Bulletin - United States Geological Survey, Ausgabe 283


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Seite v - WS 158. Preliminary report on the geology and underground waters of the Roswell artesian area, New Mexico, by CA Fisher. 1906.
Seite 72 - ... of the clayey materials. The burning takes place at a high temperature, approaching 3,000° F., and must therefore be carried on in kilns of special design and lining. During the burning, combination of the lime with silica, alumina, and iron oxide takes place. The product of the burning is a semifused mass called clinker, and consists of silicates, aluminates, and ferrites of lime in certain definite proportions.
Seite 73 - The more important of these factors are: 1. Chemical composition of the material. 2. Physical character of the material. 3. Amount of material available. 4. Location of the deposit with respect to transportation routes. 5. Location of the deposit with respect to fuel supplies.
Seite 74 - A Portland cement plant running on dry raw materials, such as a mixture of limestone and shale, will use approximately 20,000 tons of raw material a year per kiln. Of this about 15,000 tons are limestone and 5,000 tons shale. Assuming that the limestone weighs 160...
Seite 73 - The almost infinite number of raw materials which are theoretically available are, however, reduced to a very few under existing commercial conditions. The necessity for making the mixture as cheaply as possible rules out of consideration a large number of materials which would be considered available if chemical composition were the only thing to be taken into account.
Seite 47 - Delta-plain of the Mississippi, but also higher up, perhaps as far as Memphis, and all along the gulf coast, at least from Mobile on the east to the Sabine river. Wherever circumstances allow, the overlying clay stratum No. 2, is also observed.
Seite 78 - County line about 3i miles west of the State line. On the west side of Quilby Creek, where it runs south along the State line, 7 miles east of Sucarnooche, the Selma chalk forms a small bluff. The prairie soil extends back for '2 miles farther west. On the east side of the creek, about 100 yards in Alabama, the Selma chalk forms a bluff a little higher than on the opposite bank in Mississippi. Here what is taken to be the top of the Selma chalk is found. The top of the bluff is capped by a coarse-grained...
Seite 73 - In certain localities deposits of argillaceous (clayey) limestone or "cement rock" occur in which the lime, silica, alumina, and iron oxide exist in so nearly the proper proportions that only a relatively small amount (say 10 per cent) of other material is required in order to make a mixture of correct composition. In the majority of plants, however, most or all of the necessary lime is furnished by one raw material, while the silica, alumina, and iron oxide are largely or entirely derived from another.
Seite 74 - Assuming that the limestone weighs 160 pounds per cubic foot, which is a fair average weight, each kiln in the plant will require about 190,000 cubic feet of limestone a year. As the shale or clay may be assumed to contain considerable water, a cubic foot will probably contain not over 125 pounds of dry material, so that each kiln will also require about 80,000 cubic feet of shale or clay. A cement plant is an expensive undertaking, and it would be folly to locate a plant with less than a twenty...
Seite 78 - Flatwoods is a gray, plastic, nonf ossiliferous clay (' ' popping clay' ') . It makes a cold soil, very sticky and plastic when wet, and when it dries out cracks open so that one can thrust his hand 6 or 8 inches into the opening. But little of the Flatwoods area is cleared and put in cultivation, and this only where there is a little remnant of Lafayette sand left. The Lafayette formation is practically wanting over the entire area of the Flatwoods. The timber is short-leaf pine, post oak, scrub...

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