will not find habitations on looking out, saw a group of female Hot. ready for their reception.
tentots sitting on the ground. It was Sun“The persons under whose direction a
day, and they had assembled thus early to party of settlers proceed, is at liberty to se
chant the morning hymn. They were all cure their services by any legal agreement neatly dressed in printed cotton gowns. A into which they may think proper to enter.
sight so very different from what we had hi“ The new settlement will, of course, be therto been in the habit of observing, with regoverned according to the laws in force in gard to this unhappy class of beings, could the colony.
not fail of being grateful. The missionaries “ In conclusion, I beg to observe, that it themselves were men of a middle age, must be left to the persons taking out set- plain and decent in their dress, meek and tlers, to form their own opinion as to the a
humble in their deportment, but intelligent mount of the pecuniary means with which and lively in conversation, zealous in the they should be provided, in order to support
cause of their mission, but free from bi. the persons placed under their directions, gotry, and enthusiasm. Every thing about and ensure the success of their undertaking the place partook of that neatness and sim“ I am, Sir, your most obedient ser
plicity, which were the strongest features in vant."
the outline of this character.
they had constructed, was Such are the official documents. building; their mill for grinding corn was They have certainly been framed with superior to any in the colony ; their garden very great and laudable caution.- was in high order, and produced abundance Though it be highly impolitic to damp of vegetables for the use of the table. A). the spirit of enterprise, it is both wise the labour of their own hands.
most every thing that had been done was by and just, honestly to announce the (missionary) had learned some useful proterms upon which alone proposals can fession. One was well skilled in every be received. That these terms have branch of smith's work, the second was a nothing to deter, is abundantly evi- shoemaker, and the third a tailor. The
a plain neat
Hottentots live in small huts dispersed over we are sorry to see, from the news the valley, to each of which was attached a papers, that the common enemy, the plot of ground for raising vegetables.- Kaffers, have made an irruption, and Their houses and gardens were very neat stolen and comfortable, numbers of the poor in
away the greater part of their England not so good, and few better.
Such cattle. If these marauders are not of the Hottentots as chuse to learn a trade, subdued by main force, there will be are paid for their labour as soon as they can
no end to their excesses. earn wages.
Some hire themselves out to Great and increasing as are the fathe neighbouring farmers; others make cilities of the Cape, considered in an am mats and brooms for sale, some breed poul- gricultural view, there is another point try, and others find means to subsist by most worthy of attention, and which their cattle, sheep, and horses. There ap- we omitted in our former remarks on peared no violent zeal on the part of the this subject; and that is, its geogramissionaries to swell the catalogue of christian converts.
Their first great object phical situation. Its position on the seemed to be, to make men happy, that globe is so commanding a feature, that they might afterwards become virtuous.” the bare inspection of a map must at Barrow's Travels, vol. I, pp. 308, 9, 10, once prove its importance and value in 11.
this respect. It has been not unaptly Nothing can be more encouraging called the key to India. As a middle to settlers than such a picture. Here station between Great Britain and Inare a few men opposed by the govern- dia, enjoying a mild temperature bement then in being, meeting with tween the extremes of each, the Cape every difficulty, and sharing every ob- is most adapted to form the habits and loquy, and yet triumphing over all by inure the constitution of the soldier their patience and perseverance. We for India. Among the recruits sent have ourselves visited this Moravian out direct from this country for this village, and have found Mr Barrow's service, it has been said that not more description most exactly verified. No- than three out of five are calculated thing can equal the cleanliness of the upon, as likely to be efficient on their missionary houses, rendered, perhaps, arrival in India, and of those who armore striking and acceptable from the rive in tolerable health, a great procontrast with the filthy and comfort- portion may be expended in the sealess habitations of the Dutch boor. soning for so hot a climate. But it is
The Zuure Veldt appears to be the not only as a nursery for Indian troops part of the colony where the new Eng. that the Cape is important. Its cenlish settlers are to be fixed.
tral situation most peculiarly fits it counts concur in representing this as for the purposes of commerce. Its one of the most fruitful parts of the distance from New Holland is the voycolony. Since the Cape regiment has age of three weeks, from Brazil a been withdrawn from the frontiers, month, from the West Indies six the Kaffers have made frequent and weeks, and two months from the destructive incursions along these lux- coasts of Malabar and Coromandel. uriant though now almost deserted With the east and west coasts of A. tracts. However, there is little to be frica and the adjacent islands, it comdreaded from this barbarous people, mands a ready communication at all should the country be well stocked seasons of the year. Strange, howwith British farmers. Though a cruel, ever, to say, that the Cape has only the Kaffers are a cowardly people ; been considered by the East India and the military efforts that are at this Company as a place of refreshment for moment directed against them by the their homeward-bound ships. The colonial government, will doubtless agent of the Company at the Cape, it drive them beyond the frontier of the is true, exposes occasionally to sale a colony, (the great fish river,) and de- few chests of tea, or bales of muslin ter them, we trust effectually, from and nankeen. All the other articles breaking treaties which they have come out second hand from England so solemnly pledged, and yet so dis- at an enormous and extravagant price. gracefully infringed. A missionary Surely this is a narrow policy towards settlement, called Theopolis, has been a colony now decidedly English. “It
. lately established here belonging to is a notorious fact,” says a late writer the London Missionary Society. What on the subject,
" that the present posuccess has attended this recent insti- licy of the Company has given rise to tution we do not exactly know; but a very considerable contraband trade VOL. VI.
between America and the East Indies. main cause of that indolence and want of That trade would certainly cease, if energy which is a principal feature in the the Americans could come to an In- character of the present inhabitants of the dian market at the Cape.”
colony; over whom a British emigrant, carWe cannot close our remarks, with- rying with him the industry and knowledge
of his own country, would have a thousand out reverting to a subject, which we
advantages, and would be the means of deem 'of vital consequence to the wel- bringing to light the real resources of the fare of this settlement; namely, its country, and of turning to profit many vagovernment and laws.
Whatever luable productions, now passed by unobmay be the views or the efforts of the served, or ignorantly supposed to be of no colonial secretary in this country;
Those who have a family of children, however encouraging and practicable of whom at least two or three are old enough
to be useful, will derive many advantages may appear the prospects held out to
from their numbers. The settlers are ad. the settler, still, if the governor at the vised to take with them a moderate stock of Cape does not enter zealously and sin- clothes, sufficient to last them for two or cerely into the project, it will assured three years ; such medicines as they may ly and fatally fail. If the matter be judge necessary; agricultural and garden forced
upon the local authorities, how- implements ; carpenter's and smith's tools; ever the letter may be preserved, the and whatever manufactured articles they -spirit of the plan will be defeated. It may think requisite for domestic use ; but might indeed seem as a matter pre
not to encumber themselves with any thing cluding doubt, that colonial governors nists would require a large area of land
not essentially necessary. A body of coloshould implicitly obey the wishes, and
fit for agriculture and pasture. This is more especially the commands of their nowhere to be found within the colony, superiors at home. So unaccustomed, except in the Zuure Veldt (Albany).however, as these governors are to be This tract is about eighty miles by fifty, as opposed; so tenacious of authority, measured on a map, or 100 by 60 of traand jealous of dictation, as their si- velling distance. The Sunday river bounds tuation naturally makes them, pre
it on the west, the ocean on the south, the -tences will never be wanting to evade
Great Fish river on the east, and the in. instructions from this country at all habited part of the colony on the north. It opposing their prejudices or their with every diversity of scenery and surface;
is a beautiful and delightful country, varied power. Were the laws of England, abounding in herbage, wood, and water ; and a regular council established, in- and having a soil capable of feeding large stead of the confused and contradic- herds of cattle, and of producing corn and tory laws now in force, and the mere vegetables more than sufficient for the supipse dixit of the governor, the British ply of a numerous population. The greatest emigrant might repair to the Cape in part of it is free from wood, and may resafety. At present there are few, we
ceive the plough or spade immediately. fear, who, having resided any length be reaped ; during which time, to supply
Within the first twelvemonths a harvest may of time in the colony, will not deplore immediate want, two or three crops of pothe monstrous union of undefined
tatoes may be raised. Here also the vine laws and despotic authority.
may be cultivated with complete success, Thus far we had written, when a and that lucrative branch of agriculture may pamphlet was put into our hands, at last be shared by the British. To all from the pen of Mr Burchell. We these advantages is superadded the importare most happy in having an opportu- miles, from which an immediate supply of
ant one of a line of coast of no less than 100 nity of qualifying our strictures on
fish temporary tracts, by some quotations the infant settlement. The Great Fish river,
may be procured towards the support of from these able and valuable “ Hints.”
at its mouth, is as broad as the Thames beMr Burchell has been for a length of low London, but is not navigable many time in South Africa, and has travel- miles upwards. A jutty carried out beyond led further, we believe, than any other the surf would ensure a safe landing for Englishman into the interior. There boats at most seasons. The fine harbour of are few men better qualified to give in- the Nysma admits ships which have sailed formation respecting the Cape. But out with cargoes of timber ; and were it we shall proceed to our extra ts.
possible to raise the sunken rocks at its
mouth, it would be the most eligible spot in “ The facility with which the necessaries the whole colony for a town. To introduce of life are procured, has perhaps been the the practice of well-digging would be to
* Hints on Emigration to the Cape of Good Hope, by William J. Burchell, Esq. London. Hatchard. 26. 6d. 1819..