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A writer who had lived among the Choctaw Indians held a consultation with one of their chiefs in respect of the successive stages of their progress in the arts of civil. ized life; and among other things was informed that, at their first start, they fell into a great mistake-they sent only their boys to school. These boys became intelligent men, but they married uneducated and uncivilized wives; and the uniform result was, that the children were all like the mother. Thus the father soon lost all his interest in both wife and children. " And now," said the chief, “ if we could educate but one class of our children, we should choose the girls ; for when they become mothers they would educate their sons.” If any nation would become fully and permanently civilized, its mothers must be qualified to discharge the duties of the homework of education. However competent for any special work in the intellectual field of human existence woman may be, the sphere of home is that in which should be seen the play of her best faculties, and the exercise of her ripest judgment. As a mother, “she presides at the fountain-head of power. The part acted by men on the stage of life, is the one for which she has prepared them at home. She forms the mind which makes the nation, and decides the fortunes of the world."

Intellectual culture is, then, the handmaid of religious education, and as such is equally important in the gen. eral system of female education. She who improves her intellect will find her religious influence strengthened, and the measure of its operation vastly enlarged. Force and dignity of character will give weight to her opinions, and thus enable her, whatever be the relations she sustains to others, to become a true guide to her charge.

In bringing to a close the view of female education, here presented, we avail ourselves of the words of an English female writer, whose comprehensive suggestions give to the general treatment of our theme somewhat of completeness and also of authority. “In the extreme uncertainty of woman's fate, over which she has no control, it may appear difficult to some to determine how they can prepare for positions so different as that of married and single life. We answer that a sound and liber. al education is all the preparation necessary for either ; not mere acquisition of knowledge, but an education that will call forth the mental powers and train them to exer. cise, and form a high and decided tone of moral character. When men prepare for their future career by a peculiar professional education, it is because some peculiar branch of knowledge, some technical information, or familiar acquaintance with certain forms, are necessary for that profession, which are not requisite for others; but the possible varieties of woman's fate and avocations, require no such preparation as this. The great requisite for them is the general development of the mind, as it acts upon character, that well.grounded and uniform discipline of all the faculties which makes them fit to labor, should serious labor be required ; that ready appreciation of all that is excellent and great ; that wide sympathy with every real interest of mankind, which keeps heart and mind ever awake and active : in a word, the constant dwelling on the high ground where the mental and moral natures seem to blend in their mutual development, and which, if not the best training-ground for attaining emi. nence in any special department of learning, is at least best fitted to give that tone to the whole mind which adds the weight of intellect to moral influence, and sheds the beauty of virtue and feeling over the exercise of mental power. She who by such an education is made fit to be à truly valuable wife, most fit to acquit herself of the mother's high office, will also be most fit to stand alone, should such be her lot, to walk cheerfully on her way, guided by that light from above shining into the soul, which maketh all things light."

J. J. T.

Art. XVI.

Water Baptism Water baptism, as a religious rite, dates back to the time of Jesus and of John, and probably to a much earlier period. The Jews affirm that baptism is referred to in

Exodus, xix. 10,14 ; xxiv. 8, and even in Genesis, xxxv. 2. Though it may be a question whether baptism was practiced quite so early, yet it was practiced, no doubt, quite anciently. Various ablutions were enjoined upon the ancient Jews; and they religiously observed the command to wash with water. This personal cleanliness seems to have been regarded as typical of the moral purity which was required of them as the chosen people of God. And it is probable that they began quite early to baptize, or wash with water, the converts to their religion from other nations, as a sign of that greater purity of character which was expected of them as members of the Jewish church or community. Indeed, an infrequent application of water to converts would, in process of time, be likely to result in the established practice of baptizing all converts to the Jewish faith. We kuow that water baptism was common in the time of Christ, because it is spoken of in the Gospels as a rite with which the people were familiar—as a rite respecting the design and object of which they had a perfect knowledge. This rite, ob. served so anciently, seems to have been approved by the Saviour, and to have been practiced by the apostles. It is a rite which has been observed in the Christian church ihrough all succeeding time, though some have regarded it as of no great importance.

It is not certain ivhether baptism was administered in ancient times by immersion or sprinkling. Both these and perhaps other forms of administering the rite may have been practiced. If Exodus xix. 10, 14, refers to baptism, as the Jews affirm, it must have been a washing rather than an immersion. The fact that our Saviour, when baptized, came up out of the water, favors the idea that he was immersed; though in the original tongue the idea con veved, we think, is simply that he came up from the water. He might have gone up from the water if he had been baptized by sprinkling, or by some similar method, while standing on the margin of the stream. John repaired to Enon to baptize because there was much water there ; it might be inferred from this that he immersed his converts, though this is by no means an inference which commands our assent. In a country in which there is a great scarcity of water, at certain seasons of the year, it might be deemed expedient to repair to a river where water could be had conveniently; or the bank of a flowing stream might have been thought a fitting place for baptism. It is not uncommon now to repair to a river or lake to baptize by sprinkling or pouring. It is highly probable that Paul, in his conversion, was baptized by sprinkling. Paul was resting in a reclining posture. Ananias came in and restored him to sight. Then Paul rising up, or having stood up, was baptized. He could not have been immersed. And the jailor, of whom mention is made in Acts, xvi. 33, must, it seems, have been baptized by sprinkling. If the Jews practiced baptism during their long journey in the wilderness of Arabia, it could not have been by immersion without very great inconvenience and trouble. So the Jews in the time of Christ, as well as the early Christians, must often have baptized converts when it was very inconvenient if not impossible to immerse them. For there was no river but the Jordan which afforded a sufficient depth of water. We must conclude that both the Jews and early Christians were baptized by sprinkling, some. tiines if not generally. Not wishing to discuss this point at length, we must be content with this brief statement of the matter.

If it is asked, Who were baptized by the Jews ? it must be replied that proselytes were. For a long time the Jews were desirous of making converts to their religion from the gentile nations around them; and in the time of Christ this kind of missionary enterprise was prosecuted with the greatest zeal. Impelled by their ardor in this cause, “ they compassed sea and land to make one pros. elyte;" yet it was no part of their ambition to make their converts good men and women. They thought only of the number of their converts, being regardless of their moral and religious character ; indeed these converts seem often to have been worse than before their conversion. But be their character good or bad, the converts were all baptized with water, and their children with them, though their children, born afterwards, were not baptized. The children born of a converted gentile, were, by reason of their birth, entitled to all the privileges of a convert. No Jew was ever baptized, unless by some means he had lost his citizenship and had become virtually a gentile. Every Jew was by birth entitled to all the civil and religious privileges of his nation, was a member of the Jewish church, and therefore had no occasion to be bap. tized.

The early Christians pursued a similar course. They baptized the converts to Christianity, both Jew and gena tile, ihough some may have preferred to receive converts into the church without baptism. During the lifetime of the Saviour, no church organization was instituted; yet the twelve baptized many converts who were thereby recognized as professed disciples of Jesus. In accordance with the Jewish customs, when a man became a convert to the Christian religion, he was baptized and all his family with him. But it does not appear that any child born of professed Christian parents, was ever baptized. Such a one was a member of the Christian congregation and church by virtue of his birth. The early Christian church was evidently, in this respect, a birthright church. A child of Christian parents was instructed in the doctrines and precepts of their religion, and was entitled to the privileges and the fellowship of the church, the same as a son, born in our republic, is entitled, when of age, to all the rights and privileges of citizenship. A change in respect to this custom was effected at some period ; for children of church members must now submit to baptism before being received into the church, the same as if they had been converted from heathenism; and this has been the practice for a long while. It is not our present purpose to inquire when and how this change was made. It evidently has been made; let a statement of the fact suffice for the present.

The object and effect of baptism as practiced by the Jews and early Christians, are worthy our attention. It has been shown that proselytes only were baptized by the Jews. Baptism was submitted to by the convert to show publicly that he had renounced his former faith, and embraced the faith of him who administered the rite. This was the way by which the convert made public profession of his new faith. The Jews also contended that baptism had the effect to sever completely the connection of the proselyte with his former religious fraternity and

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