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can hardly enter any considerable that the soul, when dismissed from the town without hearing the illustrious body, vanishes away into the air and is name of some new saint invoked within utterly dissolved; and Theologians, it. At length, however, charity grew holding a still different opinion concold, and the golden age was convert- cerning it, maintain that souls have ed into an age of clay: then the works three distinct mansions assigned them of religion fell into disuse, and (as after the dissolution of the body, one once before happened in the invasion in heaven, another in purgatory, and of the Danes, so now again in the ex- the third in hell; and that, as those pulsion of the English by the men of which are in hell shall in no wise be Normandy) the sins of the people saved, so those which are in purgadrew down their own destruction up- tory shall receive mercy. Now it fell on their heads. For the nobles of the out that, shortly after this mutual land, enslaved by their sensual appe- pledge was given and accepted, one of tites, no longer went early in the the friends departed on a sudden, morning into the churches as Chris- without having confessed, or received tians are wont, but, in their bed, the Viaticum. The other, who rechambers, and in the arms of their mained alive, thought continually of wires, heard the matin service and the promise made, but waited for its masses read over to them in haste by accomplishment till the end of the some careless priest, and the clerks thirty days in vain. After this time and those in orders were so destitute had expired, hopeless of the fulfilment of learning, that one who knew his of the promise, he had begun to apply grammar was an object of wonder to his mind again to other affairs, when all the rest. Their potations all made lo! the dead man appeared, and in common, and they wasted whole thus accosted him, “Dost thou know days and nights also, in that sort of me?” he asked. "I do know thee, study. They gorged themselves with answered his friend. Then,” said food, and drank till they vomited at be,“ Oh my friend ! my coming may their banquets. However, you are not (if thou choosest) be of the utmost to understand this of all men equally; importance to thee: to me it can avail it being well known that many among nothing. For the judgment of God that nation, of all condition and dig- hath gone out against me, and I am nities, were pleasing to God.

doomed, miserable that I am, to ever

lasting torments.” Then the living II.- The return of one from the Grave man promised that he would give all to visit and admonish his Companion. his effects to the church and to the Related under the year 1072. poor,

all his days and nights ABOUT this time, there lived in a in continual prayer and fasting, for town of Britanny, called Nantes, two the redemption of his departed friend; çlerks, who from their boyhood had but the apparition answered him, been so knit together in the bonds of Nay, that which I have said is fixa friendship, that, if necessity required ed; for, because I departed this life it , either would have sacrificed his life without repentance, the judgments of for the other. One day they agreed God are just, and by them I am together, that, whichever of the two plunged into the sulphureous gulf of should first die, he should appear hell, where, so long as the stars roll within thirty days to the survivor, round the pole, and the waves of the whether sleeping or waking, in order sea break upon the shore, I shall to certify to him the state of things continue to be tormented for my hereafter, and what is the condition of sins. Now, that thou mayest feelingsouls after their departure from the ly experience only one of my innubody; so that, being sufficiently in merable sufferings, stretch out thine formed hereof, he might thenceforth hand to receive a drop of my bloody know, which of the opinions main- sweat." The living man did as he tained by philosophers, concerning the was directed, and thereby his skin soul, was fittest to be embraced. For and flesh were perforated as by a the Platonist

hold that the death of burning caustic, and a hole was made the body doth not extinguish the soul, in them, large enough to receive a but dismisses it freed, as from a dun- hazle nut; but, when he testified the geon, to God, from whom sprung; greatness of his pain by his exclamawhile the Epicureans contrariwise assert tions, “This mark” resumed the appa

and pass

rition, “ will remain with thee till the their several wrongs, of which they day of thy death, in dreadful remem- made their complaint, demanding rebrance of my misery; therefore ne- dress; but the Bishop arbitrarily reglect not this amazing remedy, but plied, that he would do them no jususe it as the means of salvation; while tice for any wrong of which they so thou art yet able, change thy garment, complained, until they should have and therewith change thy mind also, so paid down to him four hundred as thou mayest escape from the anger pounds of lawful money. Then one, of thy Creator.” To this the living speaking for the rest of them, asked man returning not a word, the spectre license of the bishop to consult tolooked upon him with a more stern gether about the bishop's demand, countenance, and said, “ miserable that they might return their answer wretch! if thou doubtest, turn thee the more advisedly; which license and read this writing.” And there being obtained, while they were conupon he stretched out his hand, which sulting together, one, on whose judge was all over written with black cha- ment they had all great reliance, hastily racters, in which Satan and all the said, in the language of his country, legions of hell were made to return “ Short rede, good ręde, slea ye the thanks to the whole ecclesiastical or- byshoppe;" whereupon they all of der, for that, while they indulged one accord flew to arms, and the without restraint in their own plea- bishop was cruelly slain, with a hunsures, they only suffered the souls of dred men of his train, on a spot close such as were subjected to their care, by the river Tine, where this fatal through their neglect, to descend to court had been held by him. hell in such numbers that no former ages had ever seen the like. After IV.-Foundation of the Church of Linwhich, the apparition vanished. The coln by Saint Remigius. Anno 1085. living man immediately distributed By this time the Normans had acall his goods to the church and to the complished the will of God over the poor, and took upon him the holy habit whole English nation, and hardly one at the monastery of Saint Melan, ad- nobleman of English birth remained monishing all present of what he had in the kingdom, all being reduced to seen and heard; who, seeing his sud- a state of servitude, in such sort, that den conversion, exclaimed, “ Behold it became a disgrace to be called an what the hand of the most High hath Englishman. Then did unjust imwrought !"

posts and the worst customs spring up

over the land; and, the more those III.- The Character and Death of in authority gave judgment according

Walter, Bishop of Durham. Under to law and justice, the greater was the the year 1075.

oppression. They who were called In those days, Walter, Bishop of justiciaries were the authors of all inDurham, occupying himself in secular justice. To steal a deer or wild goat concerns to the prejudice of the Pon- was punished with the loss of sight; tifical Dignity, bought the Earldom nor was there any man to resist such of Northumberland of the King, and, oppressive laws. For this cruel king acting in the capacity of Sheriff of loved beasts of chase as if he had been the county, presided in the Courts of the father of them ; so that, at the Laical Jurisdiction, and violently ex- last, following his evil counsels, he torted immense sums of money out enacted that, even in towns where of all the inhabitants of his pro- men hold discourse together, and in vince, alike nobles and serfs; so that, the churches themselves which are at the last, the people, seeing them- consecrated to the worship of God, selves reduced to extreme penury by wild deer and other animals should his extortions and those of his ser- be suffered to run about unrestrained. vants, became greatly indignant there- Whence it is proverbially asserted, at, and meeting together in secret that for thirty miles and more the council, unanimously ordained one fruitful country was converted into a and all to attend the county court, forest, and into the haunts of wild armed to repel injuries, should necesa, beasts. In the construction of castles, sity demand it. Shortly after, they also, this king exceeded all his precame to the court accordingly, with decessors. Normandy had come to spirits determined to exact justice for him by hereditary right; Maine he

had acquired by the force of his arms; resolved to avenge the insult he had he had reduced Armorick Britain to received at the cost of multitudes of his vassalage ; he reigned alone in innocent persons. At last he burned England ; he held Scotland and the town of Mantes, and destroyed in Wales under his yoke; but he was the flames the church of the Blessed so great a lover of peace, that a maiden Virgin, together with two of the holy carrying a weight of gold might have Vestals (who remained within it, bewalked securely through the whole lieving that even in that extremity it island. A short time before this, he was not lawful for them to quit their had given the bishopric of Dorchester habitation). The king, rejoicing in to Remigius, a monk of Fescamp ; but the sight of this destruction, called to it displeased that bishop to have so his people to heap fuel upon the flames, inconsiderable a town assigned him and, approaching himself too near the for his see, when in the same diocese conflagration, contracted a fever from was the city of Lincoln, so much the violence of the fire added to the more worthy to be an Episcopal resi- unwholesome heats of the autumnal dence; wherefore, having purchased season. His disorder was further insome lands on the top of the hill, he creased by an internal rupture, ocbuilt a church on that spot. And al- casioned by leaping a ditch on horsethough the archbishop of York as- back, so that he returned to Rouen in serted that the city belonged to his great pain of sickness; and, as his fediocese, Remigius made little account

ver grew worse from day to day, took of his claim, and pursued the work he at last to his bed, being compelled by had so commenced with such dili, the violence of the distemper. The gence that he completed it, and filled physicians who were consulted preit with a clergy most approved for dicted his fast approaching dissoludoctrine and morals. This Remigius tion from an inspection of his water. was low of stature, but great in mind; In an interval of strength, after having dark in colour, but not in works; received the viaticum, and performed once he had been accused of a con- the Christian duty of confession, he spiracy against the king, but one of bequeathed Normandy to his son Rohis servants undertaking the purga- bert; England, and his maternal postion of his lord by undergoing the sessions, together with his treasures, ordeal of red hot iron, he was thus William Rufus. He commanded restored to the love of the king, and all prisoners to be released, and great wiped clean from the stain of ponti- sums of money to be distributed afical disgrace. Thus was founded the mong the churches. He assigned a modern church of Lincoln.

sufficiency for the repair of St Mary's

church, lately burned by fire; and, V.-Death of William the Conqueror. having thus duly settled all his afAnno 1087.

fairs, he died on the 8th of the ides of This same year, king William made September, in the twenty-second year his abode in Normandy for some time, of his reign as king of England, and during which he delayed the war the fifty-second as duke of Normandy, which he meditated against the king the fifty-ninth of his age, and the of France. But Philip abusing his 1088th of the holy incarnation. His patience, is reported to have scurri- body was conveyed down the river lously said, “ The king of England Seine to Caen, and there buried, akeeps his bed at Rouen, like a woman midst a large concourse of prelates of on childbed ; but when he comes the church. forth to his churching I will light Robert, the eldest son of the conhim to church with a hundred thou- queror, was in France, engaged in the sand candles." The king, exasperated war against his father at the time of by this and other like sarcasms, in the his death; and William Rufus hastenensuing month of August, while the ed to England, while he was yet alive, corn was on the ground, the grapes in conceiving that it would be more for the vineyards, and the apples in the his advantage to undertake that voyorchards, in all the abundance of the age immediately than to wait and atseason, assembled a numerous army, tend his father's funeral. Henry alone, and made an inroad into France, of all his children, was present at that wasting and depopulating the country solemnity, and paid, of his own mothrough which he went. Nothing ney, 100 pounds of silver to a certain could appease his resentment, but he knight (whose patrimony extended to to the spot in which the body of the could he nowise avoid the fury of the king was interred), in order to re- mice ; for a multitude of them immestrain his tongue from uttering any diately plunged themselves into the reproach.

water, and swam after him, and gnawHowever, William was neither slow ed the bottom and sides of the ship, nor niggardly in the spending of mo- till they made it leak, and threatened ney. He soon brought forth all the all on board with certain shipwreck. treasure which his father had accu- When the servants found this, they mulated at Winchester, and charitably made again for the shore as fast as posassigned to the monasteries large sums sible ; but the mice had landed before of gold, together with five shillings of them, and fell upon him again as they silver to the parish churches, and one were bringing him from the ship. At hundred pounds to every county, to last he was entirely torn to pieces by be distributed among the poor. After them, and made a feast to satisfy the a time, moreover, he caused his fa- cravings of their horrible hunger. ther's tomb to be ornamented with a profusion of gold and silver and pre- VII.-Death and Character of Lancious stones. After these things he franc, Archbishop of Canterbury. was received by all men willingly for Anno 1089. their king, and reduced all England In the same year died Lanfranc, under his subjection, and obtained the Archbishop of Canterbury. This prekeys of all the treasures ; in doing late, among other pious works, repairwhich, Lanfranc was of no small as- ed the greater church of Christ at Can. sistance to him; by whom he had terbury, built offices for the monks, been educated, and consecrated a restored the dignities of the church knight, during his father's life-time. which had fallen into neglect under By him also he was crowned king of his predecessors, recovered many lands England, on the day of the holy mar, which had been alienated from it, tyrs Cosmus and Damian; and he af- (among others, 25 several manors,) and terwards spent the remaining part of constructed two inns for strangers the winter in peace. Soon afterwards, without the city, to which he assignhowever, the nobles of the realm, al- ed out of his own possessions a suffimost all of them (not without the sin cient yearly revenue for their mainteof perjury), made war against him, nance. He repaired the church of although crowned king, and, adopting Rochester, and ordained Hernost, a his elder brother, Robert, to govern in monk of Bec, to be Bishop thereof; his stead, committed the greatest ra- at whose consecration was that verse vages all over the country.

found upon the altar, “ Cito proferte

stolam primam,” &c. which the archVI.-A German Count devoured by bishop interpreted to predict his apMice. Anno 1089.

proaching death. And so, in effect, In these days, a certain German count, he died that same year, and was sucwho had been a bitter enemy to the ceeded by Gundulph, a monk of Bec, emperor, while he was sitting one day who continued there to the time of at table in a melancholy mood, attended king Henry. He reduced to its forby his servants, was on a sudden so sur- mer state the Abbey of Saint Alban, rounded by a multitude of mice, that the blessed proto-martyr of England, there appeared to be no means of escap- During the king's absence, he governing from them. So great was the num- ed his realm ; yet withal found ample ber of those little animals, that one time for study, to which he applied might have thought no country on earth himself intensely. He endeavoured to had held so many; and the servants, correct the books of the Old and New though they armed themselves with Testament, corrupted by the errors of clubs and sticks to drive them away, transcribers, and by the light of his could do nothing at all to get rid of emendations, the church of England, them. They seized on the count by and that of France also, do to this day their teeth, and tore him in a terrible possess the benefit of being enlightenmanner; and, notwithstanding all the ed. After his death, king William reclubs and staves, not one of them was tained in his own hands almost all the hurt; for the servants were unable, churches and monasteries of England, with all their endeavours, to strike or despoiling them of their possessions, wound any of them. Even when they and farming them as it were to persons

ried him in a ship out to sea, still of the laity.

Transactions of the Dilettanti Society of Edinburgh,

No I.

Viator's Letters on the History and Progress of the Fine Arts. [The Dilettanti Society of Edinburgh had, for some time, entertained the idea of publishing annually a separate volume of their Transactions. It would appear, however, that they have now come to the resolution of laying their lucubrations before the public through the medium of this Journal—a resolution which our readers will easily believe has afforded us the most sincere pleasure. Whether the whole of the labours of these ingenious gentlemen may be such as to tend to the edification of our readers, remains yet to be proved. With regard to the very interesting paper which follows we cannot have the least apprehension.

EDITOR.] LETTER I. MR NORTH,

out the aid of spectacles or the magni. Considering the excellence which the fying lens. That they possessed the ancients attained in the fine arts, it is magnifying mirror is extremely proastonishing how little has been trans- bable, for their looking-glasses being mitted to posterity respecting the made of metal, it was almost a necesworks and methods of their most dis- sary result that they should discover tinguished artists; of the methods of the magnifying power of a polished their sculptors we literally know no- concave surface. By some reflex apthing ; indeed I believe that many a plication of the concave mirror their learned fellow imagines that Phidias gem engravers may have been assisted ; and Praxiteles actually worked with and I think it would not be difficult the chisel and mallet in their hands, still to ascertain in what manner this hewing out the statue within the was done.

It has been supposed that block, with no other guide or model in some instances they employed a than the idea in their own minds. I drop of pellucid water in the perfora recollect to have read somewhere, that tion of a piece of metal; but I cannot, Michael Angelo laboured with such en- however, form any very distinct notion thusiastic fury to get his statues extric of the manner in which this magnifycated from the encasing rubbish, that ing power could be rendered useful to it was quite marvellous to see him! an engraver. But a pretty discovery Nothing, however, can be more ri. of an ingenious friend of mine, and diculous than the supposition of this which I would recommend to the ata, species of the Cæsarian operation in tention of our opticians, has suggested sculpture; an art which requires the a better idea. He has discovered, that utmost patience and minute careful- by nicely perforating a bit of paper, or ness, and in which the merit of the any superficial substance, a plate of artist consists in preparing the clay metal serving the best of all for the model. It is the artizan who fashions purpose,-that in proportion to the the marble ; a humble species of me- size of the hole, a very considerable chanical industry scarcely removed from magnifying power is obtained over obthe toil of the common stone-cutter jects closely under the eye, and that the task of the labourers in the work- distant objects are brought apparently shops of Canova and Chantry. nearer, and seen much more distinctly

But what renders the methods of than by the unaided sight. It is the ancient sculptors still more curious therefore possible, that the ancient gem as an object of inquiry, is, that, with- engravers may have made use of some out tools of steel or tempered iron, contrivance of this nature. they should have been able to work Our information with respect to the with so much felicity not only in mar- methods of the painters of antiquity ble, but even in the harder substance is also almost a blank. Their excel. of the precious stones. Their dexteri- lence both in drawing and in colourty appears still more extraordinary ing cannot be questioned; for with when we reflect that it is necessary to such evidence as we possess of their employ the magnifying glass to inspect attainments in sculpture, it is almost the minute beauty of many of their impossible, without a denial of the gems, cameos, intoglios, and medals. force of ocular demonstration, to refuse It is almost inconceivable how such our acknowledgments to their superiorworks could have been produced withe ity. We are told, indeed, that Zeuxis Vol. VI.

M M

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